George W. Bush


George W. Bush
A portrait shot of a smiling older male looking straight ahead. He has short gray hair, and is wearing a dark navy blazer with a blue styled tie over a white collared shirt. In the background is an American flag hanging from a flagpole.
43rd President of the United States
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
Vice President Dick Cheney
Preceded by Bill Clinton
Succeeded by Barack Obama
46th Governor of Texas
In office
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000
Lieutenant Bob Bullock
Rick Perry
Preceded by Ann Richards
Succeeded by Rick Perry
Personal details
Born George Walker Bush
July 6, 1946 (1946-07-06) (age 65)
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Laura Welch (1977–present)
Children Barbara
Jenna
Alma mater Yale University
Harvard Business School
Profession Businessperson (Oil, baseball)
Religion Episcopal (Before 1977)[1]
United Methodism (1977–present)[2][3]
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Website Bush Presidential Library
Bush Presidential Center
The White House Archived
Military service
Service/branch Texas Air National Guard
Alabama Air National Guard
Years of service 1968–1974
Rank First Lieutenant
Unit 147th Reconnaissance Wing
187th Fighter Wing

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000.

Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut. He is the eldest son of Barbara Bush and 41st President George H. W. Bush, making him the second American president to have been the son of a former president.[4] He is also the brother of Jeb Bush, former Governor of Florida.

After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush worked in oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. In a close and controversial election, Bush was elected President in 2000 as the Republican candidate, defeating Vice President Al Gore in the Electoral College.

A series of terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term as president on September 11, 2001. In response, Bush announced a global War on Terror, which included an invasion of Afghanistan that same year and a 2003 invasion of Iraq. In addition to national security issues, Bush signed into law broad tax cuts, the PATRIOT Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, and Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors.

Bush successfully ran for re-election against Senator John Kerry in 2004. His second term saw national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, enhanced interrogation techniques, and the administration's response to Hurricane Katrina.[5][6] As the United States entered its longest post–World War II recession in December 2007, the Bush Administration enacted multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Though Bush was popular for much of his first term,[7] his popularity declined sharply during his second term.[8][9][10]

After leaving office, Bush returned to Texas and purchased a home in a suburban area of Dallas. He is currently a public speaker and published Decision Points in 2010, a book recounting decisions he has made over the course of his life.[11]

Childhood to mid-life

George Walker Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut at Grace-New Haven Hospital (now Yale – New Haven Hospital), on July 6, 1946,[12] the first child of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush (née Pierce). He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with four siblings, Jeb, Neil, Marvin and Dorothy. Another younger sister, Robin, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953.[13] Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U.S. Senator from Connecticut.[14] Bush's father, George H. W. Bush, was Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and President from 1989 to 1993. Bush is of primarily English descent and also more distant German, Dutch, Welsh, Irish, French and Scottish ancestry.[15]

Education

Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas until the family moved to Houston after he completed seventh grade. He then went to The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Houston, for two years.[16]

Bush finished high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school (then all-male) in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and during his senior year was the head cheerleader.[17][18] Bush attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968, graduating with an A.B. in history.[19] During this time, he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, being elected the fraternity's president during his senior year.[20][21] Bush also became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior.[22] Bush was a keen rugby union player, and was on Yale's 1st XV.[23] He characterized himself as an average student.[24]

Beginning in the fall of 1973, Bush attended the Harvard Business School, where he earned a Master of Business Administration. He is the only U.S. President to have earned an M.B.A.[25]

Texas Air National Guard

Lt. George W. Bush while in the Texas Air National Guard.

In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard.[26] After two years of active-duty service while training,[27] he was assigned to Houston, flying Convair F-102s with the 147th Fighter Interceptor Group out of Ellington Air Force Base.[26][28] Critics, including former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe, have alleged that Bush was favorably treated due to his father's political standing, citing his selection as a pilot despite his low pilot aptitude test scores and his irregular attendance.[29] In June 2005, the United States Department of Defense released all the records of Bush's Texas Air National Guard service, which remain in its official archives.[30]

In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the 187th Tactical Reconnaissance Group of the Alabama Air National Guard, having moved to Montgomery, Alabama to work on the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Republican Winton M. Blount.[31][32] In October 1973, Bush was discharged from the Texas Air National Guard and transferred to inactive duty in the Air Force Reserve. He was honorably discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974.[33]

Marriage, family, and personal life

George and Laura Bush with their daughters Jenna and Barbara, 1990

At a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a school teacher and librarian. Bush proposed to her after a three-month courtship, and they married on November 5 of that year.[34] The couple settled in Midland, Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church.[2] In 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara;[34] they graduated from high school in 2000 and from the University of Texas at Austin and Yale University, respectively, in 2004.

Prior to his marriage, Bush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse.[35] In one instance, on September 4, 1976, he was arrested near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine, for driving under the influence of alcohol. He pleaded guilty, was fined $150 and had his Maine driver's license suspended until 1978.[36] Bush's alleged drug usage is less clear; when asked about alleged past illicit drug use, Bush has consistently refused to answer. He defended his refusal to answer in a publicized casual conversation with a friend, saying that he feared setting a bad example for the younger generation.[37][38][39]

Bush says his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his life,[34] and attributes to her influence his 1986 decision to give up alcohol.[40] While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant, beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and willing to put up with my rough edges, and I must confess has smoothed them off over time."[34]

Bush mostly reads "serious historical nonfiction" for pleasure. During his time as president, Bush read 14 Lincoln biographies and, during the last three years of his presidency, he reportedly read 186 books. A reporter recalls seeing "books by John Fowles, F. Scott Fitzgerald, James Joyce, and Gore Vidal lying about, as well as biographies of Willa Cather and Queen Victoria" in his home when Bush was a Texas oilman. Other hobbies include cigar smoking and golf.[41]

Early career

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as out of touch with rural Texans; Bush lost by 6,000 votes (6%) of the 103,000 votes cast.[42] He returned to the oil industry and began a series of small, independent oil exploration companies.[43] He created Arbusto Energy,[44] and later changed the name to Bush Exploration. In 1984, his company merged with the larger Spectrum 7, and Bush became chairman.[43] The company was hurt by decreased oil prices, and it folded into Harken Energy.[43][45] Bush served on the board of directors for Harken.[43] Questions of possible insider trading involving Harken arose, but the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) investigation concluded that the information Bush had at the time of his stock sale was not sufficient to constitute insider trading.[43][46]

Bush moved his family to Washington, D.C. in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency.[47][48] He served as a campaign adviser and liaison to the media;[43] he assisted his father by campaigning across the country.[43] Returning to Texas after the successful campaign, he purchased a share in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in April 1989, where he served as managing general partner for five years.[49] He actively led the team's projects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the open stands with fans.[50] The sale of Bush's shares in the Rangers in 1998 brought him over $15 million from his initial $800,000 investment.[51]

In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign as "campaign advisor".[52] The prior month, his father asked him to tell White House chief of staff John H. Sununu that he should resign.[53]

Governor of Texas

Governor Bush with wife, Laura, and father, George H. W. Bush.

As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and education improvement.[43] Bush's campaign advisers were Karen Hughes, Joe Allbaugh, and Karl Rove.[54]

After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards.[43][55] In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain permits to carry concealed weapons. Richards had vetoed the bill, but Bush signed it after he became governor.[56] According to The Atlantic Monthly, the race "featured a rumor that she was a lesbian, along with a rare instance of such a tactic's making it into the public record – when a regional chairman of the Bush campaign allowed himself, perhaps inadvertently, to be quoted criticizing Richards for 'appointing avowed homosexual activists' to state jobs".[57] The Atlantic, and others, connected the lesbian rumor to Karl Rove,[58] but Rove denied being involved.[59] Bush won the general election with 53.5% against Richards' 45.9%.[60]

Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut, $2 billion.[54] He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to reduce domestic violence.[61] Critics contended that during his tenure, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations, but supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improved educational test scores.[43]

In 1999, Bush also helped make Texas eventually the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S.[62][63][64] by signing a state law obliging electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable sources (RPS).[65][66][67]

In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record[43] 69% of the vote.[68] He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms.[43] For most of Texas history, governors served two-year terms; a constitutional amendment extended those terms to four years starting in 1975.[69] In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and enjoyed high approval ratings.[43] He proclaimed June 10, 2000 to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he "urge[d] all Texans to answer the call to serve those in need".[70]

Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate. Following his re-election, speculation soared.[43] Within a year, he decided to seek the Republican nomination for the presidency.

Presidential campaigns

2000 Presidential candidacy

Bush in Concord, New Hampshire signing to be a candidate for president

Primary

In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States. With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of candidates for the Republican Party presidential nomination consisting of John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, John Kasich, and Robert C. Smith.

Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he was more centrist than other Republicans. He campaigned on a platform that included increasing the size of the United States Armed Forces, cutting taxes, improving education, and aiding minorities.[43] By early 2000, the race had centered on Bush and McCain.[43]

Bush won the Iowa caucuses, but, although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed McCain by 19% and lost that primary. Despite this, Bush regained momentum and, according to political observers, effectively became the front runner after the South Carolina primary, which according to The Boston Globe made history for his campaign's negativity; The New York Times described it as a smear campaign.[71][72][73]

General election

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, U.S. Representative, and Secretary of Defense, to be his running mate. Cheney was then serving as head of Bush's Vice-Presidential search committee. Soon after, Cheney was officially nominated by the Republican Party at the 2000 Republican National Convention.

Bush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as Governor of Texas.[43] Bush's campaign criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation.[74]

When the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount.[43] The initial recount also went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in courts for a month until reaching the U.S. Supreme Court.[75] On December 9, in a controversial ruling[76] the Bush v. Gore case the Court reversed a Florida Supreme Court decision ordering a third count, and stopped an ordered statewide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida's counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.[43] The machine recount showed that Bush had won the Florida vote by a margin of 537 votes out of six million cast.[77] Although he received 543,895 fewer individual votes than Gore nationwide, Bush won the election, receiving 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266.[77]

2004 Presidential candidacy

George W. Bush speaks at a campaign rally in 2004.

In 2004, Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. He appointed Ken Mehlman as campaign manager, with a political strategy devised by Karl Rove.[78] Bush and the Republican platform included a strong commitment to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan,[79] support for the USA PATRIOT Act,[80] a renewed shift in policy for constitutional amendments banning abortion and same-sex marriage,[79][81] reforming Social Security to create private investment accounts,[79] creation of an ownership society,[79] and opposing mandatory carbon emissions controls.[82] Bush also called for the implementation of a guest worker program for immigrants,[79] which was criticized by conservatives.[83]

The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry. Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the Iraq War, and accused him of failing to stimulate the economy and job growth. The Bush campaign portrayed Kerry as a staunch liberal who would raise taxes and increase the size of government. The Bush campaign continuously criticized Kerry's seemingly contradictory statements on the war in Iraq,[43] and argued that Kerry lacked the decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the War on Terror.

In the election, Bush carried 31 of 50 states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes. He won an outright majority of the popular vote (50.7% to his opponent's 48.3%).[84] The previous President to win an outright majority of the popular vote was Bush's father in the 1988 election. Additionally, it was the first time since Herbert Hoover's election in 1928 that a Republican president was elected alongside re-elected Republican majorities in both Houses of Congress. Bush's 2.5% margin of victory was the narrowest ever for a victorious incumbent President, breaking Woodrow Wilson's 3.1% margin of victory against Charles Evans Hughes in the election of 1916.[85][86]

Presidency

Bush was sworn in as president on January 20, 2001. Though he originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.[87] Wars were waged in Afghanistan and later Iraq while significant debates regarding immigration, healthcare, Social Security, economic policy, and treatment of terrorist detainees took place within the United States. Over an eight year period, Bush's once-high approval ratings[88] steadily declined throughout his Presidency while his disapproval numbers increased significantly over the same time frame.[89] During 2007, the United States entered into the longest post World War II recession and the administration responded by enacting multiple economic programs.[90]

Domestic policy

Economic policy

In a February 28, 2001, message to the Congress, Bush estimated that there would be a $5.6 trillion surplus over the next ten years.[91] Facing opposition in Congress, Bush held town hall-style public meetings across the U.S. in 2001 to increase public support for his plan for a $1.35 trillion tax cut program—one of the largest tax cuts in U.S. history.[43] Bush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to taxpayers, saying "the surplus is not the government’s money. The surplus is the people’s money."[43] With reports of the threat of recession from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, Bush argued that such a tax cut would stimulate the economy and create jobs.[92] Others, including the Treasury Secretary at the time Paul O'Neill, were opposed to some of the tax cuts on the basis that they would contribute to budget deficits and undermine Social Security.[93] O'Neill disputes the claim made in Bush's book "Decision Points" that he never openly disagreed with him on planned tax cuts.[94] By 2003, the economy showed signs of improvement, though job growth remained stagnant.[43] Another tax cut program was passed that year.

Deficit and debt increases 2001–2009. Gross debt has increased over $500 billion each year since FY2003.

Under the Bush Administration, real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 2.5%,[95] considerably below the average for business cycles from 1949 to 2000.[96][97] Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000. When Bush left office, the average was at 7,949, one of the lowest levels of his presidency.[98] Unemployment originally rose from 4.2% in January 2001 to 6.3% in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5% as of July 2007.[99] Adjusted for inflation, median household income dropped by $1,175 between 2000 and 2007,[100] while Professor Ken Homa of Georgetown University has noted that "after-tax median household income increased by 2%"[101] The poverty rate increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 12.3% in 2006 after peaking at 12.7% in 2004.[102] By October 2008, due to increases in domestic and foreign spending,[103] the national debt had risen to $11.3 trillion,[104][105] an increase of over 100% from the start of the year 2000 when the debt was $5.6 trillion.[106][107] Most debt was accumulated as a result of what became known as the "Bush tax cuts" and increased national security spending.[108] By the end of Bush's presidency, unemployment climbed to 7.2%.[109] The perception of Bush's effect on the economy is significantly affected by partisanship.[110]

President Bush signing a $1.35 trillion tax cut into law. June 7, 2001.

