Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. This woman may be the child's genetic mother (called traditional surrogacy), or she may carry the pregnancy to delivery after having an embryo, to which she has no genetic relationship whatsoever, transferred to her uterus (called gestational surrogacy). If the pregnant woman received compensation for carrying and delivering the child (besides medical and other reasonable expenses) the arrangement is called a commercial surrogacy, otherwise the arrangement is sometimes referred to as an altruistic surrogacy.
In a traditional surrogacy the child may be conceived via home artificial insemination using fresh or frozen sperm or impregnated via IUI (intrauterine insemination), or ICI (intracervical insemination) performed at a health clinic.
The social parents (that is, those that intend to raise the child) may arrange a surrogate pregnancy because of homosexuality, female infertility, or other medical issues which may make the pregnancy or delivery impossible, risky or otherwise undesirable. The social mother could also be fertile and healthy, and prefer the convenience of someone else undergoing pregnancy, labor, and delivery for her. The intended parent could also be a single man or woman wishing to have his/her own biological child. In Nebraska, involuntarily childless couples are encouraged to adopt instead of looking for a surrogate. However, this idea is not always a practical one—adoption is a long, expensive process. Adoptions typically require the individuals to be married, of a certain age, and sometimes married a certain number of years before they are even considered for adoption. Some agencies may prohibit adoptions based on disabilities and sexual orientations, and also may require one of the new adoptive parents to stay home with the adopted child for a certain amount of time following the adoption.
It is encouraged for the woman wanting to be a surrogate mother to be financially stable. This would prevent woman wanting to become surrogates due to financial need and also would minimize possible exploitation. However, it is historically unlikely that prospective parents would hastily choose a possible surrogate who was not financially reliable.
A large controversy is the impact of a future relationship that the surrogate might have the child after it is born. It is a cultural assumption that normal women do not become pregnant with the premise of being reimbursed monetarily, and that women naturally develop a bond with the child they give birth to. The legality of surrogacy arrangements vary widely between jurisdictions.
- 1 History
- 2 Legality
- 3 Ethical issues
- 4 In fiction
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Having another woman bear a child for a couple to raise, usually with the male half of the couple as the genetic father, is referred to in antiquity. Babylonian law and custom allowed this practice and infertile woman could use the practice to avoid the divorce which would otherwise be inevitable.
In the United States, the issue of surrogacy was widely publicized in the case of Baby M, in which the surrogate and biological mother of Melissa Stern ("Baby M"), born in 1986, refused to cede custody of Melissa to the couple with whom she had made the surrogacy agreement. The courts of New Jersey found that Mary Beth Whitehead was the child's legal mother and declared contracts for surrogate motherhood illegal and invalid. However, the court found it in the best interests of the infant to award custody of Melissa to her biological father William Stern and his wife Elizabeth Stern, rather than to the surrogate mother Mary Beth Whitehead.
There have been cases of clashes between surrogate mothers and the genetic parents; when unexpected complications with the fetus makes the genetic parents ask for an abortion even though the surrogate mother is opposing the abortion.
The legal aspects surrounding surrogacy are very complex and mostly unsettled. There is a default legal assumption in most countries that the woman giving birth to a child is that child's legal mother. In some jurisdictions the possibility of surrogacy has been legally allowed and as a result, the intended parents may be recognized as the legal parents right from the birth of a baby. Many states now issue pre-birth orders through the courts placing the name(s) of the intended parent(s) on the birth certificate from the start. In other states that do not issue such orders, the possibility of surrogacy is either not recognized (all contracts specifying different legal parents are void), or is prohibited.
In all states in Australia (except Tasmania which bans all surrogacy under the Surrogacy Contracts Act 1993), altruistic surrogacy has been the only recently recognized surrogacy that has become legal. However, in all states and the Australian Capital Territory arranging commercial surrogacy is a criminal offense, although the Northern Territory has no legislation governing surrogacy at all and there are no plans to introduce laws on surrogacy into the NT Legislative Assembly in near the future.
