- Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox 2012 Boston Red Sox season Established 1901
Major league affiliations Current uniform Retired numbers 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 14, 27, 42 Colors
- Red, midnight navy, white
- Boston Red Sox (1908–present)
- The Sox, The BoSox, The Olde Towne Team
Ballpark Major league titles World Series titles (7) 2007 • 2004 • 1918 • 1916 • 1915 • 1912 • 1903 AL Pennants (12) 2007 • 2004 • 1986 • 1975 • 1967 • 1946 • 1918 • 1916 • 1915 • 1912 • 1904 • 1903 East Division titles (6) 2007 • 1995 • 1990 • 1988 • 1986 • 1975 Wild card berths (7) 2009 • 2008 • 2005 • 2004 • 2003 • 1999 • 1998 Front office Owner(s) John Henry, Tom Werner, and Larry Lucchino Manager vacant General Manager Ben Cherington
The Boston Red Sox are a professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, and a member of Major League Baseball’s American League Eastern Division. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox's home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912. The "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, around 1908, following previous Boston teams that had been known as the "Red Stockings". They played in eleven World Series, third most of any team remaining in one city, after the New York Yankees and the Saint Louis Cardinals. They won seven of these, also third most of any team remaining in one city, again after the New York Yankees and Saint Louis Cardinals.
Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918. However, they then went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, called by some the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged beginning with the Red Sox's sale of Babe Ruth to the rival Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. However, the team's history during that period was hardly one of futility, but was rather punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, and Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Red Sox history has also been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the New York Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports. Since 2003, the Red Sox have been perennial playoff contenders and have won two World Series, emerging as one of the most successful MLB teams of the last decade.
The Red Sox are consistently one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. Every home game since May 15, 2003 has been sold out — a MLB record that has spanned almost eight years.
The name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning 1908. Sox had been previously adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type would not fit on a page. The Spanish language media sometime refers to the team as Medias Rojas for Red Socks.
The nickname was first used for a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players. Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings, and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first fully professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired to organize a new team in Boston, and he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along (Most nicknames were then only nicknames, neither club names nor registered trademarks, so the migration was informal). The Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league.
When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was commonly reserved for them once again, and the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston officially adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912; the club eventually left Boston for Milwaukee and is now playing in Atlanta, Georgia.
In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. (Originally, a team was supposed to be started in Buffalo, but league ownership at the last minute removed that city from their plans in favor of the expansion Boston franchise.) For seven seasons, the AL team wore dark blue stockings and had no official nickname. They were simply "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons"; or the "Americans" or "Boston Americans" as in "American Leaguers", Boston being a two-team city. Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home and road, simply read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American." Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets" (for owner Charles Somers), "Plymouth Rocks," "Beaneaters," the "Collinsites" (for manager Jimmy Collins)", and "Pilgrims."
For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was barely used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled “The Pilgrims At Home” written by Edwin Fitzwilliam that was sung at the 1907 home opener (“Rory O’More” melody). This nickname was commonly used during that season, perhaps because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims “sounded too much like homeless wanderers.”
The National League club in Boston, though seldom called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the National League club adopted an all-white uniform, and the American League team saw an opportunity. On December 18, 1907, Taylor announced that the club had officially adopted red as its new team color. The 1908 uniforms featured a large icon of a red stocking angling across the shirt front. For 1908, the National League club returned to wearing red trim, but the American League team finally had an official nickname, and would remain the "Red Sox" for good.
The name is often shortened to "Bosox" or "BoSox," a combination of "Boston" and "Sox" (similar to the "ChiSox" in Chicago or the minor league "PawSox" of Pawtucket). Sportswriters sometimes refer to the Red Sox as the Crimson Hose and the Olde Towne Team. Recently, media has begun to casually call them the "Sawx", reflecting how the word is pronounced with a New England accent. However, most fans simply refer to the team as the "Sox" when the context is understood to mean Red Sox.
The team's formal corporate name has been said to be the "Boston American League Baseball Company" or "Club", which seems to be borne out by this current-day photograph of the street-door to the stadium, at 24 Yawkey Way; that entrance also figures in Robert B Parker's Spenser-and-baseball novel Mortal Stakes.
In 1901, the minor Western League, led by Ban Johnson, declared its equality with the National League, then the only major league in baseball. Johnson changed the name of the league to the American League, leading teams in his league to be christened with the unofficial nickname "Americans". This was especially true in the case of the new Boston franchise, which would not adopt an official nickname until 1908.
The upstart league placed franchises in Baltimore, Maryland and Buffalo. After looking at his new league Ban Johnson decided that he would need a team in Boston to compete with the National League team there and so cancelled the Buffalo club's franchise, offering one to a new club in Boston. Playing their home games at Huntington Avenue Grounds, the Boston franchise finished second and third before capturing their first pennant in 1903 and repeating the next year. Those teams were led by manager and star third baseman Jimmy Collins, outfielders Chick Stahl, Buck Freeman and Patsy Dougherty and pitcher Cy Young, who in 1901 won the pitching Triple Crown with 33 wins (41.8% of the team's 79 games), 1.62 ERA and 158 strikeouts. His 1901 to 1904 seasons rank among the best four-year runs ever.
In 1903, Boston participated in the first modern World Series, beating the favored Pittsburgh Pirates, winners of the NL pennant by six and a half games, winning the best-of-nine series five games to three. Aided by the modified chants of "Tessie" by the Royal Rooters fan club and by its stronger pitching staff, the Americans managed to overcome the odds, and win the World Series.
The 1904 club was almost as good as the previous team, but due to the surprise emergence of the New York Highlanders, the Boston club found itself in a tight pennant race through the last games of the season. A predecessor to what would become a storied rivalry, this race featured such controversial moves as the trade of Patsy Dougherty to the Highlanders for Bob Unglaub. The climax of the season occurred on the last, dramatic doubleheader at the Highlanders’ home stadium, Hilltop Park. In order to win the pennant, the Highlanders needed to win both games. With Jack Chesbro, the Highlanders' 41-game winner, on the mound, and the score tied 2–2 with a man on third in the top of the ninth, a spitball got away from Chesbro and Lou Criger scored the go-ahead run on one of the most famous wild pitches in history.
Unfortunately, the NL champion New York Giants declined to play any postseason series, fearing it would give their New York rivals credibility (they had expected the Highlanders to win), but a sharp public reaction led the two leagues immediately to make the World Series a permanent championship, starting in 1905. These successful times soon ended, however, as Boston lost 100 games in 1906. However, several new star players helped the newly renamed Red Sox improve almost immediately.
By 1909, legendary center fielder Tris Speaker had become a fixture in the Boston outfield, and the team worked their way to third place. However, the Red Sox would not win the pennant again until their 105-win 1912 season, finishing with a club record .691 winning percentage. Anchored by an outfield considered to be among the finest in the game—Tris Speaker, Harry Hooper and Duffy Lewis—and superstar pitcher Smoky Joe Wood, the Red Sox beat the New York Giants 4–3–1 in the classic 1912 World Series best known for Snodgrass’s Muff. From 1913 to 1916 the Red Sox were owned by Joseph Lannin, who signed Babe Ruth, soon the best-known and one of the best players ever. Another 101 wins in 1915 propelled the Red Sox to the 1915 World Series, where they beat the Philadelphia Phillies four games to one. Following the 1915 season, Tris Speaker was traded to the Cleveland Indians. His departure was more than compensated for, however, by the emergence of star pitcher Babe Ruth. The Red Sox went on to win the 1916 World Series, this time defeating the Brooklyn Robins. In 1918, Babe Ruth led his team to another World Series championship. This time over the Chicago Cubs.
Sale of Babe Ruth
Harry Frazee bought the Red Sox from Joseph Lannin in 1916 for about $500,000. A couple of notable trades involving Harry Frazee and the Yankees occurred before the Babe Ruth sale. On December 18, 1918, outstanding outfielder Duffy Lewis, pitcher Dutch Leonard (who'd posted a modern record 0.96 ERA in 1914.), and pitcher Ernie Shore were traded to the Yankees for pitcher Ray Caldwell, Slim Love, Roxy Walters, Frank Gilhooley and $15,000. As all three players were well regarded in Boston — Lewis had been a key player on the 1910s championship teams, Shore had famously relieved Babe Ruth and retired 27 straight, and Leonard had only four years before setting a modern record for earned run average — this trade was regarded as a poor one in Boston. Then, on July 13, 1919, submarine-style pitching star Carl Mays was traded to the Yankees for Bob McGraw, Allan Russell and $40,000. Mays would go on to have several good years for the Yankees, but had been a discipline problem for the Red Sox.
On December 26, 1919, Frazee sold Babe Ruth, who had played the previous six seasons for the Red Sox, to the rival New York Yankees (Ruth had just broken the single-season home run record, hitting 29 in 1919.) Legend has it that Frazee did so in order to finance the Broadway play No, No, Nanette. That play did not actually open on Broadway until 1925, but as Leigh Montville discovered during research for his book, The Big Bam: The Life and Times of Babe Ruth, No, No, Nanette had originated as a non-musical stage play called My Lady Friends, which opened on Broadway in December 1919. My Lady Friends had, indeed, been financed by the Ruth sale to the Yankees.