In December 2007, the United States entered the longest post–World War II recession,[111] which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, and a declining dollar value.[112] In February, 63,000 jobs were lost, a five-year record.[113][114] To aid with the situation, Bush signed a $170 billion economic stimulus package which was intended to improve the economic situation by sending tax rebate checks to many Americans and providing tax breaks for struggling businesses. The Bush administration pushed for significantly increased regulation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2003,[115] and after two years, the regulations passed the House but died in the Senate. Many Republican senators, as well as influential members of the Bush Administration, feared that the agency created by these regulations would merely be mimicking the private sector’s risky practices.[116][117] In September 2008, the crisis became much more serious beginning with the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac followed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers and a federal bailout of American International Group for $85 billion.[118]

Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression.[119][120] Additional regulation over the housing market would have been beneficial, according to former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan.[121] Bush, meanwhile, proposed a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the U.S. mortgage market.[122] Vince Reinhardt, a former Federal Reserve economist now at the American Enterprise Institute, said "it would have helped for the Bush administration to empower the folks at Treasury and the Federal Reserve and the comptroller of the currency and the FDIC to look at these issues more closely", and additionally, that it would have helped "for Congress to have held hearings".[117]

In November 2008, over 500,000 jobs were lost, which marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years.[123] The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in the last four months of 2008, 1.9 million jobs were lost.[124] By the end of 2008, the U.S. had lost a total of 2.6 million jobs.[125]

Education and health

Bush undertook a number of educational priorities, such as increasing the funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office, and creating education programs to strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for American high school students. Funding for the NIH was cut in 2006, the first such cut in 36 years, due to rising inflation.[126]

Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 2002.

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and target more federal funding to low-income schools. This landmark education initiative passed with broad bipartisan support, including that of Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts.[127] It was signed into law by Bush in early 2002.[128] Many contend that the initiative has been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the U.S. have performed significantly better on state reading and math tests since Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into law.[129] Critics argue that it is underfunded[130] and that NCLBA's focus on "high stakes testing" and quantitative outcomes is counterproductive.[131]

After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford Greenburg, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years;" the bill's costs approached $7 trillion.[132] In 2007, Bush opposed and vetoed State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) legislation, which was added by the Democrats onto a war funding bill and passed by Congress. The SCHIP legislation would have significantly expanded federally funded health care benefits and plans to children of some low-income families from about six million to ten million children. It was to be funded by an increase in the cigarette tax.[133] Bush viewed the legislation as a move toward socialized health care, and asserted that the program could benefit families making as much as $83,000 per year who did not need the help.[134]

Social services and Social Security

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by providing beneficiaries with some assistance in paying for prescription drugs, while relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits.[135] The retired persons lobby group AARP worked with the Bush Administration on the program and gave their endorsement. Bush said the law, estimated to cost $400 billion over the first ten years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care".[136]

Bush speaks at the United States Coast Guard Academy commencement, May 2007.

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security,[137] which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005. Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite opposition from some in the U.S. Congress.[137] In his 2005 State of the Union Address, Bush discussed the potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his new program, which included partial privatization of the system, personal Social Security accounts, and options to permit Americans to divert a portion of their Social Security tax (FICA) into secured investments.[137] Democrats opposed the proposal to partially privatize the system.[137]

Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events, known as the "Conversations on Social Security", in an attempt to gain support from the general public.[138] Despite the energetic campaign, public support for the proposal declined[139] and the House Republican leadership decided not to put Social Security reform on the priority list for the remainder of their 2005 legislative agenda.[140] The proposal's legislative prospects were further diminished by the political fallout from the Hurricane Katrina in the fall of 2005.[141] After the Democrats gained control of both houses of the Congress as a result of the 2006 midterm elections, the prospects of any further congressional action on the Bush proposal were dead for the remainder of his term in office.

Environmental and energy policies

Upon taking office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the UN Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, citing that the treaty exempted 80% of the world's population[142] and would have cost tens of billions of dollars per year.[143] He also cited that the Senate had voted 95–0 in 1997 on a resolution expressing its disapproval of the protocol.

Bush delivers a statement on energy, urging Congress to end offshore oil drill ban, June 18, 2008.

In May 2001, Bush signed an executive order to create an inter-agency task force to streamline energy projects,[144] and later signed two other executive orders to tackle environmental issues.[145]

In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003,[146] aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. It was argued, however, that this legislation would have weakened the original legislation by allowing higher levels of pollutants than were permitted at that time.[147] The initiative was introduced to Congress, but failed to make it out of committee.

Bush has said that he believes that global warming is real[148] and has noted that it is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's man-made or naturally caused".[149] The Bush Administration's stance on global warming remained controversial in the scientific and environmental communities. Critics have alleged that the administration[150] misinformed the public and did not do enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming.[151]

In his 2006 State of the Union Address, Bush declared, "America is addicted to oil" and announced his Advanced Energy Initiative to increase energy development research.[152]

That same year, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises 84 million acres (340,000 km2) and is home to 7,000 species of fish, birds, and other marine animals, many of which are specific to only those islands.[153] The move was hailed by conservationists for "its foresight and leadership in protecting this incredible area".[154]

In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production.[155] Amid high gasoline prices in 2008, Bush lifted a ban on offshore drilling.[156] However, the move was largely symbolic as there is still a federal law banning offshore drilling. Bush said, "This means that the only thing standing between the American people and these vast oil reserves is action from the U.S. Congress."[156] Bush had said in June 2008, "In the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy technologies. My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells.... In the short run, the American economy will continue to rely largely on oil. And that means we need to increase supply, especially here at home. So my administration has repeatedly called on Congress to expand domestic oil production."[157]

President Bush signing the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act, September 26, 2006.

In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit $2 billion over the next three years to a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change, saying, "Along with contributions from other countries, this fund will increase and accelerate the deployment of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like India and China, and help leverage substantial private-sector capital by making clean energy projects more financially attractive." He also announced plans to reaffirm the United States' commitment to work with major economies, and, through the UN, to complete an international agreement that will slow, stop, and eventually reverse the growth of greenhouse gases; he stated, "This agreement will be effective only if it includes commitments by every major economy and gives none a free ride."[158]

Stem cell research and first use of veto power

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since the passage in 1995 of the Dickey-Wicker Amendment by Congress and the signature of President Bill Clinton.[159] Bush has said that he supports adult stem cell research and has supported federal legislation that finances adult stem cell research. However, Bush did not support embryonic stem cell research.[160] On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the 71 existing "lines" of stem cells,[161] but the ability of these existing lines to provide an adequate medium for testing has been questioned. Testing can only be done on 12 of the original lines, and all of the approved lines have been cultured in contact with mouse cells, which creates safety issues that complicate development and approval of therapies from these lines.[162] On July 19, 2006, Bush used his veto power for the first time in his presidency to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act. The bill would have repealed the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo.[163]

Immigration

Bush discusses border security with Homeland Security Director Michael Chertoff near El Paso, November 2005.

In 2006, Bush urged Congress to allow more than 12 million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program". Bush did not support amnesty for illegal immigrants,[164] but argued that the lack of legal status denies the protections of U.S. laws to millions of people who face dangers of poverty and exploitation, and penalizes employers despite a demand for immigrant labor. Nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005, more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history.[165] Almost half entered illegally.[166]

Bush also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico – United States border.[167] In May–June 2007, Bush strongly supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, which was written by a bipartisan group of Senators with the active participation of the Bush administration.[168] The bill envisioned a legalization program for undocumented immigrants, with an eventual path to citizenship; establishing a guest worker program; a series of border and work site enforcement measures; a reform of the green card application process and the introduction of a point-based "merit" system for green cards; elimination of "chain migration" and of the Diversity Immigrant Visa; and other measures. Bush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to amnesty.[169]

A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, the majority of conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions.[170] The bill was eventually defeated in the Senate on June 28, 2007, when a cloture motion failed on a 46–53 vote.[171] Bush expressed disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives.[172] The Bush administration later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not require a change in law.[173]

On September 19, 2010, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that Bush offered to accept 100,000 Palestinian refugees as American citizens if a permanent settlement had been reached between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.[174]

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina, which was one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history, struck early in Bush’s second term. Katrina formed in late August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States, particularly New Orleans.[175]

Bush shakes hands with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin on September 2, 2005 after viewing the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27,[176] and in Mississippi and Alabama the following day;[177] he authorized the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to action.[178] The eye of the hurricane made landfall on August 29, and New Orleans began to flood due to levee breaches; later that day, Bush declared that a major disaster existed in Louisiana,[179] officially authorizing FEMA to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort. On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance",[180] triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan. Three days later, on September 2, National Guard troops first entered the city of New Orleans.[181] The same day, Bush toured parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point was "not enough".[182]

As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics charged that Bush was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they saw as a flawed response. Leaders attacked Bush for having appointed apparently incompetent leaders to positions of power at FEMA, notably Michael D. Brown;[183] it was also argued that the federal response was limited as a result of the Iraq War[184] and Bush himself did not act upon warnings of floods.[185][186][187] Bush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the federal government's failures in its handling of the emergency.[181] It has been argued that with Katrina, Bush passed a political tipping point from which he would not recover.[188]

Midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys.[189] The White House maintained that the U.S. attorneys were fired for poor performance.[190] Attorney General Alberto Gonzales would later resign over the issue, along with other senior members of the Justice Department.[191][192] The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege. Bush has maintained that all of his advisers are protected under a broad executive privilege protection to receive candid advice. The Justice Department has determined that the President's order was legal.[193]

Although Congressional investigations have focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released. On March 10, 2008, the Congress filed a federal lawsuit to enforce their issued subpoenas.[194] On July 31, 2008, a United States district court judge ruled that Bush's top advisers were not immune from Congressional subpoenas.[195]

In August 2009, Karl Rove and Harriet Miers testified before the House Judiciary Committee. A Justice Department inquiry into the firing of U.S. attorneys concluded that political considerations played a part in as many as four of the dismissals.[196] In July 2010, the Justice Department prosecutors closed the two-year investigation without filing charges after determining that the firings were inappropriately political, but not criminal. According to the prosecutors, "Evidence did not demonstrate that any prosecutable criminal offense was committed with regard to the removal of David Iglesias. The investigative team also determined that the evidence did not warrant expanding the scope of the investigation beyond the removal of Iglesias."[197]

Foreign policy

Bush presents the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican, June 2004.

In July 2001 Bush visited the pope at Castel Gandolfo. [198] During his Presidential campaign, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for a stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements. The administration pursued a national missile defense.[199] Bush was an advocate of China's entry into the World Trade Organization.[200] He said open trade was a force for freedom in China.[201]

After the September 11 attacks, Bush launched the War on Terror, in which the United States military and an international coalition invaded Afghanistan. In 2003, Bush launched the invasion of Iraq, which he described as being part of the War on Terrorism.[202]

Those invasions led to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq as well as the deaths of many Iraqis, with surveys indicating between four hundred thousand to over one million dead, excluding the tens of thousands of civilians in Afghanistan.[203][204][205]

Countries visited by President George W. Bush during his terms in office.

Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public relations campaign. Bush lauded the pro-democracy struggles in Georgia and Ukraine.

In March 2006, a visit to India led to renewed ties between the two countries, reversing decades of U.S. policy.[206] The visit focused particularly on areas of nuclear energy and counter-terrorism cooperation, discussions that would lead eventually to the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement.[207][208] This is in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, Clinton, whose approach and response to India after the 1998 nuclear tests was that of sanctions and hectoring. The relationship between India and the United States was one that dramatically improved during Bush's tenure.[209]

Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central Asia.[210]

In an address before both Houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, Bush thanked the nations of the world for their support following the September 11 attacks. He specifically thanked British Prime Minister Tony Blair for traveling to the Washington to show "unity of purpose with America", and said "America has no truer friend than Great Britain."[211]

September 11, 2001

Bush, standing with firefighter Bob Beckwith, addresses rescue workers at Ground Zero in New York, September 14, 2001.

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the attacks but emphasizing the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims. On September 14, he visited Ground Zero, meeting with Mayor Rudy Giuliani, firefighters, police officers, and volunteers. Bush addressed the gathering via a megaphone while standing on a heap of rubble, to much applause:

I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon.[212]

In a September 20 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or ... share in their fate".[213]

War on Terrorism

Bush presents then UK Prime Minister Tony Blair with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terror. The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime.[214] In his January 29, 2002 State of the Union Address, he asserted that an "axis of evil" consisting of North Korea, Iran, and Iraq was "arming to threaten the peace of the world" and "pose[d] a grave and growing danger".[215] The Bush Administration proceeded to assert a right and intention to engage in preemptive war, also called preventive war, in response to perceived threats.[216] This would form a basis for what became known as the Bush Doctrine. The broader "War on Terror", allegations of an "axis of evil", and, in particular, the doctrine of preemptive war, began to weaken the unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for Bush and United States action against al-Qaeda following the September 11 attacks.[217]

Some national leaders alleged abuse by U.S. troops and called for the U.S. to shut down the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and other such facilities. Dissent from, and criticism of, Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq expanded.[218][219][220] In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate expressed the combined opinion of the United States' own intelligence agencies, concluding that the Iraq War had become the "cause célèbre for jihadists" and that the jihad movement was growing.[221][222]

Afghanistan

Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan appear together in 2006 at a joint news conference in Kabul.

On October 7, 2001, U.S. and British forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival on November 13 of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul. The main goals of the war were to defeat the Taliban, drive al-Qaeda out of Afghanistan, and capture key al-Qaeda leaders. In December 2001, the Pentagon reported that the Taliban had been defeated[223] but cautioned that the war would go on to continue weakening Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders.[223] Later that month the UN had installed the Afghan Interim Authority chaired by Hamid Karzai.[224][225]

Efforts to kill or capture al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a failure to commit enough U.S. ground troops.[226] On March 13, 2002, Bush stated that "I truly am not that concerned about him" when asked about bin Laden, brushing him off as "a person who has now been marginalized", despite declaring that he was wanted "Dead or Alive" shortly after 9/11, and statements from U.S. commanders that bin Laden was "still a threat in the new Afghanistan".[227] It was not until May 2011, two years after Bush left office, that bin Laden was killed by U.S. forces. Bin Laden's successor, Ayman al-Zawahiri, as well as the leader of the Taliban, Mohammed Omar, remain at large.

Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits.[228] In 2006, the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer and better organized than expected, with large-scale allied offensives such as Operation Mountain Thrust attaining limited success.[229][230][231] As a result, Bush commissioned 3,500 additional troops to the country in March 2007.[232]

Iraq

Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, in the flight suit he wore for his televised arrival and speech in 2003.