In 2006, Australian senator Stephen Conroy and his wife Paula Benson announced that they had arranged for a child to be born through egg donation and gestational surrogacy. Unusually, Conroy was put on the birth certificate as the father of the child. Previously, couples who used to make surrogacy arrangements in Australia had to adopt the child after it was registered as born to the natural mother; rather than being recognized as birth parents, however now that surrogacy is more regular practice for childless parents; most states have switched to such arrangements to give the intended parents proper rights. After the announcement, Victoria changed their legislation since 1 January 2010, under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 to make altruistic surrogacy within the state legal, however commercial surrogacy is illegal.
Since 1 June 2010 in Queensland, altruistic surrogacy is legal under the Surrogacy Act 2010 No 2. Yet, the commercial surrogacy is still illegal under the legislation.
Similarly, in both New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, altruistic surrogacy is legal under the Surrogacy Act 2010 No 102 and the Parentage Act 2004, respectively.
In Western Australia (under the Surrogacy Act 2008) and South Australia (under the Family Relationships Act 1975) altruistic surrogacy is only legal for couples consisting of the opposite sex (single people and same sex couples are banned from altruistic surrogacy). In 2011, Tasmania lawmakers after a review of the laws and a community consultation process introduced the Surrogacy Bill 2011 and the Surrogacy (Consequential Amendments) Bill 2011 to the lower house and passed the lower house by a vote of 22-3. Now it is yet to pass the conservative upper house of 15 members (12 of them being independent members, 2 Labor and 1 Liberal).
Canada allows surrogacy and it is governed by the Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHRC) - and it outlines that all expenses that are contributed to the surrogacy can be paid to the surrogate by the intended parents. Expenses must be accompanied with official receipts.
In the province of Quebec, contracts that involve surrogacy are unenforceable.
In France, since 1994, any surrogacy arrangement that is commercial or altruistic, is illegal or unlawful and is not sanctioned by the law (art 16-7 of the Code Civil). The French Courts the Cessation already took this point of view in 1991. It held that if any couple makes an agreement or arranges with another person that she is to bear the husband's child and surrender it on birth to the couple, and that she is choosing that she will not keep the child, the couple making such an agreement or arrangement, is not allowed to adopt the child. In its judgment the court held that such an agreement is illegal on the basis of articles 6 & 1128 of the Code Civil, together with article 353 of the same code.
Commercial surrogacy is criminal under the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance 2000. The law is phrased in a manner that no one can pay a surrogate, no surrogate can receive money, and no one can arrange a commercial surrogacy (the same applies to the supply of gametes), no matter within or outside Hong Kong. Normally only the gametes of the intended parents can be used.
In October 2010, Peter Lee, the eldest son and one of the presumed heirs of billionnaire Lee Shau Kee obtained three sons through a surrogate mother, reportedly from California. Since the junior Lee is single, the news attracted criticism on both moral and legal grounds. A vicar general of the territory's Roman Catholic diocese was critical. In December the case was reportedly referred to police after questions were asked in Legco.
Commercial surrogacy is illegal in Hungary.
All surrogacy arrangements (both commercial and altruistic) are illegal.
Commercial surrogacy is legal in India, as recognized by the Supreme Court of India in 2002. India is emerging as a leader in international surrogacy and a destination in surrogacy-related fertility tourism. Indian surrogates have been increasingly popular with fertile couples in industrialized nations because of the relatively low cost. Indian clinics are at the same time becoming more competitive, not just in the pricing, but in the hiring and retention of Indian females as surrogates. Clinics charge patients between $10,000 and $28,000 for the complete package, including fertilization, the surrogate's fee, and delivery of the baby at a hospital. Including the costs of flight tickets, medical procedures and hotels, it comes to roughly a third of the price compared with going through the procedure in the UK. The Honorable Supreme Court of India has given the verdict that the citizenship of the child born through this process will have the citizenship of its surrogate mother.