During that period, the Red Sox, Yankees and Chicago White Sox had a détente; they were called "Insurrectos" because their actions antagonized league president Ban Johnson. Although Frazee owned the Boston Red Sox franchise, he did not own Fenway Park (it was owned by the Fenway Park Trust), making his ownership a precarious one; Johnson could move another team into the ballpark. His club was in debt, but Frazee felt the need to purchase its playing site (which he did in 1920). Further, providing the Yankees with a box office attraction would help that mediocre club, which had sided with him against Johnson and "the Loyal Five" clubs. Finally, Ruth was considered a serious disciplinary problem, a reputation he amply confirmed while playing for the Yankees. Frazee moved Ruth to stabilize Red Sox finances and cut distractions. It was a straight sale, no players in return.
New York achieved great success after acquiring Ruth and several other very good players. Boston, meanwhile, did poorly during the 20s and 30s, and the sale of Babe Ruth came to be viewed as the beginning of the Yankees – Red Sox rivalry, considered the "Greatest Rivalry on Earth" by American sports journalists.
After deciding to get out of baseball, Frazee began selling many of his star players. In the winter of 1920, Wally Schang, Waite Hoyt, Harry Harper and Mike McNally were traded to the Yankees for Del Pratt, Muddy Ruel, John Costello, Hank Thormahlen, Sammy Vick and cash. The following winter, iron man shortstop Everett Scott, and pitchers Bullet Joe Bush and Sad Sam Jones were traded to the Yankees for Roger Peckinpaugh (who would be immediately shipped to the Washington Senators), Jack Quinn, Rip Collins, Bill Piercy and $50,000. On July 23, 1922, Joe Dugan and Elmer Smith were traded to the Yankees for Elmer Miller, Chick Fewster, Johnny Mitchell, and Lefty O'Doul, who was at the time a mediocre pitching prospect. Acquiring Dugan helped the Yankees edge the St. Louis Browns in a tight pennant race, and the resulting uproar helped create a June 15 trading deadline that went into effect the next year. Perhaps an even more outrageous deal was the trade of Herb Pennock, occurring in early 1923. Pennock was traded by the Red Sox to the Yankees for Camp Skinner, Norm McMillan, George Murray and $50,000.
Over an eight-year period from 1925 to 1932, the Red Sox averaged over 100 losses per season. One of the few bright spots on these teams was Earl Webb, who set the all-time mark for most doubles in a season in 1931 with 67. The BoSox’ fortunes began to change in 1933 when Tom Yawkey bought the team. Yawkey acquired pitcher Wes Ferrell and one of the greatest pitchers of all-time, Lefty Grove, making his team competitive once again in the late thirties. He also acquired Joe Cronin, an outstanding shortstop and manager and slugging first baseman Jimmie Foxx whose 50 home runs in 1938 would stand as a club record for 68 years. Foxx also drove in a club record 175 runs.
In 1939, the Red Sox purchased the contract of outfielder Ted Williams from the minor league San Diego Padres of the Pacific Coast League, ushering in an era of the team sometimes called the "Ted Sox." Williams consistently hit for both high power and high average, and is generally considered one of the greatest hitters of all time. The right-field bullpens in Fenway were built in part for Williams' left-handed swing, and are sometimes called "Williamsburg." Before this addition, it was over 400 feet (120 m) to right field. He served two stints in the United States Marine Corps as a pilot and saw active duty in both World War II and the Korean War, missing at least five full seasons of baseball. His book The Science of Hitting is widely read by students of baseball. He is currently the last player to hit over .400 for a full season, batting .406 in 1941. Williams feuded with sports writers his whole career, calling them "The Knights of the Keyboard," and his relationship with the fans was often rocky as he was seen spitting towards the stands on more than one occasion.
With Williams, the Red Sox reached the 1946 World Series, but lost to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games in part because of the use of the "Williams Shift," a defensive tactic in which the shortstop would move to the right side of the infield to make it harder for the left-handed-hitting Williams to hit to that side of the field. Some have claimed that he was too proud to hit to the other side of the field, not wanting to let the Cardinals take away his game. His performance may have also been affected by a pitch he took in the elbow in an exhibition game a few days earlier. Either way, in his only World Series, Williams gathered just five singles in 25 at-bats for a .200 average.
The Cardinals won the 1946 Series when Enos Slaughter scored the go-ahead run all the way from first base on a base hit to left field. The throw from Leon Culberson was cut off by shortstop Johnny Pesky, who relayed the ball to the plate just a hair too late. Some say Pesky hesitated or "held the ball" before he turned to throw the ball, but this has been disputed.
Along with Williams and Pesky, the Red Sox featured several other star players during the 1940s, including second baseman Bobby Doerr and center fielder Dom DiMaggio (the younger brother of Joe DiMaggio).
The Red Sox narrowly lost the AL pennant in 1948 and 1949. In 1948, Boston finished in a tie with Cleveland, and their loss to Cleveland in a one-game playoff ended hopes of an all-Boston World Series. Curiously, manager Joseph McCarthy chose journeyman Denny Galehouse to start the playoff game when the young lefty phenom Mel Parnell was available to pitch. In 1949, the Red Sox were one game ahead of the New York Yankees, with the only two games left for both teams being against each other, and they lost both of those games.
The 1950s were viewed as a time of tribulation for the Red Sox. After Williams returned from the Korean War in 1953, many of the best players from the late 1940s had retired or been traded. The stark contrast in the team led critics to call the Red Sox' daily lineup "Ted Williams and the Seven Dwarfs." Jackie Robinson was even worked out by the team at Fenway Park, however it appeared that owner Tom Yawkey did not want an African American player on his team at that time. Willie Mays also tried out for Boston and was highly praised by team scouts. Ted Williams hit .388 at the age of 38 in 1957, but there was little else for Boston fans to root for. Williams retired at the end of the 1960 season, famously hitting a home run in his final at-bat as memorialized in the John Updike story "Hub fans bid Kid adieu." The Red Sox finally became the last Major League team to field an African American player when they promoted infielder Pumpsie Green from their AAA farm team in 1959.
The 1960s also started poorly for the Red Sox, though 1961 saw the debut of Carl "Yaz" Yastrzemski, Williams' replacement in left field, who developed into one of the better hitters of a pitching-rich decade.
Red Sox fans know 1967 as the season of the "Impossible Dream." The slogan refers to the hit song from the popular musical play "Man of La Mancha". 1967 saw one of the great pennant races in baseball history with four teams in the AL pennant race until almost the last game. The BoSox had finished the 1966 season in ninth place, but they found new life with Yastrzemski as the team went to the 1967 World Series, only to lose the Series to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games. Yastrzemski won the American League Triple Crown (the most recent player to accomplish such a feat), hitting .326 with 44 home runs and 121 RBIs. He finished one vote short of a unanimous MVP selection, as a Minnesota sportswriter placed Twins center fielder César Tovar first on his ballot. But the Red Sox lost the series — again to the St. Louis Cardinals, in seven games. Legendary pitcher Bob Gibson stymied the Red Sox winning three games.
An 18-year-old Bostonian rookie named Tony Conigliaro slugged 24 home runs in 1964. "Tony C" became the youngest player in Major League Baseball to hit his 100th home run, a record that stands today. He was struck just above the left cheek bone by a fastball thrown by Jack Hamilton of the California Angels on Friday, August 18, 1967 and sat out the entire next season with headaches and blurred vision. Although he did have a productive season in 1970, he was never the same.
Although the Red Sox were competitive for much of the late 1960s and early 1970s, they never finished higher than second place in their division. The closest they came to a divisional title was 1972, when they lost by a half-game to the Detroit Tigers. The start of the season was delayed by a players' strike, and the Red Sox had lost one more game to the strike than the Tigers had. Games lost to the strike were not made up. The Red Sox went to Detroit with a half-game lead for the final series of the season, but lost the first two of those three and were eliminated from the pennant race.
The Red Sox won the AL pennant in 1975. The 1975 Red Sox were as colorful as they were talented, with Yastrzemski and rookie outfielders Jim Rice and Fred Lynn, veteran outfielder Dwight Evans, catcher Carlton Fisk, and pitchers Luis Tiant and eccentric junkballer Bill "The Spaceman" Lee. Fred Lynn won both the American League Rookie of the Year award and the Most Valuable Player award, a feat which had never previously been accomplished, and was not duplicated until Ichiro Suzuki did it in 2001. In the 1975 American League Championship Series, the Red Sox swept the Oakland A's.
In the 1975 World Series, they faced the heavily favored Cincinnati Reds, also known as The Big Red Machine. Luis Tiant won games 1 and 4 of the World Series but after five games, the Red Sox trailed the series 3 games to 2. Game 6 at Fenway Park is considered among the greatest games in postseason history. Down 6–3 in the bottom of the eighth inning, Red Sox pinch hitter Bernie Carbo hit a three run homer into the center field bleachers off Reds fireman Rawly Eastwick to tie the game. In the top of the eleventh inning, right fielder Dwight Evans made a spectacular catch of a Joe Morgan line drive and doubled Ken Griffey at first base to preserve the tie. In the bottom of the twelfth inning, Carlton Fisk hit a deep fly ball which sliced towards the left field foul pole above the Green Monster. As the ball sailed into the night, Fisk waved his arms frantically towards fair territory, seemingly pleading with the ball not to go foul. The ball complied, and bedlam ensued at Fenway as Fisk rounded the bases to win the game for the Red Sox 7–6.