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and growing danger" to U.S. interests through possession of weapons of mass destruction.[215][233]

In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical weapons, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions.[234][235] Contentions that the Bush Administration manipulated or exaggerated the threat and evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities would eventually become a major point of criticism for the president.[236][237]

In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq, but were advised by the U.S. to depart the country four days prior to the U.S. invasion, despite their requests for more time to complete their tasks.[238] The U.S. initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force but dropped the bid for UN approval due to vigorous opposition from several countries.[239]

The war effort was joined by more than 20 other nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing".[240] The invasion of Iraq commenced on March 20, 2003, and the Iraqi military was quickly defeated. The capital, Baghdad, fell on April 9, 2003. On May 1, Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq. The initial success of U.S. operations increased his popularity, but the U.S. and allied forces faced a growing insurgency led by sectarian groups; Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech was later criticized as premature.[241] From 2004 until 2007, the situation in Iraq deteriorated further, with some observers arguing that there was a full scale civil war in Iraq.[242] Bush's policies met with criticism, including demands domestically to set a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq. The 2006 report of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by James Baker, concluded that the situation in Iraq was "grave and deteriorating". While Bush admitted that there were strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of Iraq,[243] he maintained he would not change the overall Iraq strategy.[244][245]

Bush shakes hands with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in 50 years.[246] According to Iraqi National Security Advisor Mowaffak al-Rubaie, "This is the greatest day in the history of this country."[246] Bush praised the event as well, saying that the Iraqis "have taken rightful control of their country's destiny".[246] This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as President and Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister of Iraq. A referendum to approve a constitution in Iraq was held in October 2005, supported by the majority Shiites and many Kurds.[247]

On January 10, 2007, Bush addressed the nation regarding the situation in Iraq. In this speech, he announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion for these programs.[248] On May 1, 2007, Bush used his veto for only the second time in his presidency, rejecting a congressional bill setting a deadline for the withdrawal of U.S. troops.[249] Five years after the invasion, Bush called the debate over the conflict "understandable" but insisted that a continued U.S. presence there was crucial.[250]

In March 2008, Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq".[251] He said he would carefully weigh recommendations from his commanding General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker about how to proceed after the end of the military buildup in the summer of 2008. He also praised the Iraqis' legislative achievements, including a pension law, a revised de-Baathification law, a new budget, an amnesty law, and a provincial powers measure that, he said, set the stage for the Iraqi elections.[252]

On July 31, 2008, Bush announced that with the end of July, American troop deaths had reached their lowest number—thirteen—since the war began in 2003.[253] Due to increased stability in Iraq, Bush announced the withdrawal of additional American forces.[253] This reflected an emerging consensus between the White House and the Pentagon that the war has "turned a corner".[253] He also described what he saw as the success of the 2007 troop surge.[253]

Surveillance

Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the President's Surveillance Program which included allowing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the U.S and parties within the U.S. without obtaining a warrant as required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.[254] As of 2009, the other provisions of program remained highly classified.[255]) Once the Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel questioned its original legal opinion that FISA did not apply in a time of war, the program was subsequently re-authorized by the President on the basis that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists.[256] The program proved to be controversial, as critics of the administration, as well as organizations such as the American Bar Association, argued that it was illegal.[257] In August 2006, a U.S. district court judge ruled that the NSA electronic surveillance program was unconstitutional,[258] but on July 6, 2007, that ruling was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on the grounds that the plaintiffs lacked standing.[259] On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed U.S. Senate leaders that the program would not be reauthorized by the President, but would be subjected to judicial oversight.[260]

At the military parade celebrating the sixtieth anniversary of victory in World War II. Red Square, Moscow.

Interrogation policies

Bush authorized the CIA to use waterboarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniques.[261][262][263] Between 2002 and 2003 the CIA considered certain enhanced interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, to be legal based on a secret Justice Department legal opinion arguing that terror detainees were not protected by the Geneva Conventions' ban on torture.[264] The CIA had exercised the technique on certain key terrorist suspects under authority given to it in the Bybee Memo from the Attorney General, though that memo was later withdrawn.[265] While not permitted by the U.S. Army Field Manuals which assert "that harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable information",[264] the Bush administration believed these enhanced interrogations "provided critical information" to preserve American lives.[266] Critics, such as former CIA officer Bob Baer, have stated that information was suspect, "you can get anyone to confess to anything if the torture's bad enough."[267]

On October 17, 2006, Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006,[268] a law enacted in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006),[269] which allows the U.S. government to prosecute unlawful enemy combatants by military commission rather than a standard trial. The law also denies them access to habeas corpus and bars the torture of detainees, but allows the president to determine what constitutes torture.[268]

On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082,[270] a bill that would have expanded congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of waterboarding as well as other forms of interrogation not permitted under the United States Army Field Manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations, saying that "the bill Congress sent me would take away one of the most valuable tools in the war on terror".[271] In April 2009, the ACLU sued and won release of the secret memos that had authorized the Bush administration's interrogation tactics.[272] One memo detailed specific interrogation tactics including a footnote that described waterboarding as torture as well as that the form of waterboarding used by the CIA was far more intense than authorized by the Justice Department.[273]

North Korea

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil", and saying that "the United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons."[215] Within months, "both countries had walked away from their respective commitments under the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework of October 1994."[274] North Korea's October 9, 2006, detonation of a nuclear device further complicated Bush's foreign policy, which centered for both terms of his presidency on "[preventing] the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons from threatening the United States and the world".[215] Bush condemned North Korea's position, reaffirmed his commitment to "a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula", and stated that "transfer of nuclear weapons or material by North Korea to states or non-state entities would be considered a grave threat to the United States", for which North Korea would be held accountable.[275] On May 7, 2007, North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of frozen funds held in a foreign bank account. This was a result of a series of three-way talks initiated by the United States and including China.[276] On September 2, 2007, North Korea agreed to disclose and dismantle all of its nuclear programs by the end of 2007.[277] By May 2009, North Korea had restarted its nuclear program and threatened to attack South Korea.[278]

Bush with Russian president Vladimir Putin, Shanghai, October 21, 2001

Syria

Bush expanded economic sanctions on Syria.[279] In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Electronics Institute, and National Standards and Calibration Laboratory. Bush's order prohibits Americans from doing business with these institutions suspected of helping spread weapons of mass destruction[280] and being supportive of terrorism.[281] Under separate executive orders signed by Bush in 2004 and later 2007, the Treasury Department froze the assets of two Lebanese and two Syrians, accusing them of activities to "undermine the legitimate political process in Lebanon" in November 2007. Those designated included: Assaad Halim Hardan, a member of Lebanon's parliament and current leader of the Syrian Socialist National Party; Wi'am Wahhab, a former member of Lebanon's government (Minister of the Environment) under Prime Minister Omar Karami (2004–2005); Hafiz Makhluf, a colonel and senior official in the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate and a cousin of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; and Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik, identified as a close adviser to Assad.[282]

Assassination attempt

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian, a native Georgian who was born to a family of ethnic Armenians, threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia. Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili was seated nearby. It landed in the crowd about 65 feet (20 m) from the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate. Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005, confessed, was convicted and was given a life sentence in January 2006.[283]

Other issues

Bush, Mahmoud Abbas, and Ariel Sharon meet at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003.

Bush withdrew U.S. support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) with Russia. Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues between Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. Bush supported Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in Palestine after Arafat's death.

Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the People's Republic of China over the Hainan Island incident, when an EP-3E Aries II surveillance aircraft collided with a People's Liberation Army Air Force jet, leading to the detention of U.S. personnel. In 2003–2004, Bush authorized U.S. military intervention in Haiti and Liberia to protect U.S. interests. Bush condemned the militia attacks Darfur and denounced the killings in Sudan as genocide.[284] Bush said that an international peacekeeping presence was critical in Darfur, but opposed referring the situation to the International Criminal Court.

Ukrainian Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko meeting with Bush on April 1, 2008.

In his State of the Union address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Bush announced $15 billion for this effort[285] which directly supported life-saving antiretroviral treatment for more than 3.2 million men, women and children worldwide.[286]

On June 10, 2007, he met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania.[287] Bush has voiced his support for the independence of Kosovo.[288]

Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of U.S. athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying: "On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful nation, I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City, celebrating the Olympic Winter Games."[289] In 2008, in the course of a good-will trip to Asia, he attended the Summer Olympics in Beijing.[290]

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John Roberts to succeed her. On September 5, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, this nomination was withdrawn and Bush instead nominated Roberts for Chief Justice to succeed Rehnquist. Roberts was confirmed by the Senate as the 17th Chief Justice on September 29, 2005.

On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position; after facing significant opposition, she asked that her name be withdrawn on October 27. Four days later, on October 31, Bush nominated federal appellate judge Samuel Alito for the position and he was confirmed as the 110th Supreme Court Justice on January 31, 2006.

Other courts

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts. Each of these numbers, along with his total of 324 judicial appointments, is third in American history, behind both Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton. Bush experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 39 people nominated to 27 federal appellate judgeships were blocked by the Senate Democrats either in the Senate Judiciary Committee or on the Senate floor using a filibuster.[291]

Public image and perception

Domestic

  approve
  disapprove
  unsure
Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to January 2009. Blue denotes approve, red disapprove and green unsure.
Image

Bush's upbringing in West Texas, his accent, his vacations on his Texas ranch, and his penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image.[292][293] "I think people look at him and think John Wayne", says Piers Morgan, editor of the British Daily Mirror.[294] It has been suggested that Bush's accent was an active choice, as a way of distinguishing himself from Northeastern intellectuals and anchoring himself to his Texas roots.[295] Both supporters and detractors have pointed to his country persona as reasons for their support or criticism.[293]

Bush's intelligence has been satirized by the media,[296] comedians, and other politicians.[297] Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public speeches, which are colloquially termed as Bushisms.[298] Editorials in Harper's Magazine, Rolling Stone, The Washington Post, Common Dreams NewsCenter, and The Nation have referred to Bush as "the worst president ever".[299][300][301][302][303] In contrast to his father, who was perceived as having troubles with an overarching unifying theme, Bush embraced larger visions and was seen as a man of larger ideas and associated huge risks.[304] Tony Blair wrote in 2010 that the caricature of Bush as being dumb is "ludicrous" and that Bush is "very smart".[305]

Approval

Bush's popularity was highly variable during his two terms. He began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%.[306] After the September 11 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90%,[307] maintaining 80–90% approval for four months after the attacks. It remained over 50% during most of his first term.[7]

In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "has done the most to influence the events of the year".[308] In May 2004, Gallup reported that 89% of the Republican electorate approved of Bush.[309] However, the support waned due mostly to a minority of Republicans' frustration with him on issues of spending, illegal immigration, and Middle Eastern affairs.[310]

Within the United States armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections.[311] While 73% of military personnel said that they would vote for Bush, 18% preferred his Democratic rival, John Kerry.[311] According to Peter Feaver, a Duke University political scientist who has studied the political leanings of the U.S. military, members of the armed services supported Bush because they found him more likely than Kerry to complete the War in Iraq.[311]

Bush's approval rating went below the 50% mark in AP-Ipsos polling in December 2004.[312] Thereafter, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues steadily dropped. Bush received heavy criticism for his handling of the Iraq War, his response to Hurricane Katrina and to the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, NSA warrantless surveillance, the Plame affair, and Guantanamo Bay detention camp controversies.[313]

Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37% approval ratings for Bush,[314] the lowest for any second-term president at that point of his term since Harry S. Truman in March 1951, when Truman's approval rating was 28%,[312][315] which contributed to what Bush called the "thumping" of the Republican Party in the 2006 mid-term elections.[316] Throughout 2007, Bush's approval rating hovered in the mid-thirties,[317] although in an October 17, 2007, Reuters poll, Bush received a lower approval rating of 24%,[318] the lowest point of his presidency.[319]

Bush approval rating with key events marked 2001-2006.

By April 2008, Bush's disapproval ratings were the highest ever recorded in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll for any president, with 69% of those polled disapproving of the job Bush was doing as president and 28% approving.[320] In September 2008, in polls performed by various agencies, Bush's approval rating ranged from 19%—the lowest ever[321]—to 34%.[322][323] and his disapproval rating stood at 69%.[89][324][322][88][325] Bush left the White House as one of the most unpopular American presidents, second in unpopularity only to Richard Nixon.[326][327]

In response to his poll numbers and "worst president" accusations,[328][329] Bush said, "I frankly don't give a damn about the polls.... To assume that historians can figure out the effect of the Bush administration before the Bush administration has ended is ... in my mind ... not an accurate reflection upon how history works."[330]

In 2006, 744 professional historians surveyed by Siena College regarded Bush's presidency as follows: Great: 2%; Near Great: 5%; Average: 11%; Below Average: 24%; Failure: 58%.[331] Thomas Kelly, professor emeritus of American studies at Siena College, said that "In this case, current public opinion polls actually seem to cut the President more slack than the experts do."[331] Similar outcomes were retrieved by two informal surveys done by the History News Network in 2004[332] and 2008.[333]

A March 13, 2008, poll by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press reported that 53% of Americans believe that "the U.S. will ultimately succeed in achieving its goals" in Iraq.[334] That figure was up from 42% in September 2007 and the highest since 2006.[334]

A 2010 Siena College poll of 238 Presidential scholars found that Bush was ranked 39th out of 43, with poor ratings in handling of the economy, communication, ability to compromise, foreign policy accomplishments and intelligence.[335]

Calls for Bush's impeachment were made, though most polls showed a plurality of Americans did not support the president's impeachment.[336] The reasoning behind impeachment usually centered on the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy,[337] the Bush administration's justification for the war in Iraq,[338] and alleged violations of the Geneva Conventions.[339] Representative Dennis Kucinich, a Democrat from Ohio, introduced 35 articles of impeachment on the floor of the House of Representatives against Bush on June 9, 2008, but Speaker Nancy Pelosi declared that impeachment was "off the table".[340]

Foreign perceptions

Bush with President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in late 2006

Bush has been criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns, particularly for his administration's foreign policy.[341][342] Views of him within the international community are more negative than previous American Presidents, with France largely opposed to what he advocated.[343]

Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair and Vicente Fox, although formal relations were sometimes strained.[344][345][346] Other leaders, such as Afghan president Hamid Karzai,[347] Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni,[348] Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero,[349] and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez,[350] have openly criticized the president. Later in Bush's presidency, tensions arose between himself and Vladimir Putin, which has led to a cooling of their relationship.[351]

In 2006, a majority of respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as negative for world security.[352][353] In 2007, the Pew Global Attitudes Project reported that during the Bush presidency, attitudes towards the United States and the American people became less favorable around the world.[354]

A March 2007 survey of Arab opinion conducted by Zogby International and the University of Maryland found that Bush was the most disliked leader in the Arab world.[355]

The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, a majority of respondents expressed "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Bush in only nine countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Israel, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda.[356]

During a June 2007 visit to the predominantly Muslim[357] Eastern European nation of Albania, Bush was greeted enthusiastically. Albania has a population of 3.6 million, has troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan, and the country's government is highly supportive of American foreign policy.[358] A huge image of the President was hung in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by Albanian and American flags while a local street was named after him.[359][360] A shirt-sleeved statue of Bush was unveiled in Fushe-Kruje, a few kilometers northwest of Tirana.[361] The Bush administration's support for the independence of Albanian-majority Kosovo, while endearing him to the Albanians, has troubled U.S. relations with Serbia, leading to the February 2008 torching of the U.S. embassy in Belgrade.[362]

Acknowledgements

On May 7, 2005 at an official state visit in Latvia, George W. Bush was awarded the Order of the Three Stars presented to him by president Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga.[363]

Post-presidency

George and Laura Bush wave to a crowd of 1000 at Andrews Air Force Base before their final departure to Texas, January 20, 2009

Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family flew from Andrews Air Force Base to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas, following which they returned to their ranch in Crawford, Texas.[364] They bought a home in the Preston Hollow neighborhood of Dallas, Texas, where they settled down.[365]

Since leaving office, Bush has kept a relatively low profile[366] though he has made public appearances, most notably after the release of his memoirs in 2010 and for the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2011. He makes regular appearances at various events throughout the Dallas/Fort Worth area, most notably when he conducted the opening coin toss at the Dallas Cowboys first game in the team's new Cowboys Stadium in Arlington[367] and an April 2009 visit to a Texas Rangers game, where he thanked the people of Dallas for helping him settle in and was met with a standing ovation.[368]

In 2009, he delivered a speech in Calgary, Alberta,[369][370] appeared via video on The Colbert Report during which he praised U.S. troops for earning a "special place in American history,"[371] and attended the funeral of Senator Ted Kennedy.[372] Bush made his debut as a motivational speaker on October 26 at the "Get Motivated" seminar in Dallas.[373] In the aftermath of the Fort Hood shooting that took place on November 5, 2009 in Texas, the Bushes paid an undisclosed visit to the survivors and victims' families the day following the shooting, having contacted the base commander requesting that the visit be private and not involve press coverage.[374] They spent one to two hours at the base.