In March 1996, the Israeli government legalized gestational surrogacy under the "Embryo Carrying Agreements Law." This law made Israel the first country in the world to implement a form of state-controlled surrogacy in which each and every contract must be approved directly by the state. A state-appointed committee permits surrogacy arrangements to be filed only by Israeli citizens who share the same religion. Surrogates must be single, widowed or divorced and only infertile heterosexual couples are allowed to hire surrogates. The numerous restrictions on surrogacy under Israeli law have prompted some intended parents to turn to surrogates outside of the country.
All surrogacy arrangements (both commercial and altruistic) are illegal.
Netherlands and Belgium
Altrustic surrogacy is legal in Belgium and the Netherlands. Only commercial surrogacy is illegal in Belgium and the Netherlands. Although altrustic surrogacy is legal, there is only one hospital taking in couples and there are extremely strict rules to get in. This makes a lot of couples seek their treatment outside the Netherlands or Belgium.
In Karachi and Lahore, many hospitals are doing this business, government of Pakistan has not yet defined any policy on Surrogacy.
Gestational surrogacy, even commercial [is legal in Russia], being [available for practically all adults willing to be parents]. There has to be a certain medical indication for surrogacy: absence of uterus; uterine cavity or cervix deformity; uterine cavity synechia; somatic diseases contraindicating child bearing; repeatedly failed IVF attempts, when high-quality embryos were repeatedly obtained and their transfer wasn’t followed by pregnancy.
The first surrogacy program in Russia was successfully implemented in 1995 at the IVF centre of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Institute in St. Petersburg. The public opinion is surrogacy-friendly, recent cases of a famous singer and a well-known business-woman, who openly used services of gestational surrogates received very positive news coverage.
A few Russian women such as Ekaterina Zakharova, Natalija Klimova, Lamara Kelesheva became grandmothers through postmortem gestational surrogacy programs, their surrogate grandsons being conceived posthumously after the death of their sons.
Registration of children born through surrogacy is regulated by the Family Code of Russia (art. 51-52) and the Law on Acts on Civil Status (art. 16). A surrogate’s consent is needed for that. Apart from that consent, no adoption nor court decision is required. The surrogate’s name is never listed on the birth certificate. There is no requirement for the child to be genetically related to at least one of the commissioning parents.
Children born to heterosexual couples who are not officially married or single intended parents through gestational surrogacy are registered in accordance to analogy of jus (art. 5 of the Family Code). A court decision might be needed for that. On August 5, 2009 a St. Petersburg court definitely resolved a dispute whether single women could apply for surrogacy and obliged the State Registration Authority to register a 35 year old single intended mother Nataliya Gorskaya as the mother of her “surrogate” son.
On 4 August 2010, a Moscow court ruled that a single man who applied for gestational surrogacy (using donor eggs) could be registered as the only parent of his son, becoming the first man in Russia to defend his right to become a father through a court procedure. The surrogate mother’s name was not listed on the birth certificate, the father was listed as the only parent. After that a few more identical decisions concerning single men who became fathers through surrogacy were adopted by different courts in Russia listing men as the only parents of their “surrogate” children and confirming that prospective single parents, regardless of their sex or sexual orientation, can exercise their right to parenthood through surrogacy in Russia.
Liberal legislation makes Russia attractive for “reproductive tourists” looking for techniques not available in their countries. Intended parents come there for oocyte donation, because of advanced age or marital status (single women and single men) and when surrogacy is considered. Foreigners have the same rights as for assisted reproduction as Russian citizens. Within 3 days after the birth the commissioning parents obtain a Russian birth certificate with both their names on it. Genetic relation to the child (in case of donation) just doesn’t matter.
Religious authorities in Saudi Arabia do not allow the use of surrogate mothers, instead suggested medical procedures to restore female fertility and ability to deliver. To this end, Saudi authorities sanctioned the world's first uterus transplant in an infertile woman.
Surrogacy is not clearly regulated in Swedish law. The legal procedure most equivalent to it is making an adoption of the child from the surrogate mother. However, the surrogate mother thereby has the right to keep the child if she changes her mind until the adoption. Yet, the biological father may claim right to the child.
It is illegal for Swedish fertility clinics to make surrogate arrangements.