The Red Sox lost game 7, 4–3 even though they had an early 3–0 lead. Starting pitcher Bill Lee threw a slow looping curve which he called a "Leephus pitch" or "space ball" to Reds first baseman Tony Perez who hit the ball over the Green Monster and across the street. The Reds scored the winning run in the 9th inning. Carlton Fisk said famously about the 1975 World Series, "We won that thing 3 games to 4."
1978 pennant race
In 1978, the Red Sox and the Yankees were involved in a tight pennant race. The Yankees were 14 1⁄2 games behind the Red Sox in July, and on September 10, after completing a 4-game sweep of the Red Sox (known as "The Boston Massacre"), the Yankees tied for the divisional lead.
On September 16 the Yankees held a 3 1⁄2 game lead over the Red Sox, but the Sox won 11 of their next 13 games and by the final day of the season, the Yankees' magic number to win the division was one — with a win over Cleveland or a Boston loss to the Toronto Blue Jays clinching the division. However, New York lost 9–2 and Boston won 5–0, forcing a one-game playoff to be held at Fenway Park on Monday, October 2.
The most remembered moment from the game was Bucky Dent's 7th inning three-run home run in off Mike Torrez just over the Green Monster, giving the Yankees their first lead. Reggie Jackson provided a solo home run in the 8th that proved to be the difference in the Yankees' 5–4 win, which ended with Yastrzemski popping out to Graig Nettles in foul territory with Rick Burleson representing the tying run at third. Although Dent became a Red Sox demon, the Red Sox would get retribution in 1990 when the Yankees fired Dent as their manager during a series at Fenway Park.
Carl Yastrzemski retired after the 1983 season, during which the Red Sox finished sixth in the seven-team AL East, posting their worst record since 1966. However, in 1986, it appeared that the team's fortunes were about to change. The offense had remained strong with Jim Rice, Dwight Evans, Don Baylor and Wade Boggs. Roger Clemens led the pitching staff, going 24–4 with a 2.48 ERA, and had a 20-strikeout game to win both the American League Cy Young and Most Valuable Player awards. Clemens became the first starting pitcher to win both awards since Vida Blue in 1971, and no starting pitcher has won the MVP award in either league since.
The Red Sox won the AL East for the first time in 11 seasons, and faced the California Angels in the AL Championship Series. The teams split the first two games in Boston, but the Angels won the next two home games, taking a 3–1 lead in the series. With the Angels poised to win the series, the Red Sox trailed 5–2 heading into the ninth inning of Game 5. A two-run homer by Baylor cut the lead to one. With two outs and a runner on, and one strike away from elimination, Dave Henderson homered off Donnie Moore to put Boston up 6–5. Although the Angels tied the game in the bottom of the ninth, the Red Sox won in the 11th on a Henderson sacrifice fly off Moore. The Red Sox then found themselves with six- and seven-run wins at Fenway Park in Games 6 and 7 to win the American League title.
The Red Sox faced a heavily favored New York Mets team that had won 108 games in the regular season in the 1986 World Series. Boston won the first two games in Shea Stadium but lost the next two at Fenway, knotting the series at 2 games apiece. After Bruce Hurst recorded his second victory of the series in Game 5, the Red Sox returned to Shea Stadium looking to garner their first championship in 68 years. However, Game 6 would go down as one of the most devastating losses in club history. After pitching seven strong innings, Clemens was lifted from the game with a 3–2 lead. Years later, Manager John McNamara said Clemens was suffering from a blister and asked to be taken out of the game, a claim Clemens denied. The Mets then scored a run off reliever and former Met Calvin Schiraldi to tie the score 3–3. The game went to extra innings, where the Red Sox took a 5–3 lead in the top of the 10th on a solo home run by Henderson, a double by Boggs and an RBI single by second baseman Marty Barrett.
After recording two outs in the bottom of the 10th, a graphic appeared on the NBC telecast hailing Barrett as the Player of the Game, and Bruce Hurst had been named World Series MVP. A message even appeared briefly on the Shea Stadium scoreboard congratulating the Red Sox as world champions. After so many years of abject frustration, Red Sox fans around the world could taste victory. With two strikes, Mets catcher Gary Carter hit a single. It was followed by singles by Kevin Mitchell and Ray Knight. With Mookie Wilson batting, a wild pitch by Bob Stanley tied the game at 5. Wilson then hit a slow ground ball to first; the ball rolled through Bill Buckner's legs, allowing Knight to score the winning run from second.
While Buckner was singled out as responsible for the loss, many observers — as well as both Wilson and Buckner — have noted that even if Buckner had fielded the ball cleanly, the speedy Wilson probably would still have been safe, leaving the game-winning run at third with two out.
Many observers questioned why Buckner was in the game at that point considering he had bad knees and that Dave Stapleton had come in as a late-inning defensive replacement in prior series games. It appeared as though McNamara was trying to reward Buckner for his long and illustrious career by leaving him in the game. After falling behind 3–0, the Mets then won Game 7, concluding the devastating collapse and feeding the myth that the Red Sox were "cursed."
This World Series loss had a strange twist: Red Sox General Manager Lou Gorman was vice-president, player personnel, of the Mets from 1980 to 1983. Working under Mets' GM Frank Cashen, with whom Gorman served with the Orioles, he helped lay the foundation for the Mets' championship.
The Red Sox returned to the postseason in 1988. With the club in fourth place midway through the 1988 season at the All-Star break, manager John McNamara was fired and replaced by Joe Morgan on July 15. Immediately the club won 12 games in a row, and 19 of 20 overall, to surge to the AL East title in what would be referred to as Morgan Magic. But the magic was short-lived, as the team was swept by the Oakland Athletics in the ALCS. Ironically, the MVP of that Series was former Red Sox pitcher and Baseball Hall of Fame player Dennis Eckersley, who saved all four wins for Oakland. Two years later, in 1990, the Red Sox would again win the division and face the Athletics in the ALCS. However, the outcome was the same, with the A's sweeping the ALCS in four straight.
In 1990, Yankees fans started to chant "1918!" to taunt the Red Sox. The demeaning chant would echo at Yankee Stadium each time the Red Sox were there. Also, Fenway Park became the scene of Bucky Dent's worst moment as a manager, although it was where he had his greatest triumph. In June, when the Red Sox swept the Yankees during a four-game series at Fenway Park, the Yankees fired Dent as their manager. Red Sox fans felt retribution to Dent being fired on their field.
Tom Yawkey died in 1976, and his wife Jean R. Yawkey took control of the team until her death in 1992. Their initials are shown in two stripes on the Left field wall in Morse code. Upon Jean's death, control of the team passed to the Yawkey Trust, led by John Harrington. The trust sold the team in 2002, concluding 70 years of Yawkey ownership.
In 1994, General Manager Lou Gorman was replaced by Dan Duquette, a Massachusetts native who had worked for the Montreal Expos. Duquette revived the team's farm system, which during his tenure produced players such as Nomar Garciaparra, Carl Pavano and David Eckstein. Duquette also spent money on free agents, notably an eight-year, $160 million deal for Manny Ramírez after the 2000 season.
The Red Sox won the newly realigned American League East in 1995, finishing seven games ahead of the Yankees. However, they were swept in three games in the ALDS by the Cleveland Indians. Their postseason losing streak reached 13 straight games, dating back to the 1986 World Series.
Roger Clemens tied his major league record by fanning 20 Detroit Tigers on September 18, 1996 in what would prove to be one of his final appearances in a Red Sox uniform. After Clemens had turned 30 and then had four seasons, 1993–96, which were by his standards mediocre at best, Duquette said the pitcher was entering "the twilight of his career." Clemens went on to pitch well for another ten years and win four more Cy Young awards.
Out of contention in 1997, the team traded closer Heathcliff Slocumb to Seattle for catching prospect Jason Varitek and right-handed pitcher Derek Lowe. Prior to the start of the 1998 season, the Red Sox dealt pitchers Tony Armas, Jr. and Carl Pavano to the Montreal Expos for pitcher Pedro Martínez. Martínez became the anchor of the team's pitching staff and turned in several outstanding seasons. In 1998, the team won the American League Wild Card, but again lost the American League Division Series to the Indians.
In 1999, Duquette called Fenway Park "economically obsolete" and, along with Red Sox ownership, led a push for a new stadium.
On the field, the 1999 Red Sox were finally able to overturn their fortunes against the Indians. Cleveland took a 2–0 series lead, but Boston won the next three games behind strong pitching by Derek Lowe, Pedro Martínez and his brother Ramón Martínez. Game 4's 23–7 win by the Red Sox was the highest-scoring playoff game in major league history. Game 5 began with the Indians taking a 5–2 lead after two innings, but Pedro Martínez, nursing a shoulder injury, came on in the fourth inning and pitched six innings without allowing a hit while the team's offense rallied for a 12–8 win behind two home runs and seven RBIs from outfielder Troy O'Leary. After the ALDS victory, the Red Sox lost the American League Championship Series to the Yankees, four games to one. The one bright spot was a lopsided win for the Red Sox in the much-hyped Martinez-Clemens game.
2002–present: Henry comes to Boston
In 2002, the Red Sox were sold by Yawkey trustee and president Harrington to New England Sports Ventures, a consortium headed by principal owner John Henry. Tom Werner served as executive chairman, Larry Lucchino served as president and CEO, and serving as vice chairman was Les Otten. Dan Duquette was fired as GM of the club on February 28, with former Angels GM Mike Port taking the helm for the 2002 season. A week later, manager Joe Kerrigan was fired and was replaced by Grady Little.