Bush, Obama, and Clinton, January 2010

Bush's profile grew somewhat in 2010, especially when he released his memoirs, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010. During a pre-release appearance promoting the book, Bush said he considered his biggest accomplishment to be keeping "the country safe amid a real danger," and his greatest failure to be his inability to secure the passage of Social Security reform.[375] At President Obama's request, Bush and Bill Clinton established the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund to raise contributions for relief and recovery efforts following the 2010 Haiti earthquake earlier in January.[376] He also made news defending his administration's enhanced interrogation techniques, specifically the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, saying, "I'd do it again to save lives."[377] He also attended every home playoff game for the Texas Rangers 2010 season and, accompanied by his father, threw out the ceremonial first pitch at Rangers Ballpark in Arlington for Game 4 of the 2010 World Series on October 31, 2010.[378]

In 2011, Bush scrapped a planned visit to Switzerland; the event he was to attend was canceled, as human rights groups opposed his presence and there was a significant threat of violent protests.[379] On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed.[380] Most notably, on September 11, 2011, the Bushes joined the Obamas in New York City to mark the tenth anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[381] At the Ground Zero memorial, Bush read a letter that President Abraham Lincoln wrote to a widow who lost five sons during the Civil War.[382]

See also

Portal icon Texas portal
Portal icon Government of the United States portal
Portal icon Biography portal