Since 2002, surrogacy and surrogacy in combination with egg/sperm donation has been absolutely legal in Ukraine. According to the law a donor or a surrogate mother has no parental rights over the child born and the child born is legally the child of the prospective parents.
In Ukraine the start of introduction of methods of supporting reproductive medicine was given in eighties of the preceding century. It was Kharkov where the extracorporeal fertilization method was for the first time successfully applied in Ukraine, and in 1991 a girl named Katy was born. Kharkiv was also the first city in CIS countries to realize surrogacy. Many clinics dealing with surrogacy have been opened in Kiev and Lviv.
Ukrainian surrogacy laws are very favorable and fully support the individual's reproductive rights. Surrogacy is officially regulated by Clause 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine and Order 771 of the Health Ministry of Ukraine. You can choose between Gestational Surrogacy, Egg/sperm Donation, special Embryo adoption programs and their combinations. No specific permission from any regulatory body is required for that. A written informed consent of all parties (intended parents and surrogate) participating in the surrogacy program is mandatory.
Ukrainian legislation allows intended parents to carry on a surrogacy program and their names will be on Birth certificate of the child born as a result of the surrogacy program from the very beginning. The child is considered to be legally "belonging" to the prospective parents from the very moment of conception. The surrogate’s name is never listed on the birth certificate. The surrogate can't keep the child after the birth. Even if a donation program took place and there is no biological relation between the child and intended parents, their names will be on Birth certificate (Clause 3 of article 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine).
Embryo research is also allowed, gamete and embryo donation permitted on a commercial level. Single women can be treated by known or anonymous donor insemination. Gestational surrogacy is an option for officially married couples and single women. There is no such concept as gay/lesbian marriage in Ukraine, meanwhile such patients can be treated as single women/men.
Commercial surrogacy arrangements are not legal in the United Kingdom. Such arrangements were prohibited by the Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985. Whilst it is illegal in the UK to pay more than expenses for a surrogacy, the relationship is recognised under section 30 of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. Regardless of contractual or financial consideration for expenses, surrogacy arrangements are not legally enforceable within the United Kingdom. A surrogate mother still maintains the legal right of determination for the child, even if they are genetically unrelated. Unless a parental order or adoption order is made the surrogate mother remains the legal mother of the child.
Many states have their own state laws written regarding the legality of surrogate parenting. It is most common for surrogates to reside in Florida and California due to the surrogacy-accommodating laws in these states. California is especially popular due to its enforcable surrogacy agreements. Surrogacy is well developed around Camp Pendleton in California. With the accommodating laws of the State of California and the long overseas deployments of husbands, wives have found surrogacy to be a means to supplement military incomes and to provide a needed service. It is illegal to hire a surrogate in New York, and even embryonic transfers may not be done in New York. At this point, the laws surrounding surrogacy are well defined in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and surrogacy is beginning to become common in the state of Delaware.
Attorney Noel Keane and Warren Ringold of Dearborn, Michigan advocated for the passage of laws that protected the idea of surrogate motherhood. Bill Handel, who is a partner in a Los Angeles Surrogacy firm, also attempted to have such laws passed in California, but his attempts were struck down in the State Congress. Presently, the idea of surrogate motherhood has gained some societal acceptance and laws protecting the contractual arrangements exist in eight states.
According to professor Bryan Caplan, libertarians have since Voltaire emphasized the fact that it is not right to forbid people from doing things that others do not accept. However, according to Caplan also non-liberals should support paid surrogacy: creating a human life is almost always good and voluntary exchange is usually beneficial for all participants, also in surrogacy.