While nearly all offseason moves were made under Dan Duquette, such as signing outfielder Johnny Damon away from the Oakland A's, the new ownership made additions after their purchase of the team, including trading for outfielder Cliff Floyd and relief pitcher Alan Embree. Nomar Garciaparra, Manny Ramírez, and Floyd all hit well, while Pedro Martínez put up his usual outstanding numbers. Derek Lowe, newly converted into a starter, won 20 games—becoming the first player to save 20 games and win 20 games in back-to-back seasons. The Red Sox won 93 games but they finished 10½ games behind the Yankees for the division and 6 behind the Angels for the AL wild card.
In the off-season, Port was replaced by Yale graduate Theo Epstein. Epstein, raised in Brookline, Massachusetts, and just 28 at the time of his hiring, became the youngest general manager in MLB history.
The "Idiots" of 2004 arose out of the "Cowboy Up" team of 2003, a nickname derived from first baseman Kevin Millar's challenge to his teammates to show more determination. In addition to Millar, the team's offense was so deep that 2003 batting champion Bill Mueller batted 7th in the lineup behind sluggers Manny Ramírez and the newly acquired David Ortiz.
GM Theo Epstein, noticing that Mueller was hitting very well in a limited role, traded Shea Hillenbrand to the Arizona Diamondbacks for Byung-Hyun Kim. Receiving much more playing time following the trade, Ortiz contributed significantly in the second half of the season. The trade ended up greatly benefiting the team, as the Red Sox broke many batting records and won the AL Wild Card.
In the 2003 American League Division Series, the Red Sox rallied from a 0–2 series deficit against the Oakland Athletics to win the best-of-five series. Derek Lowe returned to his former relief pitching role to save Game 5, a 4–3 victory. The team then faced the Yankees in the 2003 American League Championship Series. In Game 7, Boston led 5–2 in the eighth inning, but Pedro Martínez allowed three runs to tie the game. The Red Sox could not score off Mariano Rivera over the last three innings and eventually lost the game 6–5 when Yankee third baseman Aaron Boone hit a solo home run off Tim Wakefield.
Some placed the blame for the loss on manager Grady Little for failing to remove starting pitcher Martínez in the 8th inning after some observers believe he began to show signs of tiring. Others credited Little with the team's successful season and dramatic come-from-behind victory in the ALDS. Nevertheless, Boston's management decided a change was in order and did not renew Little's contract. He was replaced by former Philadelphia Phillies manager Terry Francona.
2004: World Series Championship
During the 2003–04 offseason, the Red Sox acquired another ace pitcher, Curt Schilling, and a closer, Keith Foulke. Expectations once again ran high that 2004 would be the year that the Red Sox ended their championship drought. The regular season started well in April, but through mid-season the team struggled due to injuries, inconsistency, and defensive woes.
Management shook up the team at the MLB trading deadline on July 31 with a blockbuster four team trade. They traded the team's popular yet often injured shortstop Nomar Garciaparra with outfielder Matt Murton to the Chicago Cubs. The Cubs sent Brendan Harris, Alex Gonzalez and Francis Beltrán to the Montreal Expos, and minor leaguer Justin Jones to the Minnesota Twins. The Red Sox received first baseman Doug Mientkiewicz from the Twins, and shortstop Orlando Cabrera from the Expos.
In a separate transaction, the Red Sox traded minor leaguer Henri Stanley to the Los Angeles Dodgers for center fielder Dave Roberts. Following the trades, the club immediately turned things around, winning 22 out of 25 games and qualifying for the playoffs as the AL Wild Card. Players and fans affectionately referred to the players as "The Idiots," a term coined by Johnny Damon and Kevin Millar during the playoff push to describe the team's eclectic roster and devil-may-care attitude toward their supposed "curse."
Boston began the postseason by sweeping the AL West champion Anaheim Angels in the ALDS. However, Curt Schilling suffered a torn ankle tendon in Game 1 after fielding a ground ball on the subsequent throw to first. In the third game of the series, Vladimir Guerrero hit a grand slam off Mike Timlin in the 7th inning to tie the game. However, David Ortiz hit a walk-off two-run homer in the 10th inning to win the game. The Red Sox advanced to a rematch in the ALCS against the Yankees.
The series started very poorly for the Red Sox. Schilling, pitching injured, was routed for six runs in three innings and Boston ended up losing Game 1. In the second game, with his Yankees leading 1–0 for most of the game, John Olerud hit a two-run home run to put New York up for good. Following this, the Red Sox were down three games to none after a crushing 19–8 loss in Game 3 at home.
Up to this point, no team in the history of baseball had come back to win from a 3–0 series deficit. In Game 4, the Red Sox found themselves facing elimination, trailing 4–3 in the ninth with Mariano Rivera in to close for the Yankees. After Rivera issued a walk to Kevin Millar, Dave Roberts came on to pinch run and promptly stole second base. He then scored on an RBI single by Bill Mueller, sending the game into extra innings. The Red Sox went on to win the game on a two-run home run by David Ortiz in the 12th inning. Game 5 would last 14 innings, setting the record for the longest ALCS game ever played. Both sides squandered many opportunities, until Ortiz again sealed the win with a walk-off RBI single in the bottom of the 14th.
With the series returning to Yankee Stadium for Game 6, the comeback continued with Schilling pitching on a bad ankle. Three sutures being used to stabilize the tendon in Schilling's right ankle bled throughout the game, making his sock appear bloody red. Schilling only allowed one run over 7 innings to lead the Red Sox to victory. In Game 7, the Red Sox completed their historic comeback owing to the strength of Derek Lowe's pitching and Johnny Damon's two home runs (including a grand slam in the second inning). The Yankees were defeated 10–3. Ortiz, who had the game winning RBIs in Games 4 and 5, was named ALCS Most Valuable Player. The Red Sox joined the 1942 Toronto Maple Leafs and 1975 New York Islanders as the only professional sports teams in history to win a best-of-seven games series after being down three games to none. The 2010 Philadelphia Flyers would also do it during their Cinderella march to the Stanley Cup Finals.
The Red Sox swept the St. Louis Cardinals in the 2004 World Series. The Red Sox began the series with an 11–9 win, marked by Mark Bellhorn's game-winning home run off Pesky's Pole. Game 2 in Boston was won thanks to another great performance by the bloody-socked Curt Schilling. Pedro Martínez (in his first World Series performance) shut out the Cardinals for seven innings and led Boston to a 4–1 victory in game 3, and Derek Lowe and the Red Sox did not allow a single run in game 4. The game ended as Edgar Rentería hit the ball back to closer Keith Foulke. After Foulke lobbed the ball to Mientkiewicz at first, the Red Sox had won their first World Championship in 86 years. Fox commentator Joe Buck famously called the play with: "Back to Foulke. Red Sox fans have longed to hear it: The Boston Red Sox are World Champions!"
Boston held the Cardinals' offense to only three runs in the final three games and never trailed in the series. Manny Ramírez was named World Series MVP. To add a final, surreal touch to Boston's championship season, on the night of Game 4 a total lunar eclipse colored the moon red over Busch Stadium. The city of Boston held a "rolling rally" for the team on October 30, 2004. Red Sox Nation packed the streets of Boston that Saturday to celebrate as the team rode on the city's famous Duck Boats. The Red Sox earned many accolades from the sports media and throughout the nation for their incredible season. In December, Sports Illustrated named the Boston Red Sox the 2004 Sportsmen of the Year.
With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII in February, Boston became the first city since Pittsburgh in 1979 to have both Super Bowl and World Series champions in the same year. Their winning Super Bowl XXXIX during the offseason made Boston the first city since Pittsburgh in 1979–1980 to have two Super Bowl and World Series championships over a span of 12 months. After the Bruins won the 2011 Stanley Cup Finals, which made Boston the first city to win championships in all four sports leagues in the new millennium, Dan Shaughnessy of The Boston Globe ranked all seven championships by the Patriots, Red Sox in 2004 and 2007, the Celtics in 2008, and the Bruins and picked the Red Sox win in 2004 as the greatest Boston sports championship during the ten-year span.
After winning its first World Series in 86 years, the club re-signed Jason Varitek and named him team captain. The 2005 AL East would be decided on the last weekend of the season, with the Yankees coming to Fenway Park with a one-game lead in the standings. The Red Sox won two of the three games to finish the season with the same record as the Yankees, 95–67. However, a playoff was not needed. The Yankees had won the season series, 10–9, thus they won the division, and the Red Sox settled for the Wild Card. Boston was swept in three games by the eventual 2005 World Series champion White Sox in the first round of the playoffs.
On October 31, 2005, general manager Theo Epstein resigned on the last day of his contract. On Thanksgiving evening, the Red Sox announced the acquisition of pitcher Josh Beckett and third baseman Mike Lowell from the Florida Marlins, while sending several prospects including Hanley Ramírez to the Marlins. Fan-favorite Johnny Damon broke the hearts of Red Sox Nation by signing a four-year, $52 million deal with the Yankees. The team filled the vacancy in center field left by Damon's departure by trading for Cleveland Indians center fielder Coco Crisp. However, Crisp fractured his left index finger in April and would end up missing over 50 games in 2006. In January 2006, Epstein came to terms with the Red Sox and was once again named General Manager.
