- Kingdom of Commagene
Kingdom of Commagene
← 163 BC – 72 AD → Tigranes the Great Capital Samosata Language(s) Greek, Persian, Armenian Government Monarchy King - 163-130 BC Ptolemaeus - 38-72 AD Antiochus IV Historical era Hellenistic Age - Established 163 BC - Disestablished 72 History of Armenia
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2400 BC - 590 BC
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1376 - 1918
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Little is known of the region of Commagene prior to the beginning of the 2nd century BC. However, it seems that, from what little evidence remains, Commagene formed part of a larger state that also included Sophene. The later kings of Commagene claimed to be descended from the Orontid dynasty, and would therefore have been related to the family that founded the Kingdom of Armenia. However, the accuracy of these claims is uncertain.
This control lasted until c. 163 BC, when the local satrap, Ptolemaeus of Commagene, established himself as independent ruler following the death of the Seleucid king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The Kingdom of Commagene maintained its independence until 17AD, when it was made a Roman province by the Emperor Tiberius. It reemerged as an independent kingdom when Antiochus IV of Commagene was reinstated to the throne by order of the Emperor Caligula, then deprived by that same Emperor, then restored a couple of years later by his successor, Claudius. This re-emergent Kingdom lasted until 72AD, when the Emperor Vespasian finally and definitively made it a part of the Roman Empire.
Commagene was a small kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). It was first mentioned in Assyrian texts as Kummuhu, which was normally an ally of Assyria, but eventually annexed as province in 708 BC under Sargon II. The Persian Empire then conquered Commagene in the 6th century BC, and Alexander the Great conquered the territory in the 4th century BC. After the breakup of the Alexandrian Empire, Commagene was a state and province in the Greco-Syrian Seleucid Empire.
The Hellenistic kingdom of Commagene, bounded by Cilicia on the west and Cappadocia on the north, arose in 162 BC. This was the year when its governor, Ptolemy, a Satrap of the disintegrating Seleucid Empire, declared himself independent. Ptolemy's dynasty was related to the Parthian kings, but his descendant Mithridates I Callinicus (100 - 69 BC) embraced the Hellenistic culture and married the Syrian Greek Princess Laodice VII Thea. His dynasty could thus claim ties with both Alexander the Great and the Persian kings. This marriage may also have been part of a peace alliance between Commagene and the Seleucid Empire. From this point on, the kingdom of Commagene became more Greek then Persian.
Mithridates and Laodice’s son was king Antiochus I Theos of Commagene (reigned 70 BC-38 BC). Antiochus was an ally to Roman general Pompey in his campaigns against Mithridates of Pontus in 64 BC. Through skilled diplomacy, Antiochus was able to keep Commagene independent from the Romans. In 17 when Antiochus III of Commagene died, Emperor Tiberius annexed Commagene to the province of Syria, but in 38 Caligula reinstated his son Antiochus IV and also gave him the wild areas of Cilicia to govern. Antiochus IV was the only Client King of Commagene under the Roman Empire. Antiochus IV reigned until 72, when Emperor Vespasian deposed the dynasty and re-annexed the territory to Syria, acting on allegations "that Antiochus was about to revolt from the Romans... reported by the Governor Caesennius Paetus". The descendants of Antiochus IV lived prosperously and in distinction in Anatolia, Greece, Italy and the Middle East. As a testament to the descendants of Antiochus IV, was his grandson Philopappos who died in 116. The citizens of Athens in 116, erected a funeral monument in honor of Philopappos, who was a benefactor of Athens. Another descendant of Antiochus IV, was the historian Gaius Asinius Quadratus, who lived in the 3rd century.
When the Romans conquered Commagene, the great royal sanctuary at Mount Nemrut was abandoned. The Romans looted the tumulus and the XVI legion built and dedicated a bridge. The surrounding thick forests were cut down and cleared by the Romans for wood, timber and charcoal. The clearing of the surrounding forests have caused much erosion to the area.
In Commagene, there is a column topped by an eagle, which has earned the mound name Karakush, or The Black Bird. An inscription there indicates, there is a royal tomb that housed three women. Unfortunately, the vault of that tomb has also been looted.
The main excavations on the site were carried out by Friedrich Karl Dörner of the University of Münster.
- ^ Wolfgang Haase, Hildegard Temporini (1986). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Walter de Gruyter. p. 736. ISBN 3110073374.
- ^ a b c Sartre, M., The Middle East under Rome (2007), p. 23
- ^ Hazel, J., Who's Who ion the Roman World (2002), p. 13
- ^ Ewald, Heinrich (1886). The history of Israel, Volume 8. Longmans, Green, & Co.. p. 23.
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Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia Before Achaemenid conquest (546 BC) After Partition of Babylon (323 BC)
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Commagene — For the kingdom, please see Kingdom of Commagene. [ Armenian Empire under Tigranes the Great.] Commagene or Kommagene (Greek: Kομμαγηνή , Kommagênê hy. Կոմմագենէ) is a region of ancient Armenia which is located in modern south eastern Turkey on… … Wikipedia
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Commagene — ▪ historical region, Near East region in northern ancient Syria (modern south central Turkey) bounded by Cilicia on the west and Cappadocia on the north. Its eastern boundary on the Euphrates River, at the conjunction of several routes over … Universalium
Callinicus (Prince of Commagene) — Callinicus (Greek: ο Кαλλίνικος) was a prince of the Kingdom of Commagene, who lived in the 1st century. Callinicus was the second born son and child to King Antiochus IV of Commagene and Queen Iotapa of Commagene. His parents were full blooded… … Wikipedia
List of rulers of Commagene — The Kingdom of Commagene was a small Hellenized Armenian kingdom in southern Anatolia near Antioch, which began life as a tributary state of the Seleucid Empire and later became an independent kingdom, before eventually being annexed by the Roman … Wikipedia
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Antiochus I Theos of Commagene — Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Greek: о Αντίοχος Θεός Δίκαιος Επιφανής Φιλορωμαίος Φιλέλλην, c. 86 BC 38 BC, ruled 70 BC 38 BC) also known as Antiochus I Theos of Commagene or Antiochus I, was a king of Commagene… … Wikipedia
Antiochus IV of Commagene — Gaius Julius Antiochus IV Epiphanes, also known as Antiochus IV Epiphanes or Antiochus IV of Commagene, (Greek:ο Γαίος Ιούλιος Αντίοχος Επιφανής, before 17 sometime after 72) was the last king of Commagene who reigned between 38 72. Antiochus was … Wikipedia
Antiochus III of Commagene — Antiochus III Epiphanes, also known as Antiochus III of Commagene (Greek: ο Αντίοχος Επιφανής, flourished 1st century BC and 1st century) was a man of Armeniancite book last = Chahin first = Mark author link = title =The Kingdom of Armenia… … Wikipedia