Medieval Armenia


Medieval Armenia
History of Armenia
Coat of Arms of Armenia
This article is part of a series
Prehistory
2400 BC - 590 BC
Name of Armenia
Hayk
Hayasa-Azzi
Nairi  · Urartu
Antiquity
591 BC - 428 AD
Orontid Armenia
Kingdom of Armenia
Kingdom of Sophene
Kingdom of Commagene
Lesser Armenia
Roman Armenia
Dynasties:
Orontid · Artaxiad · Arsacid
Middle Ages
429 - 1375
Marzpanate Period
Byzantine Armenia
Sassanid Armenia
Arab conquest of Armenia
Emirate of Armenia
Bagratid Armenia
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Zakarid Armenia
Dynasties:
Bagratid  · Rubenid  · Artsruni
Foreign Rule
1376 - 1918
Persian · Ottoman · Russian
Armenian Oblast
Armenian national movement
Hamidian massacres
Armenian Genocide
Contemporary
1918 - present
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Republic of Armenia

Armenia Portal
v · d · e


Contents

Prelude

Western Armenia had been under Byzantine control since the partition of the Kingdom of Armenia in AD 387, while Eastern Armenia had been under the occupation of the Sassanid Empire starting 428. Regardless of religious disputes[1], many Armenians became successful in the Byzantine Empire and occupied key positions. In Sassanid-occupied Armenia, the people struggled to preserve their Christian religion. This struggle reached its culmination in the Battle of Avarayr. Although the battle was a military defeat, Vartan Mamikonian's successor, Vahan, succeeded to force the Persians to grant religious freedom to the Christian Armenians in the Nvarsak Treaty of 484.[2]

Arab conquest

After the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632, the Arabs expanded their religion by force throughout the Middle East. In 639, with a force of 18,000 warriors, Abd‑er‑Rahman took Taron and sacked the country. In 642, the Muslims took Dvin, slaughtered 12,000 of its inhabitants and carried 35,000 into slavery.[3] Prince Theodoros Rshtuni organized resistance and liberated the enslaved Armenians.[4] However, Theodoros eventually accepted Arab rule of Armenia. Thus, in 645, the entirety of Armenia fell under Islamic rule. This period of 200 years was interrupted by a few restricted revolts, which never had a pan-Armenian character. Most petty Armenian families were weakened in favor of the Bagratunis and Artsrunis.

Bagratuni Armenia

As Islamic power was waning, Ashot I of the Bagratuni family got more influence in Armenia. He became prince of princes in 861, and after a war against nearby Arab emirs, in 885, he was recognized as King of Armenia by both the Caliph of Baghdad and the Emperor of Constantinople. After more than 450 years of foreign occupation, Armenians finally reasserted their sovereignty in their ancestral lands. Despite Bagratid efforts to control all Armenian noble families, the Artsrunis and Siunis eventually broke off from central rule. Ashot III transferred the capital from Kars to Ani, which came to be known as the "city of 1001 churches". Ani became an important cultural and economic center in the whole region. Bagratid Armenia fell in 1045 to the Byzantines and then in 1064 to Seljuk Turks.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Kingdom of Cilicia was founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. Their capital was Sis.

Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, since Armenia was under foreign occupation at the time. In the mid-13th century, King Hethoum I of Armenia voluntarily submitted the country to Mongol overlordship, and tried to encourage other countries to do the same, but was only able to persuade his son-in-law, Bohemond VI of Antioch, who submitted in 1259; however, Antioch was then wiped out in retaliation by the Muslims in 1268. Cilicia remained as a Mongol vassal until it too was destroyed in the mid-14th century by the Egyptian Mamluks.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Glory of Byzantium | Publications for Educators | Explore & Learn | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  2. ^ www.ANSC.org - Armenian Network of Student Clubs
  3. ^ Kurkjian, Vahan M.A History of Armenia hosted by The University of Chicago. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1958 pp. 173-185
  4. ^ (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Hayots Badmoutioun (Armenian History), Volume II. Hradaragutiun Azkayin Ousoumnagan Khorhourti, Athens, Greece. pp. 3–7. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ARMENIA — ARMENIA, in Transcaucasia. Historically its boundaries embraced a much wider area in different periods. The Armenian diaspora is scattered in many countries of the world and still identifies its past history and future aspirations with the wider… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Medieval fortification — This article is part of the series on: Medieval History By Region Medieval Armenia Medieval Bosnia Medieval England Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire …   Wikipedia

  • Armenia medieval — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Miniatura del Libro de las maravillas (siglo XV) que muestra la derrota de los armenios de Cilicia frente a los mamelucos en 1266. La historia medieval de Armenia (Armenio: Միջնադարյան Հայաստան) abarca la hi …   Wikipedia Español

  • Armenia — • A mountainous region of Western Asia occupying a somewhat indefinite area to the southeast of the Black Sea Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Armenia     Armenia      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Armenia bizantina — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Mapa de la Armenia bizantina, 387 536. Armenia bizantina es el nombre dado a la parte armenia del Imperio Bizantino. El tamaño del territorio varió a lo largo del tiempo, dependiendo del grado de control de los… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Medieval studies — is the academic interdisciplinary study of the middle ages. Contents 1 Development 2 See also 3 External links 4 Notes …   Wikipedia

  • Armenia — Para otros usos de este término, véase Armenia (desambiguación). Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun República de Armenia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Armenia — Infobox Country native name = hy. Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն hy. Hayastani Hanrapetut῾yun conventional long name = Republic of Armenia common name = Armenia national anthem = hy. Մեր Հայրենիք (Armenian) hy. Mer Hayrenik spaces|2 () Our Fatherland… …   Wikipedia

  • Armenia — /ahr mee nee euh, meen yeuh/; for 3 also Sp. /ahrdd me nyah/, n. 1. an ancient country in W Asia: now divided between Armenia, Turkey, and Iran. 2. Also called, Armenian Republic. a republic in Transcaucasia, S of Georgia and W of Azerbaijan.… …   Universalium

  • Medieval Corsica — Modified medieval citadel at Calvi The history of Corsica in the medieval period begins with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the invasions of various Germanic peoples in the fifth century and ends with the complete subjection of the… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.