A study by the Family and Child Psychology Research Centre at City University, London, UK in 2002 concluded that surrogate mothers rarely had difficulty relinquishing rights to a surrogate child and that the intended mothers showed greater warmth to the child than mothers conceiving naturally. Anthropological studies of surrogates have shown that surrogates engage in various distancing techniques throughout the surrogate pregnancy so as to ensure that they do not become emotionally attached to the baby. Many surrogates intentionally try to foster the development of emotional attachment between the intended mother and the surrogate child. Instead of the popular expectation that surrogates feel traumatized after relinquishment, an overwhelming majority describe feeling empowered by their surrogacy experience. In fact, quantitative and qualitative studies of surrogates over the past twenty years, mostly from a psychological or social work perspective, have confirmed that the majority of surrogates are satisfied with their surrogacy experience, do not experience "bonding" with the child they birth, and feel positively about surrogacy even a decade after the birth. Assessing such studies from a social constructionist perspective reveals that the expectation that surrogates are somehow "different" from the majority of women and that they necessarily suffer as a consequence of relinquishing the child have little basis in reality and are instead based on cultural conventions and gendered assumptions. Many surrogates form close and intimate relationships with the intended parents. When the greatness of their efforts is acknowledged, they recall their surrogacy experience in the years to come as the most meaningful experience of their lives.
Even when the surrogate cases are successful in providing couples with children, there is the possibility of problems in the existing marriage surfacing. The thought of one of the partners in the relationship being unable to have children may lead to the need for counseling and medical support from a doctor or clinician.
Films and other fiction depicting emotional struggles of assisted reproductive technology have had an upswing first in the latter part of the 2000s decade, although the techniques have been available for decades. Yet, the amount of people that can relate to it by personal experience in one way or another is ever growing, and the variety of trials and struggles is huge.
- In Robert A. Heinlein's 1961 science fiction novel Stranger in a Strange Land, TV reporters exult that socialite Cynthia Duchess has decided to have the Perfect Baby, with the use of a sperm donor, an egg donor, and a gestational carrier.
- In the Metal Gear video game series, the character EVA was the gestational surrogate mother who gave birth to Solid Snake and Liquid Snake.
- The heroine of Heinlein's 1966 novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress describes herself as a "professional host-mother".
- The 1986 novel To Have and To Hold by Deborah Moggach (and the TV series on which it is based) has surrogacy as its central theme.
- The character Phoebe Buffay in hit US sitcom Friends was a gestational surrogate mother for her brother and his wife.
- The character Kira Nerys in sci-fi show Star Trek: Deep Space Nine acted as surrogate for the child of her colleague Miles O'Brien and his wife Keiko, after Keiko was injured and no longer able to carry. This was especially unusual as Kira and the O'Briens are not even the same species. Kira moved in with the O'Briens during the pregnancy. The O'Briens honoured Kira's wish for a traditional Bajoran birth rather than a human one, and even named the child after Kira.
- The character Fertility in Chuck Palahniuk's novel Survivor works as a commercial surrogate, although she is infertile herself.
- In the 2008 film Baby Mama, starring Tina Fey and Amy Poehler, Amy Poehler's character is a surrogate to Tina Fey's character.
- The Character Leah Patterson/Baker was surrogate to her friend Sally Fletcher and husband Flynn Saunders in the Australian soap opera Home and Away.
- In the film Chori Chori Chupke Chupke Madhu becomes a surrogate mother for Raj Malhotra and his wife Priya after Priya suffers an injury that causes her to become infertile.
- The character Christina McKinney in Ugly Betty acts as a surrogate for Wilhelmina Slater.
- The character Morgan Braithwaite in New Zealand's Serial Drama, Shortland Street, is an illegal surrogate for her infertile friends, Cindy and Trent.
- The character Ganondorf from The Legend of Zelda series is the surrogate child of Twinrova.
- The character Rachel Berry from Glee was born through a surrogate mother, played by Idina Menzel, to two gay fathers.
- The character Eliza Makepeace in Kate Morton's novel The Forgotten Garden is a surrogate mother for her cousin, Rose, who had her ovaries damaged by overlong exposure to X-rays in her childhood.
- Artificial insemination
- Embryo transfer
- Fertility tourism
- Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008
- In-vitro fertilization
- Repugnant market
- Sperm donation
- Third party reproduction
- ^ "Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Glossary". Reproductive Technology Council. http://www.rtc.org.au/glossary/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- ^ a b Tuininga, Kevin. 2008. The Ethics of Surrogacy Contracts and Nebraska's Surrogacy Law. Vol. 41. Issue 2. p185-206, 22p.