References

  1. ^ Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 6, 2009). "Bush Celebrates Easter at an Outdoor Service". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/16/us/bush-celebrates-easter-at-an-outdoor-service.html. Retrieved April 16, 2001. 
  2. ^ a b "The Jesus Factor". WGBH. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jesus/etc/script.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  3. ^ Cooperman, Alan (September 16, 2004). "Openly Religious, to a Point". The Washington Postdate=September 15, 2004. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A24634-2004Sep15?. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  4. ^ "Life Portraits". American Presidents. http://www.americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  5. ^ Mike M. Ahlers (April 14, 2006). "Report: Criticism of FEMA's Katrina response deserved". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/04/14/fema.ig/index.html. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Online NewsHour Update: Amid Widespread Criticism, Government Prepares for Next Hurricane Season – May 9, 2006". PBS. May 9, 2006. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/hurricaneprep_05-09-06.html. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "Bush Job Approval at 28%, Lowest of His Administration". Gallup Poll. April 11, 2008. http://www.gallup.com/poll/106426/Bush-Job-Approval-28-Lowest-Administration.aspx. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Republican right abandoning Bush". Associated Press. MSNBC. May 5, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12643666/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  9. ^ Kelley Beaucar Vlahos (February 13, 2006). "Illegal Immigration, Unchecked Spending Siphon Conservatives From GOP Base". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,184608,00.html. Retrieved May 11, 2008. 
  10. ^ Baker, Kevin, "Second-Term Blues: Why Have Our Presidents Almost Always Stumbled after Their First Four Years?", American Heritage, Aug./Sept. 2006.
  11. ^ "George W. Bush's memoir, 'Decision Points', to have print run of 1.5M copies". USA Today. Associated Press. October 7, 2010. http://www.usatoday.com/life/books/news/2010-10-07-bush-memoir_N.htm/. [dead link]
  12. ^ Ahles, Dick (December 24, 2000). "Bush's Birthplace? It's Deep in the Heart of... New Haven". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9506E7DB1139F937A15751C1A9669C8B63. Retrieved December 27, 2010. 
  13. ^ "George Walker Bush". Famous Texans. February 3, 2005. http://www.famoustexans.com/georgewbush.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Bush, Prescott Sheldon, (1895–1972)", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  15. ^ "Ancestry of George W. Bush". Wargs.com. http://www.wargs.com/political/bush.html. Retrieved April 20, 2010. 
  16. ^ Bush, then the Governor of Texas, was the commencement speaker at St. John's Academy in 1995: "An Inventory of Press Office Speech Files at the Texas State Archives, 1986, 1989–2000, undated (bulk 1995–2000)". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/tslac/40090/tsl-40090.html. Retrieved May 1, 2008. 
  17. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (June 10, 2000). "George W. Bush's Journey The Cheerleader: Earning A's in People Skills at Andover". The New York Times. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/politics/camp/061000wh-bush.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  18. ^ Kuper, Simon (December 3, 2000). "Ruthian rise of Dubya". The Observer (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/dec/03/georgebush. Retrieved January 24, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Biography of President George W. Bush". The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewbush/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  20. ^ Romano, Lois; Lardner, Jr., George (July 27, 1999). "Bush: So-So Student but a Campus Mover". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/campaigns/wh2000/stories/bush072799.htm. Retrieved April 8, 2009. 
  21. ^ Feinstein, Jessica; Sabin, Jennifer (October 7, 2004). "DKE & YPU: Filling precedential shoes". The Yale Daily News. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012155715/http://yaledailynews.com/articles/view/11584. Retrieved April 8, 2009. 
  22. ^ Bush, George W., A Charge to Keep, (1999) ISBN 0-688-17441-8
  23. ^ Cain, Nick & Growden, Greg "Chapter 21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby" in Rugby Union for Dummies (2nd Edition), Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, p. 297 ISBN 978-0-470-03537-5
  24. ^ "Self-Deprecating Bush Talks to Yale Grads". Associated Press. Fox News Channel. May 21, 2001. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,25229,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ; "Bush/Gore Grades and SAT Scores". Inside Politics. June 17, 2005. http://www.insidepolitics.org/heard/heard32300.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  25. ^ "GWB: HBS MBA". The American Thinker. http://www.americanthinker.com/2004/02/gwb_hbs_mba.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  26. ^ a b Romano, Lois (February 3, 2004). "Bush's Guard Service In Question". The Washington Post: pp. A08. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A7372-2004Feb2?language=printer. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  27. ^ Lardner, George Jr. and Lois Romano. "At Height of Vietnam, Bush Picks Guard" Washington Post, July 28, 1999.
  28. ^ York, Byron (August 26, 2004). "The Facts about Bush and the National Guard". National Review Online. http://www.nationalreview.com/flashback/york200408261025.asp. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  29. ^ Lois Romano (February 3, 2004). "Bush's Guard Service In Question". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7372-2004Feb2.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Official DoD service records of Texas Air National Guard member George Walker Bush". Department of Defense. June 17, 2005. http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/bush_records/index.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. [dead link]
  31. ^ "Winton Blount, 81, a Founder Of the New Postal Service", The New York Times, October 26, 2002. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  32. ^ Walker, Jessica M., "Bush seen in Alabama in 1972", USA Today, February 13, 2004. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  33. ^ Brit Hume, Mara Liasson, Jeff Birnbaum, Charles Krauthammer (July 9, 2004). "The All-Star Panel Discusses John Kerry's Shifting Positions on Iraq War Spending". Fox News Network (transcript). 
  34. ^ a b c d "Read her lips: Literacy efforts on first lady's agenda". CNN. April 8, 2001. http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/people/shows/bush/profile.html. Retrieved May 25, 2008. 
  35. ^ Romano, Lois; George Lardner Jr (July 25, 1999). "Bush's Life-Changing Year". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/campaigns/wh2000/stories/bush072599.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  36. ^ "2000 Driving Record". Department of the Secretary of State of Maine. November 2, 2000. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080518053100/http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/bushdmv1.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
    "Fallout From A Midnight Ride". Time. November 13, 2000. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998465,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  37. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (February 20, 2005). "In Secretly Taped Conversations, Glimpses of the Future President". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/20/politics/20talk.html. Retrieved October 1, 2009. >
  38. ^ "Bush feared past 'mistakes' would cost him". Microsoft. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6999665/. Retrieved October 1, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Bush hinted at use of marijuana". BBC. February 21, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4282799.stm. Retrieved October 1, 2009. 
  40. ^ Leonard, Mary (January 23, 2000). "Turning Point: George W. Bush, A Legacy Reclaimed". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012215629/http://boston.com/news/politics/president/bush/articles/2000/01/23/george_w_bush/. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  41. ^ Harrington, Walt (Autumn 2011). "Dubya and Me". The American Scholar. http://theamericanscholar.org/dubya-and-me/. Retrieved September 10, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Bush Wasn't Always a Front-Runner". The Washington Post. October 17, 1999. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/19991017/aponline114059_000.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "George Bush". George Bush. MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761581479/george_bush.html. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  44. ^ Stone, Peter H. (July 4, 2001). "Big oil's White House pipelines". National Journal (33): 1042. ISSN 03604217. 
  45. ^ Carlisle, John K (January 3, 2004). "George Soros's Plan to Defeat George Bush". Human Events. 
  46. ^ "Files: Bush Knew Firm's Plight Before Stock Sale". The Washington Post. July 21, 2002. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0721-02.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  47. ^ Bush, George W.; Bill Adler (2004). The Quotable George W. Bush: A Portrait in His Own Words. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-4154-8. OCLC 237927420. 
  48. ^ "George W. Bush and the religious right in the 1988 campaign of George H.W. Bush". PBS. June 17, 2005. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/choice2000/bush/wead.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  49. ^ Farrey, Tom (November 1, 1999). "A series of beneficial moves". ESPN. http://static.espn.go.com/mlb/bush/timeline.html. Retrieved March 4, 2009. 
  50. ^ "George W. Bush in Little League uniform". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/governors/modern/bush-p04.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  51. ^ "1998 Tax return" (PDF). Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080624184111/http://www.makethemaccountable.com/tax/BushTaxes1998.pdf. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  52. ^ "Seven Who Will Manage Bush's 1992 Presidential Campaign". The New York Times. December 6, 1991. http://www.nytimes.com/1991/12/06/us/seven-who-will-manage-bush-s-1992-presidential-campaign.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  53. ^ Jack E. White and Laurence I. Barrett (December 16, 1991). "The White House: Clearing the Decks". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,974468,00.html?promoid=googlep. 
  54. ^ a b Wayne Slater, James Moore (2003). Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove Made George W. Bush Presidential. Wiley. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-471-42327-0. 
  55. ^ "Ann Richards". London: Telegraph (UK). September 15, 2005. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1528876/Ann-Richards.html. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  56. ^ Tapper, Jake (August 11, 1999). "Guns and Money". Salon News. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/1999/08/11/gun/index1.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  57. ^ Joshua Green (November 2004). "Karl Rove in a Corner". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200411/green/3. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  58. ^ Edward Epstein, Chronicle Washington Bureau (October 29, 2005). "CIA Leak Probe: Libby Indicted / Powerful aide Rove could still feel heat from investigation". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/10/29/MNG62FG6UM1.DTL. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  59. ^ "Los Angeles News – Don’t Mess With Texas – page 1". LA Weekly. September 16, 2004. http://www.laweekly.com/2004-09-16/news/don-t-mess-with-texas/. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  60. ^ "Elections of Texas Governors, 1845–2006" (PDF). Texas Almanac. http://www.texasalmanac.com/politics/gubernatorial.pdf. [dead link];
    "George Bush". George Bush. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761581479/George_Bush.html. 
  61. ^ "Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding" (PDF). Congressional Research Service – The Library of Congress. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080730212509/http://holt.house.gov/pdf/CRSonVAWADec2005.pdf. Retrieved May 24, 2009. 
  62. ^ Koronowski, Ryan. It’s Not Just Oil: Wind Power Approaches 8% of Texas Electricity in 2010 Repower America, 19 January 2011. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  63. ^ Galbraith, Kate and Price, Asher. A mighty wind Texas Monthly, August 2011. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  64. ^ Swift Boats and Texas Wind Wind Sector, 28 July 2011. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  65. ^ SB7 Law textTexas Legislature Online, May 1999. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  66. ^ Texas Renewable Portfolio Standard Texas State Energy Conservation Office. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  67. ^ Texas Renewable Portfolio Standard Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  68. ^ Associated Press (November 3, 1998). "Texas Gov. George W. Bush wins in landslide". CNN. Archived from the original on May 15, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060515081611/http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1998/11/03/election/governors/texas. Retrieved June 30, 2006. 
  69. ^ "Texas Politics – The Executive Branch". Texaspolitics.laits.utexas.edu. http://texaspolitics.laits.utexas.edu/1_3_1.html. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  70. ^ "Jesus Day proclamation" (JPEG). March 17, 2000. http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jesus/art/pop_jesusday.jpg. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  71. ^ Davis, Richard H. (March 21, 2004). "The anatomy of a smear campaign". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2004/03/21/the_anatomy_of_a_smear_campaign/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  72. ^ Hook, Janet; Michael Finnegan (March 17, 2007). "McCain loses some of his rebel edge". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2007/mar/17/nation/na-mccain17. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  73. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (October 19, 2007). "Confronting Ghosts of 2000 in South Carolina" (Registration required). The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/19/us/politics/19mccain.html&OQ=_rQ3D1&OP=6078ead7Q2FQ7CF0)Q7C@Q25Q2ADiQ25Q25Q3EHQ7CHXX.Q7CRXQ7CRrQ7CQ2BDQ7CQ7DQ25Q3CBQ3EBQ2ADQ7CRrkQ2AQ2AQ3FBQ2FQ22_Q3EkQ3C. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  74. ^ Sack, Kevin and Toner, Robin (August 13, 2000). "The 2000 Campaign: The Record; In Congress, Gore Selected Issues Ready for Prime Time". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/13/us/2000-campaign-record-congress-gore-selected-issues-ready-for-prime-time.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  75. ^ George W. Bush, et al., Petitioners v. Albert Gore, Jr., et al., 531 U.S. 98 (2000). Retrieved February 12, 2010.
  76. ^ "Poll: Majority of Americans accept Bush as legitimate president". Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. December 13, 2000. http://articles.cnn.com/2000-12-13/politics/cnn.poll_1_sampling-error-poll-usa-today?_s=PM:ALLPOLITICS. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  77. ^ a b "2000 Official General Election Presidential Results". Federal Election Commission. December 2001. http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/2000presgeresults.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  78. ^ "An Interview With Karl Rove". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. August 1, 2004. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/politics/july-dec04/rove_9-01.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  79. ^ a b c d e Kirkpatrick, David D (August 25, 2004). "The 2004 Campaign: The Republican Agenda; Draft GOP Platform Backs Bush on Security, Gay Marriage, and Immigration". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/25/us/2004-campaign-republican-agenda-draft-gop-platform-backs-bush-security-gay.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  80. ^ "2004 Republican Party Platform: on Civil Rights". OnTheIssues.org. http://www.ontheissues.org/Archive/2004_GOP_Platform_Civil_Rights.htm. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  81. ^ After initial comments made in March, there was no statement on the latter issue until June. Rosenberg, Debra (June 28, 2004). "A Gay-Marriage Wedge". Newsweek 143 (26): p. 8. 
  82. ^ "2004 Republican Party Platform: on Energy & Oil". OntheIssues.org. http://www.ontheissues.org/Archive/2004_GOP_Platform_Energy_+_Oil.htm. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  83. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D (August 26, 2004). "The 2004 Campaign: The Platform; Conservatives Mount Stem Cell and Immigration Challenges". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/26/us/2004-campaign-platform-conservatives-mount-stem-cell-immigration-challenges.html?sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  84. ^ Borger, Julian (November 4, 2004). "And now... four more years". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/nov/04/uselections2004.usa16. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  85. ^ Turow, Scott (December 26, 2004). "A Dominant GOP? How So?". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26059-2004Dec25.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  86. ^ "Bush had a smaller electoral-vote margin than any re-elected president since 1916 (Woodrow Wilson), and every president re-elected since Wilson" An Election Breakwater?
  87. ^ Milbank, Dana (September 2, 2004). "From His 'Great Goals' of 2000, President's Achievements Mixed". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A54556-2004Sep1.html. Retrieved June 19, 2009. 
  88. ^ a b "Bush Job Approval Highest in Gallup History". Gallup Poll. http://www.gallup.com/poll/4924/Bush-Job-Approval-Highest-Gallup-History.aspx. Retrieved October 20, 2008. 
  89. ^ a b "President Bush's Approval Ratings". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/custom/2006/02/02/CU2006020201345.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  90. ^ Krasny, Ron (April 24, 2009). "SF Fed Economics see longest recession since WW2". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/ousiv/idUSTRE4BM49M20081223. Retrieved April 24, 2009. 
  91. ^ GPOaccess.gov[dead link], P. 160, retrieved 02/21/2011.
  92. ^ Wallace, Kelly (June 7, 2001). "$1.35 trillion tax cut becomes law". CNN InsidePolitics archives. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/06/07/bush.taxes. Retrieved June 30, 2006. 
  93. ^ "CBS Interviews Former Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill". http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article5510.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  94. ^ "O'Neill Says He `Clearly' Disagreed With Bush Tax Cuts", Washington Post, retrieved December 12, 2010
  95. ^ "Gross Domestic Product". Bureau of Economic Analysis. http://bea.gov/national/xls/gdpchg.xls. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  96. ^ Price, L (October 25, 2005). "The Boom That Wasn’t: The economy has little to show for $860 billion in tax cuts" (PDF). http://www.epi.org/briefingpapers/168/bp168.pdf. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  97. ^ Price, L., Ratner, D (October 26, 2005). "Economy pays price for Bush's tax cuts". http://www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/webfeatures_snapshots_20051026/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Historical Prices for Dow Jones Industrial Average". Yahoo! Finance. http://finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=%5EDJI. 
  99. ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". United States Department of Labor. http://www.bls.gov/webapps/legacy/cpsatab1.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  100. ^ Luhby, Tami (July 24, 2008). "Middle class: 'On the edge'". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/2008/07/23/news/economy/middle_class/index.htm. Retrieved July 24, 2008. 
  101. ^ Homa, Ken. "From Clinton to Bush, after-tax household income is up!". The Homa Files. http://kenhoma.wordpress.com/2008/08/28/from-clinton-to-bush-after-tax-household-income-is-up/. 
  102. ^ "Historical Poverty Timeline". United States Census. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070103080222/http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/histpov/hstpov2.html. Retrieved December 31, 2006. 
  103. ^ Greenburg, Jan Crawford. Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court, 2007, Penguin Books, p. 273
  104. ^ Debt nation, post two, Small Business Services CPA Group, Inc.
  105. ^ So much else happened while people eyed election[dead link], The Associated Press, November 9, 2008
  106. ^ "Revenues, Outlays, Surpluses, Deficits, and Debt Held by the Public, 1962 to 2006" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Archived from the original on June 28, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070628072448/http://www.cbo.gov/budget/historical.pdf. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  107. ^ "Spending and the National Debt". The Washington Times. September 2, 2007. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/sep/02/spending-and-the-national-debt/. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  108. ^ Fiedler; Kogan, R. (December 13, 2006). "From Surplus to Deficit: Legislation Enacted Over the Last Six Years Has Raised the Debt by $2.3 Trillion". http://www.cbpp.org/12-13-06bud.htm. Retrieved November 10, 2007. 
  109. ^ "2008 Employment Situation". United States Department of Labor. http://www.bls.gov/schedule/archives/empsit_nr.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  110. ^ "American Research Group's survey". http://americanresearchgroup.com/economy/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. [dead link]
  111. ^ "SF Fed Economics see longest recession since WW2". Reuters. April 24, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/ousiv/idUSTRE4BM49M20081223. Retrieved April 24, 2009. 
  112. ^ Guodong, Du (February 27, 2008). "dollar hits record low against euro, oil prices rally". Xinhua. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-02/27/content_7679604.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  113. ^ Aversa, Jeannine, Employers Slash 63,000 Jobs in February, Most in 5 Years, Feeding Recession Fears", Associated Press, March 7, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
  114. ^ "Recession in the US 'has arrived'". BBC News. January 8, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7176255.stm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  115. ^ Stephen Labaton (September 11, 2003). "New Agency Proposed to Oversee Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/11/business/new-agency-proposed-to-oversee-freddie-mac-and-fannie-mae.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  116. ^ Becker, JO; Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Stephen Labaton (December 20, 2008). "The Reckoning – Bush’s Philosophy Stoked the Mortgage Bonfire". The New York Times: p. 4 of 6. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/21/business/21admin.html?pagewanted=4. 
  117. ^ a b "H.R. 1461 (109th): Federal Housing Finance Reform Act of 2005". May 25, 2005. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-1461. Landler, Mark and Sheryl Gay Stolberg (September 20, 2008). "Bush can share the blame for financial crisis". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/09/20/business/prexy.php. Retrieved October 9, 2008. 
  118. ^ See American International Group for details and citations.
  119. ^ Elliott, Larry (March 18, 2008). "A financial crisis unmatched since the Great Depression". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/mar/18/creditcrunch.marketturmoil1. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  120. ^ "Worst Financial Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight". Fox News. September 18, 2008. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,424361,00.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  121. ^ Irwin, Neil and Amit R. Paley (October 24, 2008). "Greenspan Says He Was Wrong On Regulation". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/23/AR2008102300193.html. Retrieved December 9, 2008. 
  122. ^ "Bush hails financial rescue plan". BBC. September 20, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7625727.stm. Retrieved September 22, 2008. 
  123. ^ "Employers cut 533K jobs in November, most in 34 years". Associated Press. The Boston Herald. December 5, 2008. http://www.bostonherald.com/business/general/view.bg?articleid=1137020. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  124. ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics" (PDF). January 9, 2009. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf. 
  125. ^ Goldman, David (January 9, 2009). "Worst year for jobs since '45". CNN Money. http://money.cnn.com/2009/01/09/news/economy/jobs_december/index.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  126. ^ Committee on Appropriations —Democratic Staff (September 12, 2006). "President Bush and House Republicans Undermine Life Saving Health Research". United States House of Representatives. 
  127. ^ Dillon, Sam (Updated March 16, 2010). "No Child Left Behind Act". New York Times. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/n/no_child_left_behind_act/index.html. Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  128. ^ "President Signs Landmark No Child Left Behind Education Bill". The White House. January 8, 2002. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020108-1.html. Retrieved May 5, 2008. 
  129. ^ Paley, Amit R (June 6, 2007). "Scores Up Since 'No Child' Was Signed". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/05/AR2007060502684.html. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  130. ^ W. James Antle III (August 1, 2005). "Leaving No Child Left Behind". The American Conservative. http://www.amconmag.com/article/2005/aug/01/00025/. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  131. ^ Harvard Graduate School of Education (June 1, 2002). "No Child Left Behind?". HGSE News. http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/pierce07012002.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ; Edited by Gary Orfield and Mindy L. Kornhaber (May 1, 2001). Raising Standards or Raising Barriers?. The Century Foundation Press. 
