National Basketball Association

National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
NBALogo.svg
NBA logo
Sport Basketball
Founded June 6, 1946, New York City, New York, United States
Commissioner David Stern
Inaugural season 1946–47
No. of teams 30
Country(ies)  United States (29 teams)
 Canada (1 team)
Continent FIBA Americas (Americas)
Most recent champion(s) Dallas Mavericks (1st title)
Most titles Boston Celtics (17 titles)
TV partner(s) ABC
ESPN
TNT
NBA TV
Official website NBA.com

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada. It is an active member of USA Basketball (USAB),[1] which is recognized by the International Basketball Federation as the National Governing Body (NGB) for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major North American professional sports leagues.

The league was founded in New York City on June 6, 1946 as the Basketball Association of America (BAA).[2] The league adopted the name National Basketball Association in 1949 after merging with the rival National Basketball League (NBL). The league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, New Jersey.

Contents

History

Creation and merger

The Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada. On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, which the NBA now regards as the first game played in the league's history.[3] Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play primarily in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, and the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title.

On August 3, 1949, the BAA agreed to merge with the NBL, creating the new National Basketball Association.[4] The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities,[4] as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises, all of which are still in the league (the Knicks, Celtics, Warriors, Lakers, Royals/Kings, Pistons, Hawks, and Nationals/76ers). The process of contraction saw the league's smaller-city franchises move to larger cities. The Hawks shifted from "Tri-Cities" (the area now known as the Quad Cities) to Milwaukee (in 1951) and then to St. Louis (in 1955); the Royals from Rochester to Cincinnati (in 1957); and the Pistons from Fort Wayne to Detroit (in 1957).

Although Japanese-American Wataru Misaka technically broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, 1950 is recognized as the year the NBA integrated. This year witnessed the addition of African American players by several teams, including Chuck Cooper with the Boston Celtics, Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton with the New York Knicks, and Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty.[5] To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.[6] If a team does not attempt to score a field goal (or the ball fails to make contact with the rim) within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent.

Celtics dominance, league expansion, and competition

In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring (100) and rebounding (55). Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the great individual rivalries in the history of American team sports.

The 1960s were dominated by the Boston Celtics. Led by Bill Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, the Celtics won eight consecutive championships in the NBA from the 1958–1959 season to the 1965–1966 season. The streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–1967, but regained it in the 1967–1968 season and repeated in 1968–1969. The domination totaled nine of the 10 championship banners of the 1960s.[7]

Through this period, the NBA continued to strengthen with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the 76ers, and the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises. The Chicago Packers (now Washington Wizards) became the ninth NBA team in 1961. From 1966 to 1968, the league expanded from nine teams to fourteen, introducing the Chicago Bulls, Seattle SuperSonics (now Oklahoma City Thunder), San Diego Rockets (who relocated to Houston four years later), Milwaukee Bucks, and Phoenix Suns.

In 1967, the league faced a new external threat with the formation of the American Basketball Association (ABA). The leagues engaged in a bidding war. The NBA landed the most important college star of the era, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (then known as Lew Alcindor). However, the NBA's leading scorer, Rick Barry, jumped to the ABA, as did four veteran referees—Norm Drucker, Earl Strom, John Vanak, and Joe Gushue.[8]

In 1969, Alan Siegel, who oversaw the design of Jerry Dior's Major League Baseball logo a year prior, created the modern NBA logo inspired by the MLB's. It incorporates the silhouette of the legendary Jerry West based on a photo by Wen Roberts, although NBA officials have denied a particular player as being its influence because, according to Siegel, "They want to institutionalize it rather than individualize it. It's become such a ubiquitous, classic symbol and focal point of their identity and their licensing program that they don't necessarily want to identify it with one player." The iconic logo debuted in 1971 and would remain a fixture of the NBA brand.[9][10]