The revamped Red Sox infield, with third baseman Mike Lowell joining new shortstop Álex González, second baseman Mark Loretta, and first baseman Kevin Youkilis was one of the best-fielding infields in baseball. The Red Sox committed the fewest errors in the American League in 2006, and on June 30, Boston set a major league record of 17 straight errorless games. One of the brightest spots of the 2006 season was the emergence of new closer Jonathan Papelbon. Papelbon ended up setting a Red Sox rookie record with 35 saves and earning an All-Star appearance. Also, David Ortiz provided a late-season highlight when he broke Jimmie Foxx's single season Red Sox home run record by hitting 54 homers. Down the stretch, the Red Sox wilted under the pressure of mounting injuries and poor performances. Boston would compile a 9–21 record in the month of August. Injuries to Jason Varitek, Trot Nixon, and Manny Ramírez severely hurt the offense. Also, injuries to Tim Wakefield, rookie Jon Lester (diagnosed with lymphoma), and Matt Clement left the rotation with major holes to fill. The Red Sox finished 2006 with an 86–76 record and third place in the AL East.
2007: World Series Championship
Theo Epstein's first step toward restocking the team for 2007 was to pursue one of the most anticipated acquisitions in baseball history. On November 14, MLB announced that Boston had won the bid for the rights to negotiate a contract with Japanese superstar pitcher Daisuke Matsuzaka. Boston placed a bid of $51.1 million and had 30 days to complete a deal. On December 13, Matsuzaka signed a 6-year, $52 million contract.
Fan favorite Trot Nixon filed for free agency and agreed on a deal with the Indians. With an opening in right field, the Red Sox signed J. D. Drew on January 25, 2007 to a 5-year, $70 million contract. Free agent Shortstop Álex González was replaced by another free agent, Julio Lugo. Second baseman Mark Loretta also left via free agency for the Houston Astros, opening a spot for rookie Dustin Pedroia.
The Red Sox moved into first place in the AL East by mid-April and never relinquished their division lead. While Ortiz and Ramirez provided their usual offense, it was the hitting of Lowell, Youkilis, and Pedroia that anchored the club through the first few months. While Drew, Lugo, and Coco Crisp struggled to provide offense, Lowell and Youkilis more than made up for it with averages well above .300 and impressive home run and RBI totals. Pedroia started badly, hitting below .200 in April. Manager Terry Francona stuck with him and his patience paid off as Pedroia finished the first half over .300.
On the mound, Josh Beckett emerged as the ace of the staff and was 12–2 at the all-star break. His success was needed as Schilling, Matsuzaka, Wakefield and Tavarez all struggled at times. Meanwhile, the Boston bullpen, anchored by Papelbon and Hideki Okajima, was there to pick up the starters often. Papelbon served as the stopper, and the rise of Okajima as a legitimate setup man and occasional closer gave the Red Sox more options late in the game. Okajima posted an ERA of 0.88 through the first half and was selected for the All-Star Game.
By the All-Star break, Boston had the best record in baseball and held their largest lead in the American League East, 10 games over the Blue Jays and Yankees. In the second half, more stars emerged for the Red Sox as they continued to lead the AL East. Beckett continued to shine, reaching 20 wins for the first time in his career. At one point, veteran Tim Wakefield found himself atop the AL in wins and finished with a 17–12 record. Minor league call-up Clay Buchholz provided a spark on September 1 by pitching a no-hitter in his second career start. Another call-up, outfielder Jacoby Ellsbury, was thrust into the starting lineup while Manny Ramírez rested through most of September. Ellsbury played brilliantly during the month, hitting .361 with 3 HR, 17 RBI, and 8 stolen bases. Mike Lowell continued to carry the club, hitting cleanup in September and leading the team with 120 RBI for the season. Eventual 2007 Rookie of the Year Dustin Pedroia finished his outstanding first full season with 165 hits and a .317 average. The Red Sox became the first team to clinch a playoff spot for the 2007 season and the Red Sox captured their first AL East title since 1995.
The Red Sox swept the Angels in the ALDS. Facing the Indians in the ALCS, Josh Beckett won Game 1 but the Red Sox stumbled, losing the next three games. Facing a 3–1 deficit and a must-win situation, Beckett pitched eight innings while surrendering only one run and striking out 11 in a masterful Game 5 win. The Red Sox captured their twelfth American League pennant by outscoring the Indians 30–5 over the final three games, winning the final two games at Fenway Park.
The Red Sox faced the Colorado Rockies in the 2007 World Series. Beckett set the tone in game 1, pitching seven strong innings as the offense provided more than enough in a 13–1 victory. In Game 2, Schilling, Okajima, and Papelbon held the Rockies to one run again in a 2–1 game. Moving to Colorado, the Red Sox offense made the difference again in a 10–5 win. Finally, in Game 4, Jon Lester took Wakefield's spot in the rotation and gave the Red Sox an impressive start, pitching 5⅔ shutout innings. The Rockies threatened, but thanks to World Series MVP Mike Lowell and aided by a home run by Bobby Kielty, Papelbon registered another save as the Red Sox swept the Rockies in four games, capturing their second title in four years.
Following their World Series victory, the Red Sox were forced to address a few personnel questions in the hopes of repeating as champion. The team re-signed free agents Mike Lowell, Curt Schilling, Tim Wakefield and Mike Timlin. The Red Sox also added veteran first baseman Sean Casey to back up Kevin Youkilis.
Injuries to Schilling, Timlin, and Josh Beckett landed each pitcher on the disabled list before the season began, putting added pressure on young starters Jon Lester and Clay Buchholz. The Red Sox began their season by participating in the third opening day game in MLB history to be played in Japan, where they defeated the Oakland A's in the Tokyo Dome. Boston played well to start the season, settling into a top position in the AL East. However, the surprise Tampa Bay Rays took over the top of the division with a sweep over the Red Sox in early July. From May 17–22, the Sox had a winning streak of seven games, their longest of the season. On May 19, Lester threw the 18th no-hitter in team history, beating the Kansas City Royals 7–0. During the season, Lester emerged as an anchor in the Red Sox rotation, leading the team in starts and innings pitched while compiling a 16–6 record and a 3.21 ERA. Buchholz meanwhile struggled mightily in 2008 to a 2–9 record, ending up back in the minors. Injuries would take a toll on the Red Sox offense during the season. David Ortiz missed 45 games with an injured wrist, Mike Lowell missed weeks with a torn hip labrum, and after a blistering performance in June, J. D. Drew aggravated a back injury that shelved him for much of the second half of the season. Down the stretch, outfielder Manny Ramirez — playing in the final year of his eight year contract — became a distraction to the team. His disruptive behavior included public incidents with fellow players in the dugout (shoving Kevin Youkilis), team employees (pushing the team's 64 year old traveling secretary to the ground), criticizing ownership, and not playing due to laziness and nonexistent injuries. The front office decided to move the disgrunted outfielder at the July 31 trade deadline, shipping him to the Dodgers in a three-way deal with the Pirates that landed them Jason Bay to replace him in left field.
With Ramirez gone, and Bay providing a new spark in the lineup, the Red Sox found new life. Kevin Youkilis had career highs in home runs (29) and RBIs (115). Closer Jonathan Papelbon set a career high in saves with 41. Daisuke Matsuzaka improved on his 2007 performance and led the team in wins, finishing with an 18–3 record. However, it was Dustin Pedroia who emerged as not only a team leader, but an American League MVP candidate. Pedroia hit over .340 in the second half, finishing the year at or near the top in the AL in batting average, hits, runs, and doubles. Despite Boston's 34–19 record following the trading deadline, the Rays held onto the AL East lead and captured their first division title in franchise history.
Boston still made the playoffs as the AL Wild Card. Behind the strong pitching of Jon Lester (two games started and no earned runs allowed), the Red Sox defeated the Angels in the ALDS three games to one. The Red Sox then took on their AL East rivals the Tampa Bay Rays in the ALCS. Down three games to one in the 5th game of the ALCS, Boston mounted the greatest single game comeback in ALCS history. Trailing 7–0 in the 7th inning with elimination pending, the Red Sox came back to win the game 8–7. They tied the series at 3 games apiece before losing Game 7, 3–1, thus becoming the eighth team in a row since 2000 not to repeat as world champions. The Red Sox led the American League last season in shutouts with 16, but only two were complete games by the starter.
The Red Sox's opening game was delayed by a day due to rain. However, Ted Kennedy made the first pitch the next game. The Red Sox got into a rough start, but then won eleven games in a row. This winning streak was highlighted by Jacoby Ellsbury's steal of home during a Yankees game on April 26. During the first half of the season, star-slugger David Ortiz had a very bad slump with a .185 average and one sole home run.
The Red Sox faltered after the All-Star break, losing five of six on the road to the Toronto Blue Jays and Texas Rangers and batting just .192 and scoring 13 runs. In response to the poor offensive performance and to make room for Jed Lowrie's return from injury Julio Lugo was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals for cash and two minor-league players were traded to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Adam LaRoche on July 22, and on July 25, Mark Kotsay was designated for assignment. The Red Sox made a big move at the trade deadline, July 31, to acquire catcher Victor Martinez from the Cleveland Indians for pitchers Justin Masterson, Nick Hagadone, and Bryan Price. They also traded Adam LaRoche to the Atlanta Braves for Casey Kotchman.
The Red Sox lost its last six games to place it second in the AL East, with the Yankees (who would later win the World Series). The Red Sox entered the play-off via the Wild Card. In the playoffs, the Red Sox would meet the Angels for the 3rd straigt year. This time it would be the Angels sweeping the Sox 3 games.
