- Principality of Littoral Croatia
Principality of Croatia
c. 8th century–925 → Capital Not specified Language(s) Latin Religion Christian, Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Knez
- 803-821 Borna (first) de jure - 845-864 Trpimir I - 910–925 Tomislav Historical era Medieval - Establishment c. 8th century - Tomislav crowned as king 925 Today part of Croatia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
History of Croatia
This article is part of a series
Early history Prehistoric Croatia Origins of the Croats White Croatia Medieval history Littoral Croatia · Pannonian Croatia · Pagania · Zachlumia · Travunia Kingdom of Croatia March of Istria Republic of Poljica Republic of Dubrovnik Kingdom of Bosnia Habsburg Empire Kingdom of Croatia Croatian Military Frontier Illyrian Provinces · Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Slavonia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs Yugoslavia Socialist Republic of Croatia Contemporary Croatia War of independence Republic of Croatia
Littoral Croatia (Croatian: Primorska Hrvatska) or Dalmatian Croatia (Croatian: Dalmatinska Hrvatska) is a name for a region of what used to be a medieval Croatian principality which was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia. Throughout its time, the Principality had several capital cities, namely Klis, Solin, Biograd, Knin, Biaći and Nin, comprised the littoral, or coastal part of today's Croatia and included a big part of the mountainous hinterland. The Principality had the House of Trpimirović as the ruling dynasty, with interruptions by the House of Domagojević (864-878 and 879-892).
Within the defined Littoral Croatia, some other states, which are sometimes (by the Byzantines) called sklavinije (sqlaviniah), were settled along the Adriatic coast. The nearest one, Pagania (also called Neretvanian state), which stretched from the rivers Cetina to Neretva, had the islands of Brač, Hvar, Korčula, Mljet, Vis and Lastovo in its possession. In the southern part of Dalmatia, there was Zahumlje (Zachumlia), Travunia and Dioclea (today Montenegro). The central part of the Littoral state consisted partially of Bosnia. North of the state there was the Principality of Pannonian Croatia.
“ From that point on, they were independent, and demanded to be baptised from the bishop of Rome, and was sent to them to be baptised in the time of their duke Porga. Their land was divided in eleven županija, which are: Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere, Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina, and their ban (boanos) has Kribasan, Litzan, Goutzeska ”
—Constantine Porphyrogenitus in De Administrando Imperio
In the 9th century, Croatia emerged as a political entity with a duke (also knez, translated as duke or prince) as a head of state, territorially in the basins of the rivers Cetina, Krka and Zrmanja. It was administered in 11 župa (Županije).
Duke Mislav was succeeded around 845 by Trpimir I, who continued the formal legacy of being the vassal of the Frankish king Lothair (840–855), although he managed to strengthen his personal rule in Croatia. Arabian campaigns thoroughly weakened the Byzantine Empire and Venice, which was used in the advance of the Croatian prince in 846 and 848. Between 854 and 860, he successfully defended his land from the Bulgarian invasion, and defeated them finally in eastern Bosnia.
In a Latin charter preserved in a rewrite from 1568, that dates, according to newer research, to about 840), Trpimir refers to himself as dux Croatorum iuvatus munere divino (leader of the Croats with the help of God); his land, called regnum Croatorum, "Kingdom of the Croats", can simply be interpreted as the land of the Croats, since the theory of an early kingdom is largely disputed. This charter also documents his ownership of castle Klis, from where his rule was centered. He is more expressly remembered as the founder of the House of Trpimirović, which was the first and the only native dynasty throughout the history of the Croats.
- Dukes of Croatia
- Kingdom of Croatia (medieval)
- Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924.
- Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975.
- Croatia — an independent principality (Richard C. Frucht: Eastern Europe, Edition 2005 /Santa Barbara, California, USA/)
- Prince Branimir put the Principality of Croatia "permanently beneath the wing of the Roman Church and Western Christian civilization (879)" (Richard Barrie Dobson: Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Edition 2000 /Cambridge, England, UK/)
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