The ABA succeeded in signing a number of major stars in the '70s, including Julius Erving of the Virginia Squires, in part because it allowed teams to sign college undergraduates. The NBA expanded rapidly during this period, one purpose being to tie up the most viable cities. From 1966 to 1974, the NBA grew from nine franchises to 18. In 1970, the Portland Trail Blazers, Cleveland Cavaliers, and Buffalo Braves (now the Los Angeles Clippers) all made their debuts expanding the league to 17.[11] The New Orleans Jazz (now in Utah) came aboard in 1974 bringing the total to 18. Following the 1976 season, the leagues reached a settlement that provided for the addition of four ABA franchises to the NBA, raising the number of franchises in the league at that time to 22. The franchises added were the San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and New York Nets (now the New Jersey Nets, to become the Brooklyn Nets in 2012). Some of the biggest stars of this era were Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Rick Barry, Dave Cowens, Julius Erving, Elvin Hayes, Walt Frazier, Moses Malone, Artis Gilmore, George Gervin, Dan Issel, and Pete Maravich. The end of the decade, however, saw declining TV ratings, low attendance and drug-related player issues -- both perceived and real -- that threatened to derail the NBA.

Surging popularity

Los Angeles Lakers Magic Johnson and Boston Celtics Larry Bird in Game Two of the 1985 NBA Finals at Boston Garden.

The league added the ABA's innovative three-point field goal beginning in 1979 to open up the game. That same year, rookies Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers respectively, initiating a period of significant growth in fan interest in the NBA throughout the country and the world. In 1984 they played against each other for the first time in the NBA Finals. Johnson went on to lead the Lakers to five titles, and Bird went on to lead the Celtics to three. Also in the early '80s, the NBA added one more expansion franchise, the Dallas Mavericks, bringing the total to 23 teams. Later on, Larry Bird won the first three three-point shooting contests. Current league commissioner David Stern took office on April 1, 1984, and oversaw the expansion and growth of the NBA to a global commodity.

Jordan going in for a dunk

Michael Jordan entered the league in 1984 with the Chicago Bulls, providing an even more popular star to support growing interest in the league. This resulted in more cities demanding teams of their own. In 1988 and 1989, four cities got their wishes as the Charlotte Hornets (now the New Orleans Hornets), Miami Heat, Orlando Magic, and Minnesota Timberwolves made their NBA debuts, bringing the total to 27 teams. In the first year of the 1990s, the Detroit Pistons would win the second of their back-to-back "Bad Boys" titles, led by Chuck Daly as coach and Isiah Thomas as floor general. Jordan and Scottie Pippen would lead the Bulls to two three-peats in eight years during the 1991-98 seasons. Hakeem Olajuwon won back-to-back titles with the Houston Rockets in '94 and '95.

The 1992 Olympic basketball Dream Team, the first to use current NBA stars, featured Michael Jordan as the anchor, along with Bird, Magic, David Robinson, Patrick Ewing, Scottie Pippen, Clyde Drexler, Karl Malone, John Stockton, Chris Mullin, Charles Barkley, and Christian Laettner.

In 1995, the NBA expanded to Canada with the addition of the Vancouver Grizzlies and the Toronto Raptors. In 2001, the Vancouver Grizzlies relocated to Memphis, which left the Raptors as the only Canadian team in the NBA. In 1996, the NBA created a women's league, the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). In 1998, the NBA owners began a lockout which lasted 191 days and was settled on January 18, 1999. As a result of this lockout the 1998–99 NBA season was reduced from 82 to 50 games (61% of a normal season), and the All-Star Game was cancelled. The San Antonio Spurs won their first championship, and first by a former ABA team, by beating the New York Knicks, who were the first, and to this date, the only, eighth seed to ever make the NBA Finals.

Modern era

Since the break-up of the Chicago Bulls in the summer of 1998, the Western Conference has dominated, with the Los Angeles Lakers and San Antonio Spurs combining to win the title in nine of thirteen years. One or the other has won the Western Conference title every year except in 2006 and 2011 (when the Dallas Mavericks won the conference title). Tim Duncan and David Robinson won the 1999 championship with the Spurs, and Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant started the 2000s with three consecutive championships for the Lakers. The Spurs reclaimed the title in 2003 against the Nets. In 2004, the Lakers returned to the Finals, only to fall in five games to the Detroit Pistons. The following offseason, the Charlotte Bobcats were established as the league's 30th team; due to Hurricane Katrina, the New Orleans Hornets would play the first of two seasons in Oklahoma City, which eventually paved the way for the Seattle SuperSonics to relocate to Oklahoma City for the start of the 2008-09 season.