2010 and 2011 season: Seasons plagued with injuries and collapses
The Red Sox's 2010 season was highlighted by its many injuries to its players despite new additions to the team such as John Lackey, Mike Cameron and Marco Scutaro. Matsuzaka ended the season early to recover his health. Victor Martinez; Mike Lowell; Josh Beckett; Jed Lowrie; and Mike Cameron faced small injuries that limited their playing time. Dustin Pedroia and Kevin Youkilis ended their season from injuries late in the season. Jacoby Ellsbury would bounce back from the disabled list before he would end his season too. The Red Sox missed the play-offs for the first time since 2006, finishing third place in the AL East.
The 2011 season started with Mike Lowell deciding to retire. The Red Sox acquired superstar Adrian Gonzalez and Carl Crawford to help the team after a horrible year. The Red Sox struggled early, falling to an 0-6 start for the first time since 1945. However, they gradually made their way into playoff contention by July, thanks to a potent offense which made up for a decimated pitching staff. Daisuke Matsuzaka and Clay Buchholz ended their season with injuries, while Josh Beckett, John Lackey and newly-added setup man Bobby Jenks had stints in the disabled list, paving the way for new additions such as Andrew Miller, Alfredo Aceves and seldom-used setup man Daniel Bard to prove their worth. After rookie pitcher Kyle Weiland proved ineffective, the Red Sox made a three way trade, giving up some prospects for Érik Bédard. On July 16, 2011, Jed Lowrie turned a triple play against Sean Rodriguez of the Tampa Bay Rays, the first triple play played by the Red Sox since 1994. When Kevin Youkilis; Josh Beckett; Érik Bédard; David Ortiz; and Adrian Gonzalez all had a brief stint to the disabled list in September, the Red Sox lost 11 out of 14 in that month. The Red Sox at one point held the AL East lead midway through the season. In the end however the Red Sox blew up their postseason aspirations on September 28, losing to the Orioles 4–3 while the Tampa Bay Rays clinched the American League Wild Card with a win over the Yankees on the same night. The Red Sox missed the playoffs in consecutive seasons for the first time since missing three straight postseasons from 2000-2002. Because of this, and many other problems, Terry Francona decided not to manage the 2012 season.
In the end of the season, Terry Francona admitted that the clubhouse didn't have his definition of "leadership." Terry Francona also told of days where the starting pitchers John Lackey, ace Josh Beckett, and Jon Lester spent time in the dugout drinking when they should have payed attention. This caused a large shock to the Red Sox Nation. Jon Lester and the rest of the responsible pitchers stresses that they were only drinking when they had the day off pitching. Theo Epstein is now in the process of moving to the Chicago Cubs, also leaving the General Manager spot open.
Current rosterBoston Red Sox 2012 Spring Training roster
40-man roster Spring Training
- 91 Alfredo Aceves
- 32 Matt Albers
- 48 Scott Atchison
- 51 Daniel Bard
- 19 Josh Beckett
- 64 Michael Bowden
- -- Drake Britton
- 11 Clay Buchholz
- 61 Félix Doubront
- 53 Rich Hill
- 52 Bobby Jenks
- 41 John Lackey
- 31 Jon Lester
- 18 Daisuke Matsuzaka
- 30 Andrew Miller
- 46 Franklin Morales
- 74 Stolmy Pimentel
- 63 Junichi Tazawa
- 70 Kyle Weiland
- 59 Luis Exposito
- 60 Ryan Lavarnway
- 39 Jarrod Saltalamacchia
- 62 Lars Anderson
- 3 Mike Avilés
- 28 Adrian Gonzalez
- 76 José Iglesias
- 12 Jed Lowrie
- -- Will Middlebrooks
- 15 Dustin Pedroia
- 10 Marco Scutaro
- 84 Óscar Tejeda
- 20 Kevin Youkilis
- 13 Carl Crawford
- 2 Jacoby Ellsbury
- 55 Ryan Kalish
- -- Che-Hsuan Lin
- 54 Darnell McDonald
- 16 Josh Reddick
- None specified
- 17 Tim Bogar (third base)
- 22 DeMarlo Hale (bench)
- 29 Dave Magadan (hitting)
- 57 Gary Tuck (bullpen)
- Vacant (first base)
- Vacant (pitching)
60-day disabled list
39 Active, 0 Inactive, 1 Non-roster invitees
* Not on active roster
7- or 15-day disabled list
updated November 21, 2011
→ All MLB rosters
City of Palms Park
Former left fielder Mike Greenwell is from Fort Myers, Florida and was instrumental in bringing his team to the city for spring training. City of Palms Park was built in 1992 for that purpose and holds 8,000 people. It is also the home of the Red Sox Rookie team, the Gulf Coast League Red Sox, from April through June.
Perhaps the most memorable game played at City of Palms was on March 7, 2004. This was the first game played between the Red Sox and New York Yankees since Aaron Boone hit the home run that eliminated the Red Sox from the playoffs the previous October. Boone's replacement at third base, Alex Rodriguez was the high profile key acquisition of the off season for the Yankees, and he was savagely booed by the 7,304 in attendance.
New spring facility
On October 28, 2008, the Lee County commission voted 3–1 to approve an agreement with the Boston Red Sox to build a new spring-training facility for the team in south Lee County. Commissioner Brian Bigelow was the lone dissenting vote. Commissioner Bob Janes was not present for the vote, but stated that he supported it.
Dee was present in the chambers for the vote, and took the agreement back to Boston to meet with John Henry and other team officials. On November 1, 2008, the Red Sox signed an agreement with Lee County that will keep their spring training home in the Fort Myers area for 30 more years.
Wednesday, April 30, 2009, the Lee County commissioners selected the Watermen-Pinnacle site on Daniels Parkway (a little more than a mile east of Interstate 75) as the site for the new facility. The backup choice, if negotiations between county staff and the developer falter, is the University Highland site just north of Germain Arena in Estero. Jeff Mudgett, a Fort Myers architect who is volunteering his time toward the project, envisions a facility with a mini-Fenway Park that would open for Spring 2012.
Rivalry with the Yankees
The rivalry is sometimes so polarizing that it is often a heated subject, like religion or politics, in the Northeastern United States. Since the inception of the wild card team and an added Division Series, the American League East rivals have squared off in the American League Championship Series three times, with the Yankees winning twice in 1999 and 2003 and the Red Sox winning in 2004. In addition, the teams have twice met in the last regular-season series of a season to decide the league title, in 1904 (when the Red Sox won) and 1949 (when the Yankees won).
The teams also finished tied for first in 1978, when the Yankees won a high-profile one-game playoff for the division title. The 1978 division race is memorable for the Red Sox having held a 14-game lead over the Yankees more than halfway through the season. Similarly, the 2004 AL Championship Series is notable for the Yankees leading 3 games to 0 and ultimately losing a best of seven series. The Red Sox comeback was the only time in baseball history that a team has come back from a 0–3 deficit to win a series.
Radio and television
Currently, the flagship radio station of the Red Sox is WEEI, 850 AM. Joe Castiglione, in his 25th year as the voice of the Red Sox, serves as the lead play-by-play announcer, along with Dave O'Brien and Jon Rish. Some of Castiglione's predecessors include Curt Gowdy, Ken Coleman, and Ned Martin. He has also worked with play-by-play veterans Bob Starr and Jerry Trupiano. Many stations throughout New England and beyond pick up the broadcasts.
All Red Sox telecasts not shown nationally on Fox or ESPN are seen on New England Sports Network (NESN) with Don Orsillo calling play-by-play and Jerry Remy, former Red Sox second baseman, as color analyst. During Remy's recovery from cancer, former Red Sox players Dennis Eckersley and Dave Roberts have alternated doing color commentary. NESN became exclusive in 2006; before then, games were shown on such local stations as WBZ, WSBK, WLVI, WABU, and WFXT at various points in team history. Red Sox commercials have featured notable performers in thirty–second spots, including Jonathan Meath in 2009.
LF, 1B, DH
The most recent number retirement was on July 28, 2009, as the Red Sox retired the number 14 of Jim Rice.
The Red Sox have two official requirements for a player to have his number retired:
The Red Sox previously had a requirement that the player "must have finished their career with Red Sox," but this was reconsidered after the election of Carlton Fisk to the Hall of Fame. Fisk actually retired with the White Sox, but then-GM Dan Duquette hired him for one day as a special assistant, which allowed Fisk to technically end his career with the Red Sox. After that, with the anticipation that there might be other former Red Sox players who would be denied the chance to have their number retired by the club (a prime example would be Roger Clemens), the team dropped the rule. Some would argue that the rule still exists de jure, as Wade Boggs' number has not been retired by Boston even though he meets the official requirements (Boggs finished his career with the Tampa Bay Rays after spending five years with the rival New York Yankees). It should be noted that Boston did honor Boggs by voting him into the Red Sox Hall of Fame in 2004, the year before he was enshrined into Cooperstown.
The only exception that has been made to date is for former Boston shortstop Johnny Pesky, whose number 6 was retired on September 28, 2008. Pesky neither spent ten years as a player nor was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame; however, Red Sox ownership cited "... his versatility of his contributions — on the field, off the field, [and] in the dugout...," including as a manager, scout, and special instructor and decided that the honor had been well-earned.
