- Emirate of Armenia
637A.D. Armeniaemerged as an autonomous principality within the Arabic Empire under Caliph Umar, reuniting Armenian lands previously ruled by the Byzantine Empireas well. The principality was ruled by the Prince of Armenia, recognised by the Caliph and the Byzantine Emperor.
Arabraid reached Armenia in 639A.D. [Jacques de Morgan. The History of the Armenian People. Boston, 1918, p.139.] Duin (Dabil or Duwin) was captured and pillaged during this raid. A second invasion took place in 642– 643and 650– 653. According to bishop Sebeos, on January 642, the Arabs took the city of Tovin (Duin) by storm, slaughtered twelve thousand of its inhabitants and carried away thirty-five thousand into slavery. [Histoire d’Héraclius. Trancl. Fr. Macler, Paris, 1904.] The Armenians submitted to the invaders and a treaty was signed in 654A.D. According to this agreement, Armenia was recognized as an autonomous state subject to an annual tribute and a contribution of fifteen thousand troops to the Arab army. The Arab policy of demanding that the tribute be paid in money had an effect on Armenian economy and society. Coins were struck in Duin. The Armenians were forced to produce a surplus of food and manufactured goods for sale. A strong urban life was developed in Caucasiaas the economy revived.
The Arabs, for administrative purposes, gathered the whole of the
South Caucasusinto one vast viceroyalty called al-Arminiya. This viceroyalty was governed by an ostikan occasionally referred to as the emirand from that the viceroyalty – emirate. It was established by the time of the caliph Abd al-Malikof the Umayyaddynasty (reigned 685 – 705). The Emirate of Armenia (al-Arminiya) was divided into four regions: Arminiya I ( Caucasian Albania), Arminiya II ( Caucasian Iberia), Arminiya III (the area around Aras River), Arminiya IV (Taron) [Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001, 107, map 81.] . This viceroyalty also contained two large lakes: the salt lakeknown as Lake Vanin the south-west, and the fresh water Lake Gukchah on its north-eastern border.
The most prominent Caliph of the
AbbasidDynasty was Harun al-Rashidwhorose to power on 14 September, 786A.D. While he was a benevolent ruler, his emirs in Armenia were not. Despite the orders from Baghdad, the Arab rulers of Armenia, continued to loot churches and opress the land by cruelty and heavy taxation. Some times the Emirate of Armenia included Al-Jazira in northern Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan (classical Media Atropatene), and less often, Tabaristan (southeast of Gīlān), and even Fars (central Persia). The center of the viceroyalty was the large Armenian city Dvin.
The Emirate of Armenia lasted till
884A.D. Ashot Iof the Bagratuni Dynastyhad managed to win control over most of its area and declared himself "King of the Armenians". He received recognition by Caliph Al-Mu'tamidof the Abbasid dynasty in 885 and Byzantine Emperor Basil Iof the Macedonian dynastyin 886. Armenia thus emerged as an independent region.
* Emirs d'Armènia [http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categoria:Emirs_d%27Arm%C3%A8nia]
Islam in Armenia
* Ghewond's History [http://rbedrosian.com/ghew4.htm]
* Jacques de Morgan. The History of the Armenian People. Boston, 1918, Pp. 428.
* Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001, Pp. 341.
* Garbis Armen. Historical Atlas of Armenia. A. N. E. C., New York, 1987, Pp. 52.
George Bournoutian. A History of the Armenian People, Volume I: Pre-History to 1500 A.D., Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa, 1993, Pp. 174.
* John Douglas. The Armenians, J.J. Winthrop Corp., New York, 1992.
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