After the Spurs took home the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy in 2005, the 2006 Finals featured two franchises making their inaugural Finals appearances. The Miami Heat led by their star shooting guard, Dwyane Wade, and Shaquille O'Neal, who had been traded from the Lakers during the 2004 summer, won the series over the Dallas Mavericks in six games after losing the first two games. The Lakers/Spurs dominance continued in 2007 with a four-game sweep by the Spurs over the Cleveland Cavaliers, who were led by LeBron James. The 2008 Finals saw a rematch of the league's highest profile rivalry, the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers, with the Celtics prevailing, for their league leading 17th championship, thanks to their new big three of Paul Pierce, Ray Allen, and Kevin Garnett.

The 2008 Olympic basketball Redeem Team featured many of the Modern Era stars including: Kobe Bryant, LeBron James, Dwyane Wade, Dwight Howard, Jason Kidd, Deron Williams, Chris Bosh, Chris Paul, and Carmelo Anthony.

In 2009, the Lakers with Kobe Bryant returned to the Finals, this time defeating the Dwight Howard-led Orlando Magic.[12] Kobe Bryant won his first Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award award in his 13th season after leading the Lakers to their first NBA championship since the departure of Shaquille O'Neal.[13]

The 2010 NBA All-Star Game was held at Cowboys Stadium in front of the largest crowd ever, 108,713.[14] At the end of that season, the Celtics and the Lakers renewed their rivalry from 2008 when they met again in the NBA Finals for a record 12th time. The Lakers won the title in the 7th game, 83–79.[15] Before the start of the 2010-11 season the NBA had an exciting summer with one of the most anticipated free agent classes of all time. Two of which signed, and one resigned, with the Miami Heat, leading to a season that was heavily centered on their eventual success or failure at taking home the championship. The Miami Heat, led by LeBron James, Dwyane Wade, and Chris Bosh, did in fact make the Finals against the Dallas Mavericks, in a rematch for the franchises of the 2006 Finals. The Mavericks (who were lead by Dirk Nowitzki, the eventual Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award winner) took the series in six games. This was the Mavericks' first title. Other veterans like Shawn Marion, Jason Kidd, and Jason Terry also won their first titles with Nowitzki.

On July 1, at 12:01 a.m., the NBA announced another lockout. On October 10, 2011, the first two weeks of the 2011-12 NBA season were canceled.[16]

International influence

Following pioneers like Dražen Petrović (Croatia) who joined the NBA in the late 1980s, an increasing number of international players have moved directly from playing elsewhere in the world to starring in the NBA. Below is a short list of notable foreign players, either currently or formerly active in the league:

On some occasions, young players, most but not all from the English-speaking world, have attended U.S. colleges before playing in the NBA. Notable examples are:

Since 2006, the NBA has faced Euroleague teams in exhibition matches in the NBA Europe Live Tour and since 2009 in the Euroleague American Tour.

The 2009–10 season season opened with a record of 83 international players on the opening night rosters, tying the record set in the 2006–07 season.[17]

Other developments

In 2001, an affiliated minor league, the National Basketball Development League, now called the NBA Development League (or D-League) was created.[18] Before the league was started, there were strong rumors that the NBA would purchase the CBA, and call it its developmental league, as the Continental Basketball Association was its "minor league" affiliate for years. 20% of NBA players spent time in this league and over 143 players have been called up to play in the NBA.[citation needed]

In 2004, two years after the Hornets relocation to New Orleans, the NBA returned to North Carolina as the Charlotte Bobcats were formed.

In 2005, the Hornets relocated to Oklahoma City for two seasons. This was required due to damage caused by Hurricane Katrina. In 2007, the Hornets returned to New Orleans.

On June 28, 2006, a new official game ball was introduced for the 2006–07 season, marking the first change to the ball in over 35 years and only the second ball in 60 seasons.[19] Manufactured by Spalding, the new ball featured a new design and new synthetic material that Spalding claimed offered a better grip, feel, and consistency than the original ball. However, many players were vocal in their disdain for the new ball, saying that it was too sticky when dry, and too slippery when wet.