- ^ a b c Teman E (October 2008). "The social construction of surrogacy research: an anthropological critique of the psychosocial scholarship on surrogate motherhood". Soc Sci Med 67 (7): 1104–12. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.05.026. PMID 18573577.
- ^ Postgate, J.N. (1992). Early Mesopotamia Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge. p. 105. ISBN 0415110327.
- ^ Surrogate mother sues over demand for abortion retrieved 14 Feb 2011
- ^ National Post retrieved 14 Feb 2011
- ^ dcm.nt.gov.au
- ^ Coorey, Phil (2006-11-07). "And baby makes five - the senator, his wife and the surrogate mothers". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/surrogate-mothers-for-mps-baby/2006/11/06/1162661615860.html. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- ^ Nader, Carol (2007-12-03). "Senator wins paternity battle". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2007/12/02/1196530480979.html. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- ^ legislation.vic.gov.au
- ^ legislation.qld.gov.au
- ^ media.tas.gov.au
- ^ media.tas.gov.au
- ^ Civil Code of Quebec, 1991, c.64, article 541: "any agreement whereby a woman undertakes to procreate or carry a child for another person is absolutely null"
- ^ French civil code
- ^ Hugh Beale, Arthur Hartkamp, Hein Kotx, Dennis Tallon, Cases, materials and text on contract law, ius commune casebooks on the Common Law of Europe, Hart Publishing, 2002, p. 302 & 303. casebooks.eu
- ^ Peter Lee surrogacy case referred to police, SCMP, 2 Dec 2010
- ^ The Associated Press (2007-12-30). "India's surrogate mother business raises questions of global ethics". Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2007/12/30/2007-12-30_indias_surrogate_mother_business_raises_-2.html?page=0. Retrieved 2008-07-14.
- ^ ea.Regulators eye India's surrogacy sector. By Shilpa Kannan. India Business Report, BBC World. Retrieved on 23 Mars, 2009
- ^ a b c d Teman, Elly (2010). "Birthing a Mother: The Surrogate Body and the Pregnant Self". Berkeley: University of California Press. http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520259645.
- ^ Weisberg, D. Kelly. 2005. The Birth of Surrogacy in Israel. Florida: University of Florida Press
- ^ Kyodo News
- ^ a b Svitnev K (June 2010). "Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia". Reprod. Biomed. Online 20 (7): 892–4. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2010.03.023. PMID 20435519.
- ^ Svitnev K. Surrogacy and its legal regulation in Russia. Reprod BioMed Online. 2010;20 Supplement 3. Abstracts of the 5th Congress of the World Association of Reproductive Medicine:590
- ^ surrogacy.ru
- ^ The History of Surrogacy
- ^ Paternity Beyond the Grave RT (Russia Today TV)
- ^ Pulya I. Posthumous Grandchildren"
- ^ jurconsult.ru
- ^ surrogacy.ru
- ^ Svitnev K (2010). "Posters • Ethics and Law". Hum. Reprod. 25: i235-i236. doi:10.1093/humrep/de.25.s1.306.
- ^ Grady, Denise (2002-03-07). "Medical First: A Transplant Of a Uterus". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F01EFDC1230F934A35750C0A9649C8B63. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- ^ Hermerén, Göran (January 2011). "Surrogatmoderskap: Varför – och varför inte?" (in Swedish). Läkartidningen 108 (3): 68–69. http://www.lakartidningen.se/07engine.php?articleId=15828.
- ^ Surrogacy in Ukraine - Actual questions and answers (International Agency "Assisted Motherhood")
- ^ Brahams D (February 1987). "The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy". Hastings Cent Rep 17 (1): 16–9. doi:10.2307/3562435. JSTOR 3562435. PMID 3557939.
- ^ "Buying babies, bit by bit". The Economist. 19 December 2006. http://www.economist.com/node/8345513.