  132. ^ Greenburg, Jan Crawford, Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court, 2007, Penguin Books, p. 274
  133. ^ Michael Abramowitz and Jonathan Weisman (October 4, 2007). "Bush Vetoes Health Measure". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100300116_pf.html. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  134. ^ "Bush Vetoes Child Health Bill Privately". The New York Times. October 4, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/washington/04bush.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  135. ^ "Summary of Medicare Act of 2003". Center for Medicare Advocacy, Inc.. 2004. http://www.nls.org/conf2004/summary-medicare-act-2003.htm. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  136. ^ "President Signs Medicare Legislation". The White House. December 8, 2003. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/12/20031208-2.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  137. ^ a b c d Wolk, Martin (February 16, 2005). "Bush pushes his Social Security overhaul". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6903273/. Retrieved August 20, 2008. 
  138. ^ Jim VandeHei and Peter Baker (February 12, 2005). "Social Security: On With the Show". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A28120-2005Mar11.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  139. ^ "Bush shifts approach on Social Security reform". The Financial Times. April 28, 2005. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/f944a850-b830-11d9-bc7c-00000e2511c8,_i_rssPage=80fdaff6-cbe5-11d7-81c6-0820abe49a01.html. Retrieved September 9, 2007. 
  140. ^ Patrick O'Connor (June 1, 2005). "Social Security in Limbo". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051205090810/http://thehill.com/thehill/export/TheHill/News/Frontpage/060105/social.html. 
  141. ^ Yeager, Holly (September 22, 2005). "Hurricane dims Bush's hopes on Social Security". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080519161736/http%3A//news.ft.com/cms/s/00d6ee20-2b9f-11da-995a-00000e2511c8.html. Retrieved September 9, 2007. 
  142. ^ "Letter from the President to Senators Hagel, Helms, Craig, and Roberts". Office of the Press Secretary. March 13, 2001. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/03/20010314.html. 
  143. ^ "Summary of the Kyoto Report—Assessment of Economic Impacts". Energy Information Administration. July 16, 2002. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/kyoto/economic.htm. 
  144. ^ Bush, George W. Executive Order 13212--Actions To Expedite Energy-Related Projects United States Department of Energy, 18 May 2001. Amendment. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  145. ^ Sovacool et al. Preventing National Electricity-Water Crisis Areas in the United States PDF p389 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 20 July 2009. Accessed: 24 September 2011.
  146. ^ "Executive Summary—The Clear Skies Initiative". The White House. February 14, 2002. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/clearskies.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  147. ^ "Clear Skies Proposal Weakens the Clean Air Act". The Sierra Club. http://www.sierraclub.org/cleanair/clear_skies.asp. Retrieved September 1, 2008. [dead link]
  148. ^ "Interview with President Bush". White House Transcript (Politico). May 13, 2008. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0508/10316_Page3.html. Retrieved May 14, 2008. "Q. Mr. President, for the record, is global warming real? A. Yes, it is real, sure is." 
  149. ^ "Press Conference". The White House. June 26, 2006. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/06/20060626-2.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  150. ^ "NASA Scientist Rips Bush on Global Warming". MSNBC. October 27, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6341451. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ; "60 Minutes: Rewriting the Science". CBS News. March 19, 2006. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/03/17/60minutes/main1415985_page2.shtml. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  151. ^ Romm, Joe (2006). Hell or High Water. William Morrow. ISBN 9780061172120. OCLC 77537768. ; Romm calls Bush's "don't rush to judgment" and "we need to ask more questions" stance a classic delay tactic. Part 2.
  152. ^ "PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF THE CONGRESS ON THE STATE OF THE UNION". C-SPAN. 2006-01-31. http://legacy.c-span.org/Transcripts/SOTU-2006.aspx. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  153. ^ "Bush creates world’s biggest ocean preserve". MSNBC. June 16, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13300363/. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  154. ^ "The Nature Conservancy Applauds President Bush for Creating World’s Largest Marine Conservation Area in Hawaii". The Nature Conservancy. June 16, 2006. http://www.nature.org/initiatives/marine/press/press2489.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  155. ^ "President Bush Delivers State of the Union Address". The White House. January 23, 2007. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/20070123-2.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  156. ^ a b "Bush lifts executive ban on offshore oil drilling". CNN. July 14, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/07/14/bush.offshore/. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  157. ^ "President Bush Discusses Energy". The White House. June 18, 2008. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/06/20080618.html. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  158. ^ American Rhetoric (January 28, 2008). "George W. Bush: 2008 State of the Union Address". http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/stateoftheunion2008.htm. 
  159. ^ "AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research". American Association for the Advancement of Science. http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/index.shtml. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  160. ^ "President Discusses Stem Cell Research". Office of the President. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/08/20010809-2.html. 
  161. ^ "NIH's Role in Federal Policy Stem Cell Research". National Institutes of Health. http://stemcells.nih.gov/policy/NIHFedPolicy.asp. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  162. ^ Lemonick, Michael D. (August 11, 2003). "Stem Cells in Limbo". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,472876,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  163. ^ "Bush Vetoes Embryonic Stem Cell Bill". CNN. September 25, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/07/19/stemcells.veto/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  164. ^ "Bush Calls Immigration Bill Amnesty". ABC. June 26, 2007. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2007/06/bush-calls-immi.html. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  165. ^ "Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers". USATODAY.com. December 12, 2005.
  166. ^ "Immigration surge called 'highest ever'". Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
  167. ^ "Bush takes tough talk on immigration to Texas". CNN. November 29, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/11/29/bush.immigration/. Retrieved September 9, 2006. 
  168. ^ "Fact Sheet: Border Security and Immigration Reform". The White House. May 17, 2007. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/05/20070517-7.html. 
  169. ^ Garrett, Major and Trish Turner (June 26, 2008). "Senate Votes to Continue Work on Immigration Reform Compromise". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,286705,00.html. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  170. ^ "Talk radio helped sink immigration reform". Politico.com. August 20, 2007. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0807/5449.html. 
  171. ^ Klaus Marre (June 28, 2007). "46–53, immigration bill goes down in defeat". The Hill. http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/immigration-bill-goes-down-in-defeat-2007-06-28.html. 
  172. ^ "Senate immigration bill suffers crushing defeat". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/06/28/immigration.congress/index.html. ; "President Bush Disappointed by Congress's Failure to Act on Comprehensive Immigration Reform". The White House. June 28, 2007. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/06/20070628-7.html. 
  173. ^ "The White House Fact Sheet: Improving Border Security and Immigration Within Existing Law". The White House. August 10, 2007. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/08/20070810.html. 
  174. ^ Ravid, Barak (September 17, 2010). "Olmert: Bush offered to absorb 100,000 Palestinian refugees if peace deal reached". Haaretz. Israel. http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/olmert-bush-offered-to-absorb-100-000-palestinian-refugees-if-peace-deal-reached-1.314644?localLinksEnabled=false. Retrieved October 27, 2010. 
  175. ^ Knabb, Richard D; Rhome, Jamie R.; Brown, Daniel P (December 20, 2005). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: August 23–30, 2005". National Hurricane Center. 
  176. ^ "Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Louisiana". The White House. August 27, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050827-1.html. 
  177. ^ "Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Mississippi". The White House. August 28, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828.html. ; "Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Alabama". The White House. August 28, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828-3.html. 
  178. ^ Dyson, Michael Eric (2006). Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. Basic Civitas. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-465-01761-4. 
  179. ^ "Statement on Federal Disaster Assistance for Louisiana". The White House. August 29, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050829-2.html. 
  180. ^ "Press Gaggle with Scott McClellan". The White House. August 31, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050831-2.html. Retrieved February 14, 2008. 
  181. ^ a b "TPM Hurricane Katrina Timeline". TPM. September 20, 2005. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/katrina-timeline.php. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  182. ^ "National Guard descends on New Orleans, giving evacuees hope". USA Today. Associated Press. September 3, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-09-02-katrina_x.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  183. ^ Hsu, Spencer S.; Susan b. Glasser (September 6, 2005). "FEMA Director Singled Out by Response Critics". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/05/AR2005090501590.html. 
  184. ^ Pete Yost, Associated Press (August 30, 2005). "Overseas deployments hinder Guard hurricane presence". Army Times. http://www.armytimes.com/story.php?f=1-292925-1066780.php. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  185. ^ "Transcript, Presidential Videoconference Briefing" (PDF). USA Today: p. Page 6. August 28, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/katrinatranscript-0828.pdf. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  186. ^ "Transcript, Presidential Videoconference Briefing" (PDF). USA Today: p. Page 5. August 28, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/katrinatranscript-0828.pdf. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 
  187. ^ "I don't think anybody anticipated the breach of the levees." George W. Bush to Diane Sawyer, Good Morning America, September 1, 2005.
  188. ^ "Katrina response called 'tipping point' for Bush". January 11, 2009. p. Page 1. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nation/bal-te.bush11jan11,0,4421944.story. [dead link]
  189. ^ Gill, Kathy (March 22, 2007). "The Firing Of US Attorneys — Nefarious Or Business As Usual?". About.com. http://uspolitics.about.com/od/electionissues/i/attorney_firing.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  190. ^ Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales (March 7, 2007). "They lost my confidence". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/news/20070307/oppose07.art.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  191. ^ Eggen, Dan; Michael Fletcher (August 28, 2007). "Embattled Gonzales Resigns". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/27/AR2007082700372.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  192. ^ Alberto Gonzales (August 26, 2007), Gonzales' Resignation Letter, United States Department of Justice, "Please accept my resignation as Attorney General of the United States, effective September 17, 2007" 
  193. ^ Mukasey won't pursue contempt probe of Bush aides, Reuters (March 1, 2008).
  194. ^ Porter, Patrick (March 10, 2008). "House judiciary panel files civil lawsuit to enforce Miers, Bolten subpoenas". Jurist Legal News and Research. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/03/house-judiciary-panel-files-civil.php. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  195. ^ Apuzzo, Matt (July 31, 2008). "Federal judge rules Bush's aides can be subpoenaed". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2008-07-31-2444639400_x.htm. Retrieved April 20, 2010. 
  196. ^ "George Bush adviser Karl Rove's role in firing U.S. attorney detailed in newly released transcripts – Page 2". New York Daily News. Associated Press. August 12, 2009. http://articles.nydailynews.com/2009-08-12/news/17930779_1_attorney-david-iglesias-rove-house-judiciary-committee-investigators/2. Retrieved April 12, 2011. 
  197. ^ DOJ: Prosecutor firing was politics, not crime[dead link].
  198. ^ Decision Points Bush, George W. Random House 2010 page 116
  199. ^ "President Bush Speech on Missile Defense". Federation of American Scientists. May 1, 2001. http://www.fas.org/nuke/control/abmt/news/010501bush.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  200. ^ "Bush backs China's WTO entry despite standoff", CNN.com, April 6, 2001
  201. ^ "Bush woos China on trade", May 30, 2001, BBC News
  202. ^ "Key points from Bush speech". CNN. November 30, 2005. http://edition.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/11/30/bush.excerpts/index.html. Retrieved January 19, 2009. 
  203. ^ Update on Iraqi Casualty Data by Opinion Research Business, January 2008
  204. ^ "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: [1]
  205. ^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million" (2007). Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  206. ^ "Nuclear deal announced as Bush visits India". USA Today. March 2, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-03-02-nuclear-pact_x.htm. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  207. ^ "U.S.-India Joint Statement". The White House. March 2, 2006. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/03/20060302-5.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  208. ^ "George W. Bush visits India to renew ties". Amritt. http://www.amritt.com/George-W-Bush.html. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  209. ^ "Roemer key to U.S.-India relationship – Daniel Libit and Laura Rozen". Politico.Com. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1109/29825.html. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  210. ^ Diehl, Jackson (April 24, 2005). "Retreat From the Freedom Agenda". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/23/AR2006042301017.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  211. ^ Bush, George W. (September 20, 2001). "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People". The White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  212. ^ "President Bush Salutes Heroes in New York". The White House. September 14, 2001. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010914-9.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  213. ^ "Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People". The White House. September 20, 2001. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  214. ^ "Transcript of President Bush's address to a joint session of Congress on Thursday night, September 20, 2001". CNN. September 20, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  215. ^ a b c d "President Delivers State of the Union Address". The White House. January 29, 2002. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  216. ^ "National Security Council". The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  217. ^ "President Bush: Job Ratings". Polling Report.com. http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob1.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  218. ^ Cumings, Bruce; Ervand Abrahamian, Moshe Ma'oz (2006). Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria. New Press. ISBN 978-1-59558-038-2. OCLC 62225812. 
  219. ^ Lopez, George, "Perils of Bush's Pre-emptive War Doctrine", The Indianapolis Star, October 3, 2003.
  220. ^ "Prevent Our Enemies from Threatening Us, Our Allies, and Our Friends with Weapons of Mass Destruction". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss5.html. Retrieved April 20, 2010. 
  221. ^ NIE: Al Qaeda 'Damaged' Becoming More Scattered CNN, September 26, 2006.
  222. ^ Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Hurting U.S. Terror Fight The Washington Post, September 24, 2006.
  223. ^ a b Shanker, Tom and Eric Schmitt (December 11, 2001). "A Nation Challenged; Military Campaign; Taliban Defeated, Pentagon Asserts, but War Goes On". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/11/world/nation-challenged-military-campaign-taliban-defeated-pentagon-asserts-but-war.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  224. ^ "Fact Sheet: International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan". Center for Defense Information. February 14, 2002. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/isaf.cfm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  225. ^ "More Dutch troops for Afghanistan". BBC News. February 3, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4673026.stm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  226. ^ Gellman, Barton; Ricks, Thomas E. (April 17, 2002). "U.S. Concludes bin Laden Escaped at Tora Bora Fight". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A62618-2002Apr16. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  227. ^ http://cursor.org/stories/binladenforgotten.htm
  228. ^ "Taliban Appears To Be Regrouped and Well-Funded". Christian Science Monitor. May 8, 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0508/p01s02-wosc.html?related. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  229. ^ "World Cannot Give Up on Afghanistan, Coalition Officials Say". United States Department of Defense. June 28, 2006. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=285. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  230. ^ Leithead, Alastair (July 22, 2006). "Frustrated Karzai toughens stance". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5107816.stm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  231. ^ Wiseman, Paul (July 22, 2006). "Revived Taliban waging 'full-blown insurgency'". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-06-19-taliban-afghanistan-cover_x.htm?csp=34. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  232. ^ Baker, Peter (March 11, 2007). "Additional Troop Increase Approved". The Washington Post: p. A11. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/10/AR2007031001397.html. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  233. ^ "Iraq: The War Card". The Center for Public Integrity. http://projects.publicintegrity.org/WarCard/Search/Results.aspx?SearchTerms_All=&SearchTerms_Phrase=&SearchTerms_None=&SearchTerms_Person=Bush&SearchTerms_Subject=WMD&SearchTerms_DateFrom=01/29/2001&SearchTerms_DateTo=11/03/2007&SearchTerms_OrderBy=Record_Id&DisplayAll=False. Retrieved November 9, 2010. 
  234. ^ "Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs". CIA. October 2002. https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002.htm. 
  235. ^ "CIA Whites Out Controversial Estimate on Iraq Weapons". The National Security Archive. July 9, 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB129/index.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  236. ^ Judis, John B. and Ackerman, Spencer, “The Selling of the Iraq War”, The New Republic, June 2003.
  237. ^ Hersh, Seymour M., "The Stovepipe", The New Yorker, October 27, 2003.
  238. ^ Associated Press (March 17, 2003). "U.S. advises weapons inspectors to leave Iraq". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-17-inspectors-iraq_x.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  239. ^ UN (February 13, 2003). "Enforcement Measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter". United Nations Charter. UN. http://www.worldpress.org/specials/iraq/chapterVII.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  240. ^ Schifferes, Steve (March 18, 2003). "US names 'coalition of the willing'". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2862343.stm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  241. ^ "Mission Not Accomplished". Time. October 6, 2003. http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101031006/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  242. ^ "Colin Powell says Iraq in a 'civil war'". CNN. November 29, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070211072616/http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/11/29/powell.iraq/index.html. Retrieved February 17, 2007. 
  243. ^ Times Online; agencies (December 14, 2005). "Bush: we went to war on faulty intelligence". The Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/iraq/article764622.ece. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  244. ^ "President George W. Bush speaks during a video teleconference with Vice President Dick Cheney, on screen, and military commanders". October 21, 2006. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/10/images/20061021_d-0072-515h.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  245. ^ "Bush Reviews Iraq War Strategy as Violence Mounts (Update1)". Bloomberg. October 21, 2006. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=at9X1Z7oilgY. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  246. ^ a b c "Sporadic violence doesn't deter Iraqi voters". CNN. January 31, 2005. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080225062850/http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/01/30/iraq.main/index.html. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  247. ^ "Iraq Constitution Passes in Referendum". Associated Press. Fox News. October 25, 2005. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,173349,00.html. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  248. ^ "Admitting strategy error, Bush adds Iraq troops". MSNBC. January 11, 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16558652/page/1/. 
  249. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Zeleny, Jeff (May 1, 2007). "Bush Vetoes Bill Tying Iraq Funds to Exit". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/02/washington/02policy.html. 
  250. ^ Bush on anniversary: War in Iraq must go on, CNN, March 19, 2008.
  251. ^ Baghdad on lockdown as rockets, bombs fly, CNN, March 28, 2008.
  252. ^ Bush: Baghdad's move against Shiite militias a 'bold decision', CNN, March 27, 2008.
  253. ^ a b c d Myers, Steven Lee and Sabrina Tavernise (August 1, 2008). "Citing Stability in Iraq, Bush Sees Troop Cuts". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/01/world/middleeast/01iraq.html. Retrieved August 3, 2008. 
  254. ^ "Briefing by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden" (Press release). The White House. December 19, 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/12/20051219-1.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  255. ^ Inspectors General of the DoD, DOJ, CIA, NSA, and ODN (July 10, 2009) (Scribd). Unclassified Report on the President’s Surveillance Program (Report). http://www.scribd.com/doc/17267628/Unclassified-Report-on-the-Presidents-Surveillance-Program. Retrieved July 11, 2009. "The specific intelligence activities that were permitted by the Presidential Authorizations remain highly classified, except that beginning in December 2005 the President and other Administration officials acknowledged that these activities included the interception without a court order of certain international communications where there is "a reasonable basis to conclude that one party to the communication is a member of al-Qa'ida, affiliated with al-Qa'ida, or a member of an organization affiliated with al-Qa'ida."" 
  256. ^ U.S. Department of Justice White Paper on NSA Legal Authorities. "Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President" (PDF). January 19, 2006. http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/nsa/dojnsa11906wp.pdf. 
  257. ^ "Gonzales defends wiretaps amid protest". CNN. January 26, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/01/24/nsa.strategy/index.html. Retrieved September 2, 2007. ; "Lawyers Group Criticizes Surveillance Program". The Washington Post. February 14, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/13/AR2006021302006.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  258. ^ "Judge Asked to Suspend Ruling Against Wiretaps". The Washington Post. February 9, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/01/AR2006090101410.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  259. ^ "Court dismisses lawsuit on spying program". Reuters. July 6, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0642400020070706. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  260. ^ Gonzales, Alberto (January 17, 2007). "Letter from the AG to the Senate leaders". Wikisource. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/AG_letter_to_Senate_leaders_regarding_FISC_decision_and_conclusion_of_Terrorist_Surveillance_Program. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  261. ^ Talev, Margaret; Marisa Taylor (April 23, 2009). "Bush-era interrogations: From waterboarding to forced nudity". The Olympian. http://www.theolympian.com/795/story/829926.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  262. ^ Mark Mazzetti (April 16, 2009). "Obama Releases Interrogation Memos, Says C.I.A. Operatives Won’t Be Prosecuted". The New York Time. http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/secret-interrogation-memos-to-be-released/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  263. ^ Miller, Greg (February 7, 2008). "Waterboarding is legal, White House says". The Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-torture7feb07,1,3156438.story. Retrieved May 30, 2008. 