On December 11, 2006, Commissioner Stern announced that beginning January 1, 2007, the NBA would return to the traditional leather basketball in use prior to the 2006–2007 season. The change was influenced by frequent player complaints and confirmed hand injuries (cuts) caused by the microfiber ball.[20] The Players' Association had filed a suit in behalf of the players against the NBA over the new ball.[21] As of 2006, the NBA team jerseys are manufactured by Adidas, which purchased the previous supplier, Reebok.

On July 19, 2007, the FBI investigated allegations that veteran NBA referee Tim Donaghy bet on basketball games he officiated over the past two seasons and that he made calls affecting the point spread in those games.[22] On August 15, 2007, Donaghy pleaded guilty to two federal charges related to the investigation. However, he could face additional charges if it is determined that he deliberately miscalled individual games. Donaghy in 2008 claimed that certain refs were friendly with the players and "company men" for the NBA. Donaghy alleged that refs influenced the outcome of certain playoff and final games in 2002 and 2005. NBA commissioner David Stern denied the allegations and said Donaghy was a convicted felon and a "singing, cooperating witness".[23] Donaghy served 15 months in prison and was released in November, 2009.[24] According to an independent study by Ronald Beech of Game 6 of the NBA 2002 Western Conference Finals between the Los Angeles Lakers and the Sacramento Kings, although the refs increased the Lakers' chances of winning through foul calls during the game, there was no collusion to fix the game. On alleged "star treatment" during Game 6 by the refs toward certain players, Beech claimed, "there does seem to be issues with different standards and allowances for different players." [25]

In June 2008, it was announced that the Seattle SuperSonics would be rendered inactive and the franchise itself would relocate to Oklahoma City. The Oklahoma City Thunder began playing in the 2008–2009 season. This marks the third NBA franchise to relocate in the past decade.

On October 11, 2008, the Phoenix Suns and the Denver Nuggets played the first outdoor game in the modern era of the NBA at the Indian Wells Tennis Garden.[26]

On September 1, 2009, the contract between the NBA and its referees expired, creating a referee lockout. On October 1, 2009, the first preseason games were played and replacement referees from the WNBA and NBA Development League were used. The last time replacement referees were used was beginning of the 1995–96 season.[27] The NBA and the regular referees reached a deal on October 23, 2009.[28]

In 2011 the first official NBA league games on European ground took place. In two matchups the New Jersey Nets faced the Toronto Raptors in London's O2 Arena in front of over 20,000 fans.

Due to cost cutting, in 2 days of July 2011, NBA laid off around 114 league employees or 11 percent of all the league office workforce.[29]

The 2011-2012 NBA season, scheduled to begin November 1, 2011 with a match up between the defending champion Dallas Mavericks and the Chicago Bulls, has been indefinitely postponed due to a labor dispute.

Teams

The NBA originated in 1946 with 11 teams, and through a sequence of team expansions, reductions, and relocations currently consists of 30 teams. The United States is home to 29 teams and one is located in Canada. The Boston Celtics have won the most championships with 17 NBA Finals wins. The second most successful franchise is the Los Angeles Lakers, who have 16 overall championships (11 in Los Angeles, 5 in Minneapolis). Following the Lakers are the Chicago Bulls with six championships, all of them over an 8-year span during the 1990s, and the San Antonio Spurs with four championships, all since 1999.

The current league organization divides thirty teams into two conferences of three divisions with five teams each. The current divisional alignment was introduced in the 2004–05 season.

Notes
  1. An asterisk (*) denotes a franchise move. See the respective team articles for more information.
  2. The Fort Wayne Pistons, Minneapolis Lakers and Rochester Royals all joined the NBA (BAA) in 1948 from the NBL.
  3. The Syracuse Nationals and Tri-Cities Blackhawks joined the NBA in 1949 as part of the BAA-NBL merger.
  4. The Indiana Pacers, New York Nets, San Antonio Spurs, and Denver Nuggets all joined the NBA in 1976 as part of the NBA-ABA merger.