- ^ newsweek.com
- ^ Map of laws by jurisdiction from The American Surrogacy Center (TASC)
- ^ An Alibertarian Case for Reproductive Laissez-Faire, Bryan Caplan, December 30, 2009
- ^ Three references:
- MacCallum F, Lycett E, Murray C, Jadva V, Golombok S (June 2003). "Surrogacy: the experience of commissioning couples". Hum. Reprod. 18 (6): 1334–42. PMID 12773469.
- Jadva V, Murray C, Lycett E, MacCallum F, Golombok S (October 2003). "Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers". Hum. Reprod. 18 (10): 2196–204. PMID 14507844.
- Golombok S, Murray C, Jadva V, MacCallum F, Lycett E (May 2004). "Families created through surrogacy arrangements: parent-child relationships in the 1st year of life". Dev Psychol 40 (3): 400–11. doi:10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.110. PMID 15122966.
- ^ Teman E (March 2003). "The medicalization of "nature" in the "artificial body": surrogate motherhood in Israel". Med Anthropol Q 17 (1): 78–98. PMID 12703390.
- ^ Teman, Elly. 2003. "Knowing the Surrogate Body in Israel," in: Rachel Cook and Shelley Day Schlater (eds.), Surrogate Motherhood: International Perspectives, London: Hart Press, pp. 261-280, scribd.com
- ^ Ragone, Helena. Surrogate Motherhood: Conception in the Heart. 1994. Westview Books
- ^ Zimmerman, S. 1982. Alternatives in Human Reproduction for Involuntarily Childless Couples. Family Relations. Vol. 31. No. 2. pp.233-241.
- ^ a b Colleen Mastony, Tribune reporter (June 21, 2009). "Heartache of infertility shared on stage, screen". chicagotribune.com. http://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/art/chi-0621-fertility-dramasjun21,0,2997759.story.
- Surrogacy - the issues
- Indian women carrying babies for well-off buyers, 'Wombs for rent' pleases women and customers, but raises ethical questions; Monday, December 31, 2007; The Associated Press; CBC News; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- Paid surrogacy driven underground in Canada: CBC report; Wednesday, May 2, 2007; CBC News; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
- The government is working on drafting a new law to police surrogate pregnancies amid fears that the country's booming rent-a-womb industry is running out of control; Thursday, Jan 1, 2009; NDTV.com
- A Jerusalem Post article
- pbs.org, Surrogacy: Wombs for Rent?
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surrogacy — sur·ro·ga·cy / sər ə gə sē/ n pl cies: the office of a surrogate Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. surrogacy … Law dictionary
surrogacy — 1811; see SURROGATE (Cf. surrogate) + CY (Cf. cy) … Etymology dictionary
surrogacy — [sʉr′ə gə sē] n. pl. surrogacies 1. the fact or condition of being a surrogate 2. the act or practice of utilizing a surrogate mother to conceive and bear a child … English World dictionary
surrogacy — [[t]sʌ̱rəgəsi, AM sɜ͟ːr [/t]] N UNCOUNT Surrogacy is an arrangement by which a woman gives birth to a baby on behalf of a woman who is physically unable to have babies herself, and then gives the baby to her. In this country it is illegal to pay… … English dictionary
surrogacy — surrogate ► NOUN 1) a substitute, especially a person deputizing for another in a role or office. 2) (in the Christian Church) a bishop s deputy who grants marriage licences. DERIVATIVES surrogacy noun. ORIGIN from Latin surrogare elect as a… … English terms dictionary
surrogacy — noun Date: 1982 the practice of serving as a surrogate mother … New Collegiate Dictionary
surrogacy — /serr euh geuh see, sur /, n. the state of being a surrogate or surrogate mother. [1810 20] * * * … Universalium
surrogacy — noun a) The state or condition of being a surrogate. b) The practice of being a surrogate mother … Wiktionary
surrogacy — sur·ro·ga·cy sər ə gə sē, sə rə n, pl cies the practice of serving as a surrogate mother … Medical dictionary
surrogacy — sur|ro|ga|cy [ sʌrəgəsi ] noun uncount an arrangement in which a woman gives birth to a baby for another woman who cannot have children … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English