  264. ^ a b "Cheney Defends U.S. Use Of Waterboarding". CBS News. February 8, 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/08/national/main3807334.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3807334. Retrieved May 1, 2008. 
  265. ^ Bradbury, Steven G. (January 15, 2009). "Memorandum for the Files from Steven G. Bradbury, Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Re: Status of Certain OLC Opinions Issued in the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.". United States Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/documents/memostatusolcopinions01152009.pdf. Retrieved May 12, 2009. 
  266. ^ Tran, Mark (February 5, 2008). "CIA admit 'waterboarding' al-Qaida suspects". London: www.guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/05/india.terrorism. Retrieved February 21, 2008. 
  267. ^ BRIAN ROSS and RICHARD ESPOSITO (November 18, 2005). "CIA's Harsh Interrogation Techniques Described". http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Investigation/story?id=1322866. Retrieved July 26, 2009. 
  268. ^ a b "Bush's detainee interrogation and prosecution plan approved by Senate". USA Today. Associated Press. September 28, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-09-28-congress-terrorism_x.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  269. ^ "Rushing Off a Cliff". The New York Times. September 28, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/28/opinion/28thu1.html. 
  270. ^ "Bill Text – 110th Congress (2007–2008) – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.gov. http://www.thomas.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:H.R.2082.ENR:. Retrieved October 27, 2010. 
  271. ^ "Bush vetoes bill banning waterboarding". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23526436/. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  272. ^ "Presiouvly secret torture memo released". CNN. July 24, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/07/24/cia.torture/index.html. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  273. ^ "Bush memo footnotes define waterboarding as torture". huffington post (USA). http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/16/bush-memo-footnotes-defin_n_188008.html. Retrieved July 26, 2009. 
  274. ^ "Pollack, Jonathan. "The United States, North Korea, and the End of the Agreed Framework". Naval War College Review, Summer 2003, Vol. LVI, No. 3.". Archived from the original on August 18, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060818114650/http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/2003/Summer/art1-su3.htm. 
  275. ^ "President Bush's Statement on North Korea Nuclear Test". The White House. October 9, 2006. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/10/20061009.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  276. ^ Associated Press (May 7, 2007). "North Korea Ready to Shut Down Reactor 'Immediately'". FOXNews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,270397,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  277. ^ "U.S.: North Korea agrees to shut down nuke facilities". Associated Press. CNN. September 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 17, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070917103449/http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/09/02/koreas.nuclear.ap/index.html. 
  278. ^ McCurry, Justin (May 27, 2009). "North Korea restarts nuclear reactor and threatens to attack south". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/may/27/north-korea-threat-attack-south. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  279. ^ "Bush expands sanctions on Syria". BBC News. February 14, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7244088.stm. Retrieved February 16, 2008. 
  280. ^ "U.S. Treasury moves to clamp down on Syrian entities accused of spreading weapons". Registration required. January 4, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  281. ^ "Syria and Terrorism". U.S. Department of State. October 30, 2003. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080515051905/http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/2003/25778.htm. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  282. ^ Administration announces sanctions to combat Syrian influence on Lebanon, North County Times, November 6, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  283. ^ "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. January 11, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/01/11/georgia.grenade/index.html. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  284. ^ Jim VandeHei (June 2, 2005). "In Break With UN, Bush Calls Sudan Killings Genocide". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/01/AR2005060101725.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  285. ^ "News Tip: AIDS Relief in Africa is One of Bush's Most Visible Legacies, Says Duke Expert". Duke Today. Associated Press (Duke University). January 14, 2009. http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/2009/01/mersontip.html. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  286. ^ "Latest Results", U.S. Government, Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  287. ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg (June 10, 2007). "Bush is Greeted Warmly in Albania". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/10/world/europe/10cnd-prexy.html?hp. 
  288. ^ "Bush Hails Kosovo Independence". america.gov. February 19, 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/peacesec-english/2008/February/20080219131902idybeekcm0.4052851.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  289. ^ "President Bush Opens 2002 Olympic Games". The White House. February 8, 2002. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020209-2.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  290. ^ "Bush: Olympics exceeded my expectations". Associated Press. August 11, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26131736/. 
  291. ^ "President Bush Discusses Judicial Accomplishments and Philosophy". The White House. October 6, 2008. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2008/10/20081006-5.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  292. ^ "The History Boys". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/08/halberstam200708. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  293. ^ a b Westcott, Kathryn (June 6, 2003). "Bush revels in cowboy speak". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2968176.stm. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  294. ^ "'John Wayne' president has critics". Cable News Network LP. January 30, 2003. http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/01/30/europe.bush.rodgers.otsc/. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  295. ^ "Drawl or Nothin'". MACNEIL/LEHRER PRODUCTIONS. http://www.pbs.org/speak/seatosea/americanvarieties/texan/drawl/. Retrieved January 29, 2009. 
  296. ^ Baker, Peter (August 20, 2006). "Pundits Renounce The President". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/19/AR2006081900568_pf.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  297. ^ Walters, Simon (August 19, 2006). "Blair 'feels betrayed by Bush on Lebanon'". The Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-401414/Blair-feels-betrayed-Bush-Lebanon.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. ; "Bush gets bad rap on intelligence". The St. Cloud Times. January 14, 2001. http://www.csbsju.edu/uspp/Election/bush011401.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  298. ^ Jacob Weisberg (November 4, 2000). "Bush, in his own words". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/nov/04/uselections2000.usa5. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  299. ^ Wilentz, Sean (April 21, 2006). "The Worst President in History". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080822122622/http://www.rollingstone.com/news/profile/story/9961300/the_worst_president_in_history. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  300. ^ Horton, Scott (April 2008). "Worst. President.Ever". Harper's Magazine. http://harpers.org/archive/2008/04/hbc-90002804?year=2008. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  301. ^ Von Hoffman, Nicholas (February 14, 2007). "The Worst President Ever". The Nation. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20070226/howl?year=2007. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  302. ^ Gutman, Huck (July 8, 2005). "The Worst US President Ever?". CommonDreams.org. http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0708-27.htm?year=2005. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  303. ^ Foner, Eric (December 3, 2006). "He's The Worst Ever". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/01/AR2006120101509.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  304. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (January 12, 2004). "Bush Gets ’Vision Thing’ and Embraces Big Risks". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/01/12/politics/12LETT.html?ex=1389243600&en=72a6159980245012&ei=5007&partner=USERLAND. Retrieved October 9, 2009. 
  305. ^ Blair, Tony (September 2, 2010). "Tony Blair on Clinton, Bush and the American Character Time September 2, 2010". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2015409-2,00.html. Retrieved October 27, 2010. 
  306. ^ Roper Center (2006). "Job Performance Ratings for President Bush". http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/hsrun.exe/Roperweb/PresJob/PresJob.htx;start=HS_fullresults?pr=Bush. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  307. ^ "Bush's Final Approval Rating: 22 Percent". CBS. January 16, 2009. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/01/16/opinion/polls/main4728399.shtml. Retrieved 209–01–29. 
  308. ^ Nancy Gibbs (December 25, 2000). "Person of the Year". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998831,00.html. Retrieved March 19, 2008. ; Nancy Gibbs and John F. Dickerson (December 19, 2004). "Person of the Year". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/personoftheyear/2004/story.html. Retrieved March 19, 2008. 
  309. ^ "Deconstructing the Drop in Bush’s Job Approval Rating". Gallup Organization. June 1, 2004. http://www.gallup.com/poll/11872/Deconstructing-Drop-Bushs-Job-Approval-Rating.aspx. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  310. ^ "Republicans criticize Rice over Bush Mideast policy". USA Today. Associated Press. February 15, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-02-15-rice-request_x.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  311. ^ a b c Moniz, Dave (October 3, 2004). "Troops in survey back Bush 4-to-1 over Kerry". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/nation/president/2004-10-03-bush-troops_x.htm. Retrieved May 9, 2008. 
  312. ^ a b "Bush's job approval rating creeps up in AP-Ipsos poll". Taipei Times. March 10, 2007. Archived from the original on June 13, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080613223621/http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2007/03/10/2003351719. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  313. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (July 6, 2007). "Unchecked and Unbalanced". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/06/books/06book.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  314. ^ "President Bush—Overall Job Rating". Polling Report. http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  315. ^ Silva, Mark (March 7, 2007). "Bush's second-term slump". Chicago Tribune. http://newsblogs.chicagotribune.com/news_theswamp/2007/03/bushs_secondter.html. Retrieved April 27, 2007. 
  316. ^ "Bush admits Republicans took a "thumping" (Reuters)". November 8, 2006. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070810120940/http://elections.us.reuters.com/top/news/usnN07478317.html. 
  317. ^ "President Bush Job Approval". RealClearPolitics. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/polls/. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  318. ^ Whitesides, John (October 17, 2007). "Voters unhappy with Bush and Congress". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN1624620720071017?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  319. ^ "Presidential Job Approval for Harry Truman". The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/popularity.php?pres=43&sort=time&direct=ASC&Submit=DISPLAY. Retrieved March 15, 2008. 
  320. ^ Page, Susan (April 22, 2008). "Disapproval of Bush breaks record". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-04-21-bushrating_N.htm. Retrieved April 23, 2008. 
  321. ^ American Research Group, Inc polling numbers for September 22, 2008[dead link]
  322. ^ a b "Concerns over Economy Push George W. Bush's Overall Job Approval to New Low". Americanresearchgroup.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080313165824/http://americanresearchgroup.com/economy/. Retrieved February 20, 2008. 
  323. ^ "President Bush – Overall Job Rating in national polls". http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved September 22, 2008. 
  324. ^ "Bush: Job Ratings". Pollingreport.com. http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved October 20, 2008. 
  325. ^ "Bush's 69% disapproval rating Highest in Gallup History". http://www.gallup.com/poll/106741/Bushs-69-Job-Disapproval-Rating-Highest-Gallup-History.aspx. Retrieved January 23, 2008. 
  326. ^ Saad, Lydia (January 14, 2009). "Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval". Gallup.com. http://www.gallup.com/poll/113770/Bush-Presidency-Closes-34-Approval-61-Disapproval.aspx. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  327. ^ Harnden, Toby (January 19, 2009). "Barack Obama inauguration: President-Elect invokes spirit of Martin Luther King". The Daily Telegraph (UK). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/4292377/Barack-Obama-inauguration-President-Elect-invokes-spirit-of-Martin-Luther-King.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  328. ^ "The Worst President in History". Rolling Stone. 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080822122622/http://www.rollingstone.com/news/profile/story/9961300/the_worst_president_in_history. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  329. ^ "Defending the home front". The Australian. July 14, 2007. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22070368-28737,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  330. ^ "Transcript: President Bush on 'FOX News Sunday'". Fox News. February 11, 2008. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,330234,00.html. 
  331. ^ a b Experts: Bush Presidency Is A Failure; Little Chance To Improve Ranking (PDF). Siena Research Institute. May 1, 2006. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
  332. ^ McElvaine, Robert S. "Historians vs. George W. Bush". May 17, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
  333. ^ McElvaine, Robert S. "HNN Poll: 61% of Historians Rate the Bush Presidency Worst". April 1, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
  334. ^ a b "Support For Iraq War Highest Since 2006". CBS. March 13, 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/03/13/politics/politico/main3933699.shtml. Retrieved May 29, 2008. 
  335. ^ Rushmore Plus One; FDR joins Mountainside Figures Washington, Jefferson, Teddy Roosevelt and Lincoln as Top Presidents, Siena Research Institute, July 1, 2010
  336. ^ Joyner, James (December 12, 2005). "Rasmussen Poll: Third of Americans Want Bush Impeached". OutsideTheBeltway.com, OTB Media. http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/third_of_americans_want_bush_impeached/. Retrieved May 29, 2008. 
  337. ^ John W. Dean (December 30, 2005). "George W. Bush as the New Richard M. Nixon: Both Wiretapped Illegally, and Impeachably". http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/dean/20051230.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  338. ^ Robert Scheer (July 18, 2003). "A Firm Basis for Impeachment". http://www.alternet.org/story/16434. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  339. ^ Rothschild, Matthew (March 8, 2006). "Grounds for Impeachment". CommonDreams.org. http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0308-33.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  340. ^ Bresnahan, John (June 9, 2008). "Kucinich Offers Impeachment Articles Against Bush". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/06/09/politics/politico/thecrypt/main4167427.shtml. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  341. ^ M. Overhaus, S. Schieder (2002). "Die außenpolitischen Positionen der Parteien im Bundestagswahlkampf 2002" (in German) (PDF). Politik im Netz 3. http://www.deutsche-aussenpolitik.de/daparchive/dateien/2002/01300.pdf. 
  342. ^ CBC News (December 14, 2005). "Was the American ambassador meddling in a Canadian election?". CBC.ca Reality Check Team. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013152857/http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/realitycheck/americans.html. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  343. ^ Walt, Vivienne (February 13, 2003). "French see Bush as the ugly American". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-02-13-france-usat_x.htm. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  344. ^ Keeping the U.S. at Bay, Mexican Presidential Candidate Looks to Move Past Fox's Failures Marcela Sanchez (March 3, 2006).
  345. ^ Mexico's President Snubs Bush, Vicente Fox Cancels Visit To Bush Ranch To Protest Execution (August 15, 2002).
  346. ^ Row over Bush security as Blair defends visit Ewen MacAskill, Hugh Muir, and Julian Borger in Washington, The Guardian (November 11, 2003).
  347. ^ Gall, Carlotta (April 26, 2008). "Afghan Leader Criticizes U.S. on Conduct of War" (Registration required). The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/26/world/asia/26afghan.html&OQ=_rQ3D2Q26orefQ3Dslogin&OP=1aa239b9Q2FQ5EPQ5CIQ5EQ2FQ60A)qQ60Q60ioQ5Eovv_Q5EvQ25Q5EopQ5EPQ60qQ22Q2FQ5Ek)RkQ5Eopk6-8kQ3DQ5D8iSQ22. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  348. ^ Wasswa, Henry (October 14, 2004). "Uganda’s president criticizes Bush administration’s handling of war in Iraq". Sudan Tribune. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article5951. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  349. ^ Tremlett, Giles (March 16, 2004). "Spanish leader accuses Bush and Blair". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/mar/16/usa.iraq. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  350. ^ Ed Pilkington in New York (September 21, 2006). "Chávez attacks 'devil' Bush in UN speech|World news|The Guardian". The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/sep/21/usa.venezuela. Retrieved October 20, 2008. 
  351. ^ Condon, George E. Jr. (July 21, 2006). "Bush, White House now leery of Putin as Russian turns back on democracy". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080524084052/http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20060721-9999-1n21usrussia.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  352. ^ "In 18 of 21 Countries Polled, Most See Bush’s Reelection as Negative for World Security". BBC World Service and Program on International Policy Attitudes. 2004. http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/bbcpoll.html. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  353. ^ "Polls: World Not Pleased With Bush". CBS News. Associated Press. March 4, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/04/world/main604135.shtml. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  354. ^ "America’s Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project". March 14, 2007. http://pewglobal.org/commentary/display.php?AnalysisID=1019. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  355. ^ Peter Kiernan (March 1, 2007). "Middle East Opinion: Iran Fears Aren't Hitting the Arab Street". World Politics Review Exclusive. http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/594/middle-east-opinion-iran-fears-arent-hitting-the-arab-street. 
  356. ^ "Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2007, Survey of 47 Publics, Final 2007 Comparative Topline" (PDF). Pew Research Center. June 27, 2007. http://pewglobal.org/reports/pdf/256topline.pdf. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  357. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1370/mapping-size-distribution-worlds-muslim-population. Retrieved October 30, 2010. 
  358. ^ "Bush greeted as hero in Albania". BBC. June 10, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6738055.stm. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  359. ^ "Bush Gets Warm Reception in Albania". NPR. June 10, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10919634. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  360. ^ "Albanian Street Named After George W. Bush". Balkan Insight. June 8, 2007. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/albanian-street-named-after-george-w-bush. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  361. ^ "Albanian town thanks George W. Bush with statue". Reuters. July 6, 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/06/us-albania-statue-bush-idUSTRE7655J520110706. Retrieved July 6, 2011. 
  362. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (December 4, 2008). "Serbian official blames U.S. for recent violence". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/world/europe/24iht-kosovo.1.10332489.html?_r=1. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  363. ^ "State President awards the Three Star Order to the U.S.President". Latvian President's Chancery. May 7, 2005. http://www.president.lv/pk/content/?cat_id=603&art_id=117. Retrieved November 5, 2010. 
  364. ^ "Ex-President Bush and Wife Leave Washington for Texas". Associated Press. Fox News. January 20, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/01/20/ex-president-bush-wife-leave-washington-texas/. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  365. ^ Brown, Angela K. (January 21, 2009). "Enthusiastic Crowds Welcome Bush Back to Texas". Fox News Channel. http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2009Jan21/0,4670,BushTexasWelcome,00.html. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  366. ^ Swami, Prerana (July 28, 2009). "Laura Bush Discusses Her Husband's Low Profile". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/blogs/2009/06/08/politics/politicalhotsheet/entry5072127.shtml. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
  367. ^ "Coin toss from George and Laura Bush was a brief taste of luck for Cowboys fans". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. September 21, 2009. http://startelegram.typepad.com/politex/2009/09/coin-toss-from-george-and-laura-bush-was-a-brief-taste-of-luck-for-cowboys-fans.html. Retrieved October 10, 2009. 
  368. ^ 8:10 pm ET (April 7, 2009). "Bush throws first pitch at Rangers game (SLIDESHOW)". Huffington Post. USA. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/07/bush-throws-pitch-at-texa_n_184037.html. Retrieved November 1, 2010. 
  369. ^ "Bush says Obama 'deserves my silence'". Associated Press. msnbc.com. March 17, 2009. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29743567/. Retrieved June 23, 2009. 
  370. ^ Allen, Mike (March 18, 2009). "Bush promises not to attack Obama". Politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0309/20160.html. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  371. ^ "Troops in Iraq hailed by Bush on 'Colbert Report'". Associated Press. Google News. June 12, 2009. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hL_Z4p4xMek1-baeGd_QsoBHMkBwD98P6CV80. Retrieved June 23, 2009. [dead link]
  372. ^ Weir, Richard (August 30, 2009). "Funeral mass unites pols". Boston Herald. http://www.bostonherald.com/news/us_politics/view/20090830funeral_mass_unites_pols/. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  373. ^ Jordan, Mary (October 26, 2009). "Bush's first stand on a new podium". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/26/AR2009102603185_pf.html. Retrieved November 10, 2009. 
  374. ^ "George W. Bush Secretly Visits Fort Hood Victims". Fox News Channel. November 7, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/11/07/george-w-bush-secretly-visits-fort-hood-victims/. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  375. ^ Schlikerman, Becky (October 21, 2010), "Bush promotes book in Chicago", Chicago Tribune, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2010-10-21/news/ct-met-bush-visit-20101021_1_decision-points-book-plastic-bag, retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  376. ^ "Presidents Clinton, Bush lead effort to raise funds for Haiti". CNN. January 16, 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/01/16/haiti.earthquake/. Retrieved January 16, 2010. 
  377. ^ Roelofs, Ted (June 2, 2010). "'I'd do it again' former President Bush tells Grand Rapids crowd about waterboarding terrorists". The Grand Rapids Press. http://www.mlive.com/news/grand-rapids/index.ssf/2010/06/id_do_it_again_former_presiden.html. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  378. ^ Jaynes, Ethan (October 31, 2010). "Video: George W. Bush Throws Out First Pitch Game 4 World Series, Let’s Discuss It". NESW Sports. http://sports.neswblogs.com/2010/10/31/video-george-w-bush-throws-out-first-pitch-game-4-world-series-lets-discuss-it/. Retrieved November 1, 2010. 
  379. ^ Jordans, Frank, Bush visit to Switzerland Cancelled Over Security Fears The Independent, February 6, 2011.
  380. ^ Garance, Franke-Ruta (May 13, 2011). "When Bush Got the Bin Laden Call (While Eating a Souffle)". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/05/when-bush-got-the-bin-laden-call-while-eating-a-souffle/238862/. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  381. ^ "TRENDING: Presidents Obama and Bush commemorate 9/11 anniversary". CNN. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2011/09/11/presidents-obama-and-bush-commemorate-911-anniversary/. 
  382. ^ "Presidents Obama and Bush commemorate 9/11 anniversary". CNN. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2011/09/11/presidents-obama-and-bush-commemorate-911-anniversary/. 