Regular season

Following the summer break, teams begin training camps in late September. Training camps allow the coaching staff to evaluate players (especially rookies), scout the team's strengths and weaknesses, prepare the players for the rigorous regular season, and determine the 12-man active roster (and a 3-man inactive list) with which they will begin the regular season. Teams have the ability to assign players with less than two years of experience to the NBA development league. After training camp, a series of preseason exhibition games are held. The NBA regular season begins in the last week of October.

During the regular season, each team plays 82 games, 41 each home and away. A team faces opponents in its own division four times a year (16 games). Each team plays six of the teams from the other two divisions in its conference four times (24 games), and the remaining four teams three times (12 games). Finally, each team plays all the teams in the other conference twice apiece (30 games). This asymmetrical structure means the strength of schedule will vary between teams (but not as significantly as the NFL or MLB). Over five seasons, each team will have played 80 games against their division (20 games against each opponent, 10 at home, 10 on the road), 180 games against the rest of their conference (18 games against each opponent, 9 at home, 9 on the road), and 150 games against the other conference (10 games against each team, 5 at home, 5 on the road).

As of 2008, the NBA is one of only two of the Big 4 in North America in which teams play every other team during the regular season (the other being the National Hockey League.) Each team hosts and visits every other team at least once every season. For a few seasons until 2008, the NBA had the distinction of being the only one of the four major leagues in which all teams play every other team.

The NBA is also the only league that regularly schedules games on Christmas Day.[30] The league has been playing games regularly on the holiday since 1947,[31] though the first Christmas Day games weren't televised until 1983–84.[32] Games played on this day have featured some of the best teams and players.[30][31][32] Christmas is also notable for NBA on television, as the holiday is when the first NBA games air on network television each season.[31][32]

Milwaukee Bucks playing the Charlotte Bobcats in a regular season game

In February, the regular season pauses to celebrate the annual NBA All-Star Game. Fans vote throughout the United States, Canada, and on the Internet, and the top vote-getters at each position in each conference are given a starting spot on their conference's All-Star team. Coaches vote to choose the remaining 14 All-Stars. Then, Eastern conference players face the Western conference players in the All-Star game. The player with the best performance during the game is rewarded with a Game MVP award. Other attractions of the All-Star break include the Rookie Challenge, where the top rookies and second-year players in the NBA play against each other in a 5-on-5 basketball game; the Skills Challenge, where players compete to finish an obstacle course consisting of shooting, passing, and dribbling in the fastest time; the Three Point Contest, where players compete to score the most amount of three-point field goals in a given time; and the NBA Slam Dunk Contest, where players compete to dunk the ball in the most entertaining way according to the judges. These other attractions have varying names which include the names of the various sponsors who have paid for naming rights.

Shortly after the All-Star break is the trade deadline, which is set to fall on the 16th Thursday of the season (usually in February) at 3pm Eastern Time.[33][34] After this date, teams are not allowed to exchange players with each other for the remainder of the season, although they may still sign and release players. Major trades are often completed right before the trading deadline, making that day a hectic time for general managers.

Around the middle of April, the regular season ends. It is during this time that voting begins for individual awards, as well as the selection of the honorary, league-wide, post-season teams. The Sixth Man of the Year Award is given to the best player coming off the bench (must have more games coming off the bench than actual games started). The Rookie of the Year Award is awarded to the most outstanding first-year player. The Most Improved Player Award is awarded to the player who is deemed to have shown the most improvement from the previous season. The Defensive Player of the Year Award is awarded to the league's best defender. The Coach of the Year Award is awarded to the coach that has made the most positive difference to a team. The Most Valuable Player Award is given to player deemed the most valuable for (his team) that season. Additionally, Sporting News awards an unofficial (but widely recognized) Executive of the Year Award to the general manager who is adjudged to have performed the best job for the benefit of his franchise.

The post-season teams are the All-NBA Team, the All-Defensive Team, and the All-Rookie Team; each consists of five players. There are three All-NBA teams, consisting of the top players at each position, with first-team status being the most desirable. There are two All-Defensive teams, consisting of the top defenders at each position. There are also two All-Rookie teams, consisting of the top first-year players regardless of position.