The number 42 was officially retired by Major League Baseball in 1997, but Mo Vaughn was one of a handful of players to continue wearing #42 through a grandfather clause. He last wore it for the team in 1998. In commemoration of Jackie Robinson Day, MLB invited players to wear the number 42 for games played on April 15, Coco Crisp (CF), David Ortiz (DH), and DeMarlo Hale (Coach) did that in 2007 and again in 2008. Starting in 2009, MLB had all uniformed players for all teams wear #42 for Jackie Robinson Day.
Until the late 1990s, the numbers originally hung on the right-field facade in the order in which they were retired: 9–4–1–8. It was pointed out that the numbers, when read as a date (9/4/18), marked the eve of the first game of the 1918 World Series, the last championship series that the Red Sox won before 2004. After the facade was repainted, the numbers were rearranged in numerical order.
- 5 – Nomar Garciaparra SS (1996–2004); last played in 2009 for Oakland Athletics. Rocco Baldelli wore #5 in 2009 as he only had worn that number previously (as homage to Joe DiMaggio). Garciaparra signed a 1-day contract with the Red Sox at the end of his career to retire with them.
- 21 – Roger Clemens RHP (1984–1996); last played in 2007 for New York Yankees.
- 26 – Wade Boggs 3B (1982–1992); Boggs has met the requirements based on his 11 years as a player and 2005 election into the Hall of Fame. No announcement has been made, but #26 has not been issued since Boggs' 2005 election to the Hall of Fame (Several players wore #26 between 1992 and 2004)
- 38 – Curt Schilling RHP (2004–2007); retired as member of Red Sox
- 45 – Pedro Martínez RHP (1998–2004); last played in 2009 for Philadelphia Phillies
Neither Garciaparra, Schilling nor Martinez would qualify to have their uniform number retired based on the above "10 year" policy.
There is also considerable debate in Boston media circles and among fans about the potential retiring of Tony Conigliaro's number 25. Nonetheless, since Conigliaro's last full season in Boston, 1970, the number has been assigned to several players (including Orlando Cepeda, Mark Clear, Don Baylor, Larry Parrish, Jack Clark, Troy O'Leary, and Jeremy Giambi). The number 25 was last worn by third baseman Mike Lowell during the 2010 season. Coincidentally, Lowell was the winner of the Tony Conigliaro Award in 1999.
Baseball Hall of Famers
Boston Red Sox Hall of Famers Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
- Players listed in bold are depicted on their Hall of Fame plaques wearing a Red Sox cap insignia.
- * Wears Red Sox cap on Hall Of Fame plaque, but spent more time on other teams
Ford C. Frick Award recipients
Boston Red Sox Ford C. Frick Award recipients Affiliation according to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
- Names in bold received the award based primarily on their work as broadcasters for the Red Sox.
Minor league affiliations
Level Team League Triple-A Pawtucket Red Sox International League Double-A Portland Sea Dogs Eastern League Class A-Advanced Salem Red Sox Carolina League Class A Greenville Drive South Atlantic League Class A-Short Season Lowell Spinners New York-Penn League Rookie GCL Red Sox Gulf Coast League Rookie DSL Red Sox Dominican Summer League
Other notable seasons and team records
- Pedro Martínez compiled a 1.74 ERA in a hitter's park in a big-hitting era in 2000.
- Nomar Garciaparra hit .372 in 2000, the club record for a right-handed hitter.
- David Ortiz in 2005 had 47 home runs and 148 RBIs. He also had many game winning and timely hits and came in second in the MVP voting to the New York Yankees' Alex Rodriguez.
- David Ortiz had a franchise record-breaking 2006 season with 54 home runs in the regular season
- On April 22, 2007, Manny Ramírez, J. D. Drew, Mike Lowell, and Jason Varitek hit four consecutive home runs in the 3rd inning off 10 pitches from Chase Wright of the New York Yankees in his second Major League start and his fourth above Single-A ball. This was the fifth time in Major League history, and first time in Red Sox history this feat has occurred. Notable is that J. D. Drew had previously contributed to a four consecutive home run sequence on September 18, 2006 (coincidentally also the second batter in the sequence) while with the Los Angeles Dodgers. Additionally, Red Sox manager Terry Francona's father, Tito Francona, also was a part of such a four consecutive home run sequence for the Cleveland Indians in 1963.
- The overall regular season winning percentage since club inception in 1901 is .516, a record of 8595–8065 for games played through 9 July 2008. They started 2007 with winning percentage of 0.512 (8444–7960).
- On September 1, 2007, Clay Buchholz no-hit the Baltimore Orioles in his second Major League start. He is the first Red Sox rookie and 17th Red Sox pitcher to throw a no-hitter.
- On September 22, 2007, with a victory over the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, the Red Sox clinched a spot in the postseason for the fourth time in five years, the first time in club history this has happened. Also, with this postseason berth, manager Terry Francona becomes the first manager in team history to lead the club to three playoff appearances.
- On September 8, 2008, the Red Sox set a Major League record with their 456th consecutive home-park sellout. The previous record had been held by the Cleveland Indians, who sold out 455 games between June 12, 1995 and April 2, 2001. The streak began on May 15, 2003 against the Texas Rangers. The Red Sox are only the fourth team to sell out every home game of an entire season (the 1996 Colorado Rockies and the 2000 San Francisco Giants being the other two). (The team's definition of a sellout: "The criteria used for a sellout at Fenway Park have been the same since the early 1990s," Kennedy said in an e-mail. "Our policy is simple and straightforward, and is used by many MLB clubs [and other sports teams around the country]. A sellout occurs when the number of tickets distributed to spectators is equal to or greater than the seating capacity at Fenway Park. [The 2008 seating capacity is 36,984 for day games and 37,400 for night games.]" That is: a sellout only covers ticket sales, not spectators in physical seats.)
- On September 2, 2011 the Red Sox reached their 700th consecutive home game sellout, second only to the Portland Trail Blazers American professional sports record of 744 between 1977 and 1995.
- On May 21, 2011, the Red Sox played against the Chicago Cubs at Fenway Park for the first time since the 1918 World Series (they had faced each other at Chicago's Wrigley Field in 2005). Both teams wore uniforms that match the style worn in 1918.
- List of Major League Baseball franchise postseason streaks
- Boston Red Sox all-time roster
- Award winners and league leaders
- Laureus World Sports Awards (Spirit of Sport Award, 2005)
- Managers and ownership of the Boston Red Sox
- Post-season droughts
- Statistical records and milestone achievements
- Tony Conigliaro Award
- The Jimmy Fund
- Fever Pitch – the 2004 Boston Red Sox championship run from a fan-based point of view.
- Mark Waitkus – the official artist of the Boston Red Sox
- ^ The franchise won the first-ever World Series in 1903 as the Boston Americans. It also won the 1904 American League pennant under the same name.
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- ^ a b c Shaughnessy 2005, p. 21
- ^ a b Frommer & Frommer 2004, p. 78
- ^ a b Bodley, Hal (October 21, 2004). "Sport's ultimate rivalry; Yanks-Red Sox epic battles go way back". USA Today: p. 3C. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/playoffs/2004-10-20-yanks-sox-rivalry_x.htm. Retrieved January 26, 2011.
- ^ MLB document (November 1, 2007). "MLB Attendance Report – 2007". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/attendance?sort=home_avg&year=2007&seasonType=2. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
- ^ Golen, Jimmy (May 15, 2007). "Tigers 7, Red Sox 2". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2007-05-15-261793538_x.htm. Retrieved October 30, 2007.
- ^ "Top five most loyal MLB fan bases". http://sports.yahoo.com/mlb/news?slug=ycn-8166895. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- ^ Nowlin's followup article in the The National Pastime. Apparently this originated with a writer for the Washington Post during 1906, and by 1907 it started to be retroactively applied to the 1903 club, even by Boston newspapers.
- ^ “The Boston Pilgrims Did Exist”
- ^ "Colin McEnroe at the Hartford Courant". http://blogs.courant.com/colin_mcenroe_to_wit/2007/10/crimson-hose.html.
- ^ "Boston Red Sox News". http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/news/gameday_recap.jsp?ymd=20080420&content_id=2559253&vkey=recap&fext=.jsp&c_id=bos.
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- ^ Baseball-Reference.com. "Dutch Leonard Statistics — Baseball-Reference.com". http://www.baseball-reference.com/l/leonadu01.shtml. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- ^ "Duffy Lewis". http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/L/Lewis_Duffy.stm.
- ^ "Carl Mays". http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/M/Mays_Carl.stm.
- ^ Shaughnessy 1990, pp. 31
- ^ "Year-by-Year League Leaders & Records for Home Runs — Baseball-Reference.com". http://www.baseball-reference.com/leaders/HR_leagues.shtml.
- ^ Montville, Leigh (2006). The Big Bam: The Life and Times of Babe Ruth. Random House. pp. 161–64.
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- ^ "Everett Scott". http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/S/Scott_Everett.stm.
- ^ "Elmer Smith". http://www.baseballlibrary.com/baseballlibrary/ballplayers/S/Smith_Elmer309.stm.
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- ^ a b Most Valuable Player MVP Awards & Cy Young Awards Winners – Baseball-Reference.com
- ^ Shaughnessy 1990, pp. 145–147
- ^ a b c Cafardo, Nick (June 7, 1990). "Dent Dumped by Yankees". The Boston Globe: p. 37. https://secure.pqarchiver.com/boston/access/61640175.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+7%2C+1990&author=Nick+Cafardo%2C+Globe+Staff&pub=Boston+Globe+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&edition=&startpage=37&desc=DENT+DUMPED+BY+YANKEES.
