Principality of Littoral Croatia


Principality of Littoral Croatia
Principality of Croatia
Primorska Hrvatska
c. 8th century–925
The Croatian Principality c. 850. Savia was probably under direct Frankish rule
Capital Not specified
Language(s) Latin
Religion Christian, Roman Catholic
Government Monarchy
Knez
=Prince (Duke)
 - 803-821 Borna (first) de jure
 - 845-864 Trpimir I
 - 910–925 Tomislav
Historical era Medieval
 - Establishment c. 8th century
 - Tomislav crowned as king 925
Today part of  Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
History of Croatia
Coat of arms of Croatia
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Littoral Croatia (Croatian: Primorska Hrvatska) or Dalmatian Croatia (Croatian: Dalmatinska Hrvatska) is a name for a region of what used to be a medieval Croatian principality which was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time, the Principality had several capital cities, namely Klis, Solin, Biograd, Knin, Biaći[1] and Nin, comprised the littoral, or coastal part of today's Croatia and included a big part of the mountainous hinterland. The Principality had the House of Trpimirović as the ruling dynasty, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević (864-878 and 879-892).

Contents

Geography

Within the defined Littoral Croatia, some other states, which are sometimes (by the Byzantines) called sklavinije (sqlaviniah), were settled along the Adriatic coast. The nearest one, Pagania (also called Neretvanian state), which stretched from the rivers Cetina to Neretva, had the islands of Brač, Hvar, Korčula, Mljet, Vis and Lastovo in its possession. In the southern part of Dalmatia, there was Zahumlje (Zachumlia), Travunia and Dioclea (today Montenegro). The central part of the Littoral state consisted partially of Bosnia. North of the state there was the Principality of Pannonian Croatia.

History

Early

From that point on, they were independent, and demanded to be baptised from the bishop of Rome, and was sent to them to be baptised in the time of their duke Porga. Their land was divided in eleven županija, which are: Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere, Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina, and their ban (boanos) has Kribasan, Litzan, Goutzeska

—Constantine Porphyrogenitus in De Administrando Imperio

In the 9th century, Croatia emerged as a political entity with a duke (also knez, translated as duke or prince) as a head of state, territorially in the basins of the rivers Cetina, Krka and Zrmanja. It was administered in 11 župa (Županije).

The earliest recorded prince, referred to by the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, was Porga, who was believed to have been invited into Dalmatia by the Byzantium Emperor Heraclius.

Trpimir I

Duke Mislav was succeeded around 845 by Trpimir I, who continued the formal legacy of being the vassal of the Frankish king Lothair (840–855), although he managed to strengthen his personal rule in Croatia. Arabian campaigns thoroughly weakened the Byzantine Empire and Venice, which was used in the advance of the Croatian prince in 846 and 848. Between 854 and 860, he successfully defended his land from the Bulgarian invasion, and defeated them finally in eastern Bosnia.

Delegation of Croats and Serbs to Basil I, in the Madrid Skylitzes.

In a Latin charter preserved in a rewrite from 1568, that dates, according to newer research, to about 840)[citation needed], Trpimir refers to himself as dux Croatorum iuvatus munere divino (leader of the Croats with the help of God); his land, called regnum Croatorum, "Kingdom of the Croats", can simply be interpreted as the land of the Croats, since the theory of an early kingdom is largely disputed. This charter also documents his ownership of castle Klis, from where his rule was centered. He is more expressly remembered as the founder of the House of Trpimirović, which was the first and the only native dynasty throughout the history of the Croats.

See also

Sources

  • Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924.
  • Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975.
  1. ^ Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata; pregled povijesti hrvatskog naroda 600. - 1918., Zagreb ISBN 953-214-197-9

External links


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