Playoffs

NBA Playoffs begin in late April, with eight teams in each conference going for the Championship. The three division winners, along with the team with the next best record from the conference are given the top four seeds. The next four teams in terms of record are given the lower four seeds.

Having a higher seed offers several advantages. Since the first seed begins the playoffs playing against the eighth seed, the second seed plays the seventh seed, the third seed plays the sixth seed, and the fourth seed plays the fifth seed, having a higher seed means a team faces a weaker team in the first round. The team in each series with the better record has home court advantage, including the First Round. This means that, for example, if the team who receives the 5 seed has a better record than the team with the 4 seed (by virtue of a divisional championship), the 5 seed would have home court advantage, even though the other team has a higher seed. Therefore, the team with the best regular season record in the league is guaranteed home court advantage in every series it plays. For example, in 2006, the Denver Nuggets won 44 games and captured the Northwest Division and the #3 seed. Their opponent was the #6 seeded Los Angeles Clippers, who won 47 games and finished second in the Pacific Division. Although Denver won its much weaker division, the Clippers had home-court advantage and won the series in five games.

The playoffs follow a tournament format. Each team plays an opponent in a best-of-seven series, with the first team to win four games advancing into the next round, while the other team is eliminated from the playoffs. In the next round, the successful team plays against another advancing team of the same conference. All but one team in each conference are eliminated from the playoffs. Since the NBA does not re-seed teams, the playoff bracket in each conference uses a traditional design, with the winner of the series matching the 1st and 8th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 4th and 5th seeded teams, and the winner of the series matching the 2nd and 7th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 3rd and 6th seeded teams. In every round except the NBA Finals, the best of seven series follows a 2–2–1–1–1 home-court pattern, meaning that one team will have home court in games 1, 2, 5, and 7, while the other plays at home in games 3, 4, and 6. For the final round (NBA Finals), the series follows a 2–3–2 pattern, meaning that one team will have home court in games 1, 2, 6, and 7, while the other plays at home in games 3, 4, and 5. The 2–3–2 pattern in the NBA Finals has been in place since 1985.

The final playoff round, a best-of-seven series between the victors of both conferences, is known as the NBA Finals, and is held annually in June. The victor in the NBA Finals wins the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy. Each player and major contributor—including coaches and the general manager—on the winning team receive a championship ring. In addition, the league awards a Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award to the best performing player of the series.

On August 2, 2006, the NBA announced the new playoff format. The new format takes the three division winners and the second-place team with the best record and rank them 1–4 by record. The other 4 slots are filled by best record other than those other 4 teams.[35] Previously, the top three seeds went to the division winners.

International competitions

The National Basketball Association has sporadically participated in international club competitions. From 1987 to 1999 the NBA champions played against the continental champions of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) in the McDonald's Championship. This tournament was won by the NBA invitee every year it was held. FIBA is organizing a new World Club Championship to begin in 2010, and currently plans to invite the NBA champions starting in 2011.[36]