Further reading

Academic
  • Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich, and David W. Rohde. Change and Continuity in the 2004 and 2006 Elections (2007), 324pp excerpt and text search
  • Allard, Scott W. "The Changing Face of Welfare During the Bush Administration." Publius 2007 37(3): 304–332. Issn: 0048-5950
  • Barone, Michael. The Almanac of American Politics (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010), highly detailed coverage of electoral politics and Congress.
  • Berggren, D. Jason, and Nicol C. Rae. "Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style." Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36#4 2006. pp 606+. online edition
  • Campbell, Colin, Bert A. Rockman, and Andrew Rudalevige, eds.. The George W. Bush Legacy Congressional Quarterly Press, 2007, 352pp; 14 essays by scholars excerpts and online search from Amazon.com
  • Congressional Quarterly. CQ Almanac Plus highly detailed annual compilation of events in Congress, White House, Supreme Court, summarizing the weekly "Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report". (annual, 2002–2009)
  • Conlan, Tim and John Dinan. "Federalism, the Bush Administration, and the Transformation of American Conservatism." Publius 2007 37(3): 279–303. Issn: 0048-5950
  • Corrado, Anthony, E. J. Dionne Jr., Kathleen A. Frankovic. The Election of 2000: Reports and Interpretations (2001) online edition
  • Daynes, Byron W. and Glen Sussman. "Comparing the Environmental Policies of Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush." White House Studies 2007 7(2): 163–179. Issn: 1535-4738
  • Desch, Michael C. "Bush and the Generals." Foreign Affairs 2007 86(3): 97–108. Issn: 0015-7120 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Eckersley, Robyn. "Ambushed: the Kyoto Protocol, the Bush Administration's Climate Policy and the Erosion of Legitimacy." International Politics 2007 44(2–3): 306–324. Issn: 1384-5748
  • Edwards III, George C. and Philip John Davies, eds. New Challenges for the American Presidency New York: Pearson Longman, 2004. 245 pp. articles from Presidential Studies Quarterly
  • Edwards III, George C. and Desmond King, eds. The Polarized Presidency of George W. Bush (2007), 478pp; essays by scholars; excerpt and online search from Amazon.com
  • Fortier, John C. and Norman J. Ornstein, eds. Second-term Blues: How George W. Bush Has Governed (2007), 146pp excerpt and online search from Amazon.com
  • Graham John D. Bush on the Home Front: Domestic Policy Triumphs and Setbacks (Indiana University Press, 2010) 425 pages; covers taxation, education, health care, energy, the environment, and regulatory reform.
  • Greenstein, Fred I. ed. The George W. Bush Presidency: An Early Assessment Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003
  • Greenstein, Fred I. “The Contemporary Presidency: The Changing Leadership of George W. Bush A Pre- and Post-9/11 Comparison” in Presidential Studies Quarterly v 32#2 2002 pp 387+. online edition
  • Gregg II, Gary L. and Mark J. Rozell, eds. Considering the Bush Presidency Oxford University Press, 2004. 210 pp. British perspectives
  • Hendrickson, Ryan C., and Kristina Spohr Readman, "From the Baltic to the Black Sea: Bush's NATO Enlargement." White House Studies. (2004) 4#3 pp: 319+. online edition
  • Hilliard, Bryan, Tom Lansford, and Robert P Watson, eds. George W. Bush: Evaluating the President at Midterm SUNY Press 2004
  • Jacobson, Gary C. “The Bush Presidency and the American Electorate” Presidential Studies Quarterly v 33 No.4 2003 pp 701+. online edition
  • Jacobson, Gary C. "Referendum: the 2006 Midterm Congressional Elections." Political Science Quarterly 2007 122(1): 1–24. Issn: 0032-3195 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Milkis, Sidney M. and Jesse H.Rhodes. "George W. Bush, the Party System, and American Federalism." Publius 2007 37(3): 478–503. Issn: 0048-5950
  • Moens, Alexander The Foreign Policy of George W. Bush: Values, Strategy, and Loyalty. Ashgate, 2004. 227 pp.
  • Rabe, Barry. "Environmental Policy and the Bush Era: the Collision Between the Administrative Presidency and State Experimentation." Publius 2007 37(3): 413–431. Issn: 0048-5950
  • Sabato, Larry J. ed. The Sixth Year Itch: The Rise and Fall of the George W. Bush Presidency (2007), experts on the 2006 elections in major states
  • Strozeski, Josh, et al. "From Benign Neglect to Strategic Interest: the Role of Africa in the Foreign Policies of Bush 41 and 43." White House Studies 2007 7(1): 35–51. Issn: 1535-4738
  • Wekkin, Gary D. "George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush: Puzzling Presidencies, or the Puzzle of the Presidency?" White House Studies 2007 7(2): 113–124. Issn: 1535-4738
  • Wong, Kenneth and Gail Sunderman. "Education Accountability as a Presidential Priority: No Child Left Behind and the Bush Presidency." Publius 2007 37(3): 333–350. Issn: 0048-5950
Reflections on the Bush presidency
  • Barnes, Fred. Rebel-in-Chief: How George W. Bush Is Redefining the Conservative Movement and Transforming America (2006)
  • Bartlett, Bruce. Impostor: How George W. Bush Bankrupted America and Betrayed the Reagan Legacy (2006)
  • Cheney, Dick. In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir (2011)
  • Draper, Robert. Inside the Bush White House: The Presidency of George W. Bush (2007)
  • Ferguson, Michaele L. and Lori Jo Marso. W Stands for Women: How the George W. Bush Presidency Shaped a New Politics of Gender (2007)
  • Gerson, Michael J. Heroic Conservatism: Why Republicans Need to Embrace America's Ideals (And Why They Deserve to Fail If They Don't) (2007), excerpt and text search
  • Greenspan, Alan. The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (2007)
  • Hayes, Stephen F. Cheney: The Untold Story of America's Most Powerful and Controversial Vice President (2007), excerpts and online search
  • Hughes, Karen. George W. Bush: Portrait of a Leader (2005)
  • Mabry, Marcus. Twice as Good: Condoleezza Rice and Her Path to Power (2007)
  • Moore, James. and Wayne Slater. Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove Made George W. Bush Presidential (2003) online edition
  • Rice, Condoleezza. No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington (2011)
  • Rumsfeld, Donald. Known and Unknown: A Memoir (2011)
  • Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O’Neill (2004), excerpts and online search from Amazon.com
  • Woodward, Bob. Plan of Attack (2003), excerpt and text search
Primary sources

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • George W Bush — George W. Bush Pour les articles homonymes, voir George Bush . George W. Bush …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George Walker Bush — George W. Bush Pour les articles homonymes, voir George Bush . George W. Bush …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George W. Bush — (2003) George Walker Bush &# …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George W Bush — George W. Bush (2003) George Walker Bush [ˈdʒɔɹdʒ ˈwɔːkɚ bʊʃ] ?/Info/IPA, meist abgekürzt George W. Bush (* 6. Juli 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut), ist ein US amerikanischer Politiker der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George Walker Bush — George W. Bush (2003) George Walker Bush [ˈdʒɔɹdʒ ˈwɔːkɚ bʊʃ] ?/Info/IPA, meist abgekürzt George W. Bush (* 6. Juli 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut), ist ein US amerikanischer Politiker der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush — Presidente de los Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • George Washington Bush — (1779 1863) was one of the first American settlers and the first black settler in what would later become the U.S. state of Washington. [Citation last = McClelland, Jr. first = John author link = last2 = first2 = author2 link = title = Almost… …   Wikipedia

  • George W. Bush — (født 6. juli 1946), amerikansk præsident. Se artilen: George W. Bush …   Danske encyklopædi

  • George Walker Bush — (nacido el 6 de julio de 1946 en Connecticut, Estados Unidos) es el actual presidente de los Estados Unidos de América. Anteriormente ocupaba el puesto de Gobernador del estado de Texas. Miembro tradicional del Partido Republicano, sirvió como… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George W. Bush — Pour les articles homonymes, voir George Bush. George W. Bush …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”