- ^ Baseball-Reference.com. "Roger Clemens Statistics — Baseball-Reference.com". http://www.baseball-reference.com/c/clemero02.shtml. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- ^ "ESPN.com: Page 2: Is Clemens the Antichrist?". ESPN.com. http://proxy.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?id=1206543.
- ^ Vecsey, George (October 28, 1986). "SPORTS OF THE TIMES; Babe Ruth Curse Strikes Again". The New York Times: p. D33.
- ^ a b Weber, Bruce (April 2, 2011). "Lou Gorman, Whose Red Sox Lost to Mets, Dies at 82". New York Times: p. B8. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/sports/baseball/02gorman.html.
- ^ Maske, Mark (September 25, 1990). "Pennant Chases in East Still Flying High, West All but Flagged". The Washington Post: p. E3. "Yankees fans had taunted the Red Sox all weekend with chants of "1918, 1918!"—the last time Boston won the World Series—and the Red Sox are not allowed by long-suffering New Englanders to forget the pain they have wrought with years of excruciating near misses."
- ^ Shaughnessy 2005, p. 26
- ^ "The Official Site of The Boston Red Sox: Ballpark: Fenway Facts". http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/bos/ballpark/facts.jsp.
- ^ "David Eckstein Statistics — Baseball-Reference.com". http://www.baseball-reference.com/e/eckstda01.shtml.
- ^ "Clemens putting Cooperstown on hold". http://insider.espn.go.com/mlb/columns/story?columnist=crasnick_jerry&id=2124180&CMP=OTC-DT9705204233&action=login&appRedirect=http%3a%2f%2finsider.espn.go.com%2fmlb%2fcolumns%2fstory%3fcolumnist%3dcrasnick_jerry%26id%3d2124180%26CMP%3dOTC-DT9705204233.
- ^ Kahn, Joseph P. (September 24, 2003). "Rallying Cry Spurs Sox To Finish Ride". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2003/09/24/rallying_cry_spurs_sox_to_finish_ride/.
- ^ "More Red Sox Records — RedSoxDiehard.com". http://www.redsoxdiehard.com/stats/record.html.
- ^ Edes, Gordon (23 October 2003). "Boston Globe, Little unsure he wants job". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2003/10/23/little_unsure_he_wants_job/.
- ^ Shapiro, Leonard (February 7, 2005). "Patriots Grab Share of NFL History". Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A3727-2005Feb6?language=printer.
- ^ Shaughnessy, Dan (June 17, 2011). "How great is this?". The Boston Globe. http://articles.boston.com/2011-06-17/sports/29670955_1_red-sox-piece-of-championship-hardware-greatest-comeback.
- ^ Browne, Ian (February 5, 2008). "Red Sox bring Casey on board". mlb.com. http://mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20080205&content_id=2365093&vkey=hotstove2007&fext=.jsp. Retrieved April 15, 2008.
- ^ a b Chuck, Bill (April 2, 2009). "100 random things about the Red Sox, Rays, and Yankees". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/extras/100_random_things_2009/. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- ^ Shroyer, Shawn (September 7, 2008). "Wrist still giving Big Papi some trouble". MLB.com. redsox.com. http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20080907&content_id=3433116&vkey=news_bos&fext=.jsp&c_id=bos.
- ^ Shaughnessy, Dan (August 1, 2008). "Going, going, gone". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2008/08/01/going_going_gone/.
- ^ "Drew's game-winning hit keeps Red Sox alive in ALCS". Associated Press. ESPN. October 16, 2008. http://sports.espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=281016102. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- ^ Curry, Jack (October 17, 2008). "Down by 7–0, Red Sox Force a Game 6". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/sports/baseball/17alcs.html?_r=1&ref=sports&pagewanted=print. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- ^ http://espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=290407102
- ^ Bay's 3-run HR helps Red Sox beat Indians, win 11th straight
- ^ Boston Red Sox Transactions
- ^ a b Red Sox deal three for Victor Martinez
- ^ "Lee County commissioners approve Red Sox agreement". http://www.news-press.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008810280398. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- ^ "Red Sox to stay in Fort Myers for 30 more springs". http://www.sportsline.com/mlb/story/11076748. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- ^ "Red Sox home in Lee County will be on Daniels Parkway". http://www.news-press.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2009904300348. Retrieved May 1, 2009.
- ^ Dodd, Mike (October 12, 2004). "Here they go again...; Red Sox vs. Yankees: Bitter enemies clash with Series on line". USA Today: p. 1C. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/playoffs/2004-10-11-cover-rivalry_x.htm. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
- ^ Shaughnessy 2005, p. 19
- ^ Richinick, Michele (October 4, 2010). "Sox-Yankees rivalry led to attack, police say". The Boston Globe: p. B2. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2010/10/04/sox_yankees_rivalry_led_to_attack_police_say/.
- ^ a b DiGiovanna, Mike (October 12, 2004). "They Love to Hate Each Other; Red Sox and Yankees carry bitter rivalry into championship series that starts tonight". Los Angeles Times: p. D1.
- ^ Shaughnessy, Dan (October 21, 2004). "A World Series ticket; Sox complete comeback, oust Yankees for AL title". The Boston Globe: p. A1. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2004/10/21/a_world_series_party/?page=full.
- ^ Frommer & Frommer 2004, pp. 177–179
- ^ Frommer & Frommer 2004, p. 175
- ^ Kepner, Tyler (October 21, 2004). "Back From Dead, Red Sox Bury Yanks and Go to Series". New York Times: p. A1.
- ^ Rieber, Anthony (May 16, 2010). "Bruins' fall brings back memories of 2004". Newsday: p. 68. "The 2004 Yankees...are the only baseball team in history to lead a postseason series 3–0 and not win it."
- ^ Lee, Tony (January 12, 2011). "Cubs, Cardinals Must Emulate Yankees, Red Sox to Rekindle Rivalry". NESN. http://www.nesn.com/2011/01/cubs-cardinals-must-emulate-yankees-red-sox-to-rekindle-rivalry.html. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
- ^ The New York Times; The Boston Globe (2004). The rivals: the Boston Red Sox vs. the New York Yankees: an inside history (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-312-33616-0.
- ^ Ortiz, Jorge L. (May 7, 2010). "Yankees vs. Red Sox: Long-running drama". USA Today: p. 1C. http://www.usatoday.com/SPORTS/usaedition/2010-05-07-yanksox07_cv_U.htm?csp=34.
- ^ a b Dzen, Gary (July 28, 2009). "Sox to retire Rice's number tonight". boston.com. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/extras/extra_bases/2009/07/sox_to_retire_r.html. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- ^ "Retired Numbers from redsox.com". http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/bos/history/retired_numbers.jsp.
- ^ Grossman, Leigh (2001). The Red Sox Fan Handbook. Swordsmith Books. pp. 208. ISBN 1931013039.
- ^ Buckley, Steve (September 29, 2008). "Lofty position for Johnny Pesky". Boston Herald. http://news.bostonherald.com/sports/baseball/red_sox/view/2008_09_29_Lofty_position_for_Johnny_Pesky:_Exclusive_place_for_Sox__No__6/srvc=home&position=also.
- ^ Vega, Michael (September 24, 2008). "Pesky makes honor roll". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2008/09/24/pesky_makes_honor_roll?mode=PF.
- ^ "Red Sox All-Time Uniform Numbers". http://www.redsoxdiehard.com/players/unifnums.html.
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- ^ "Sox tie mark with four straight homers | redsox.com: News". http://boston.redsox.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20070422&content_id=1925045&vkey=news_bos&fext=.jsp&c_id=bos. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
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- ^ Jeff Horrigan for The Boston Herald. "Red Sox tie sellout streak". http://news.bostonherald.com/sports/baseball/red_sox/view/2008_09_04_Red_Sox_ties_sellout_streak:_Terry_Francona_a_big_fan_of_support/srvc=home&position=also. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- ^ Browne, Ian (September 4, 2008). "Red Sox to set MLB sellout record". MLB.com. http://mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20080904&content_id=3417965&vkey=news_bos&fext=.jsp&c_id=bos&partnerId=rss_bos. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- ^ "Fans Celebrate Fenway Park's 700th Straight Sellout, Reminisce About Memorable Ways to Get Tickets", NESN Nation
- ^ 
- ^ Red Sox to "turn back the clock" on Saturday against the Cubs
- Nowlin, Bill; Prime, Jim (2005). Feud: The Red Sox, The Yankees, and the Struggle of Good versus Evil. Rounder Books. ISBN 1-57940-111-2.
- Stout, Glenn; Johnson, Richard A. (2000). Red Sox Century. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-88417-9.
- Frommer, Harvey; Frommer, Frederic J. (2004). Red Sox vs. Yankees: The Great Rivalry. Sports Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-58261-767-8.
- Shaughnessy, Dan (1990). The Curse of the Bambino. New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-24887-0.
- Shaughnessy, Dan (2005). Reversing the Curse. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-51748-0.
- Boston Red Sox website
- Boston Red Sox at MLB.com
- Season-by-Season Records
- Boston Red Sox Video at ESPN Video Archive
- Red Sox MLB News Blog
- 2004 World Series win in the Newseum archive of front page images from 2004-10-28.
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