Notable people

Presidents and commissioners

Players

Coaches

Awards

See also

References

  1. ^ Inside USA Basketball
  2. ^ Goldaper, Sam. "The First Game". NBA. http://www.nba.com/history/firstgame_feature.html. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  3. ^ "History of Basketball in Canada". NBA Media Ventures, LLC. http://www.nba.com/canada/History_of_Basketball_in_Canad-Canada_Generic_Article-18023.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  4. ^ a b "NBA is born". History. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nba-is-born. Retrieved July 29, 2010. 
  5. ^ "1949–51: Lakers Win First NBA Finals". http://www.nba.com/lakers/history/lakers_history_new.html#4. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  6. ^ "NBA Rules History". NBA. May 8, 2008. http://www.nba.com/analysis/rules_history.html. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  7. ^ http://www.nba.com/celtics/history/ChampionshipWins.html
  8. ^ Salzberg, Charles (1998). From Set Shot to Slam Dunk. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 203. ISBN 9780803292505. 
  9. ^ Crowe, Jerry (April 27, 2011). "That iconic NBA silhouette can be traced back to him". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2010/apr/27/sports/la-sp-crowe-20100427. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  10. ^ NBA Logo Review CompanyLogos.ws. Retrieved on May 22, 2011.
  11. ^ "1970–71 SEASON OVERVIEW". NBA. http://www.nba.com/history/season/19701971.html. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  12. ^ Withers, Tom (June 15, 2009). "Redemption: Bryant leads Lakers to 15th NBA title". Yahoo! Sports. http://sports.yahoo.com/nba/recap?gid=2009061419&prov=ap. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  13. ^ McMenamin, Dave (June 18, 2009). "Kobe leads ... and the Lakers follow". NBA. http://www.nba.com/2009/news/features/dave_mcmenamin/06/15/kobe.game5/index.html. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  14. ^ MacMahon, Tim (February 15, 2010). "Record crowd at All-Star Game". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/dallas/news/story?id=4914993. Retrieved July 25, 2010. 
  15. ^ Beacham, Greg (June 18, 2010). "Lakers edge Celtics in Game 7, win 16th title". Yahoo! Sports. http://sports.yahoo.com/nba/recap?gid=2010061713. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  16. ^ Stein, Marc (2011-10-11). "NBA cancels first 2 weeks of season". ESPN.com. http://espn.go.com/nba/story/_/id/7085089/nba-labor-david-stern-cancels-first-two-weeks-nba-season. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  17. ^ "Season opens with record-tying 83 international players". NBA.com. Turner Sports Interactive, Inc. October 27, 2009. http://www.nba.com/2009/news/10/27/international.players/index.html. Retrieved October 28, 2009.  The NBA defines "international" players as those born outside the 50 United States and Washington, D.C. This means that:
    • Players born in U.S. possessions such as Puerto Rico and the U.S., Virgin Islands, most notably USVI native Tim Duncan, are counted as "international" even though they are U.S. citizens by birth, and may even have represented the U.S. in international competition (like Duncan).
    • U.S.-born players are not counted as "international" even if they were born with citizenship in another country and represent that country internationally, such as Kosta Koufos.
  18. ^ NBA D-League Frequently Asked Questions
  19. ^ "NBA Introduces New Game Ball". NBA. June 28, 2006. http://www.nba.com/news/blackbox_060628.html. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 
  20. ^ Stein, Marc (December 12, 2006). "Leather ball will return on Jan. 1". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nba/news/story?id=2694335. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  21. ^ Stein, Marc (December 8, 2006). "NBA ball controversy reaches new level". ESPN.com. http://sports.espn.go.com/nba/columns/story?columnist=stein_marc&id=2689744. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  22. ^ Donaghy under investigation for betting on NBA games, ESPN. July 20, 2007.
  23. ^ "2002 Lakers-Kings Game 6 at heart of Donaghy allegations". June 11, 2008. http://sports.espn.go.com/nba/news/story?id=3436401. Retrieved 12-16-2010. 
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  26. ^ McMenamin, Dave (October 12, 2008). "Outdoor game sees shooting, temperature drop". NBA.com. http://www.nba.com/2008/news/features/dave_mcmenamin/10/12/101108mcmenaminoutdoor/. Retrieved July 25, 2010. 
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  29. ^ Lays off 11 percent of workforce
  30. ^ a b Schuhmann, John (December 17, 2009). "Knicks, Kobe and more part of Christmas Day lore". NBA.com. http://www.nba.com/2009/news/features/john_schuhmann/12/17/numbers.christmas/index.html. Retrieved December 27, 2010. 
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  33. ^ NBA.com: NBA Trading Deadline Trades Since 1987
  34. ^ Roster Regulations, NBA.com
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Further reading

  • Rosen, Charley (2009). The First Tip-Off: The Incredible Story of the Birth of the NBA. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0071487859. 
  • Sports Illustrated: The Basketball Book. Sports Illustrated. 2007. ISBN 1933821191. 
  • Simmons, Bill (2007). The Book of Basketball: The NBA According to The Sports Guy. ESPN. ISBN 034551176X. 
  • Havlicek, John (2003). NBA's Greatest 1st edition. DK. ISBN 0789499770. 

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