Metropolitan line


Metropolitan line
Metropolitan
Metropolitan line flag box.png
Colour on map Magenta
Year opened 1863
Line type Sub-Surface
Rolling stock A Stock and S Stock

8 carriages per trainset

Stations served 34
Length 66.7 km (41.4 mi)
Depots Neasden[1]
Journeys made 53.697 million (2007)[2]

The Metropolitan line is part of the London Underground. It is coloured in Transport for London's (TfL) Corporate Magenta[3] on the Tube map and in other branding. It was the first underground railway in the world, opening as the Metropolitan Railway on 10 January 1863. (Parts of that initial railway are no longer served by the Metropolitan line, but by the Hammersmith & City, District and Circle lines.) The main line runs from Aldgate in the City of London to Amersham in Buckinghamshire, with branch lines to Uxbridge, Watford and Chesham. On the southern section the line is below ground for much of the way; north of Baker Street, at Finchley Road the line runs in the open. Of the 34 stations served, nine are below ground. It is the ninth busiest line on the network.[4]

The four-track section between Wembley Park and Moor Park allows the running of express or "fast" services to the outer suburbs which can overtake slower stopping trains. The Metropolitan is the only Underground line with this feature, and the only one to which the general rule "all trains call at all stations" does not apply.

Baker Street is the central London terminus for many trains, while others continue into the City to terminate at Aldgate.

The line has the highest speed limits on the London Underground network. Before the late 1990s/early 2000s, the fast line north of Harrow-on-the-Hill was 70 mph (113 km/h). The Metropolitan stock has now been limited to 50 mph (80 km/h), still one of the fastest. Line speeds have fallen accordingly, with the majority of the line north of Finchley Road limited to 50 mph (80 km/h) (although where National Rail services run on the line it is 60 mph (97 km/h)).

The Metropolitan line and the Central line are the only two Underground routes with stations outside the boundaries of Greater London and the M25 orbital motorway.

Contents

History

Construction of the Metropolitan Railway close to King's Cross station in 1861

The origins of the Metropolitan line lie with the incorporation, in 1853, of the North Metropolitan Railway, the original name of the Metropolitan Railway, which had been empowered to build a line from the Great Western Railway at Paddington to Farringdon, with a connection to the Great Northern Railway at King's Cross.[5] Work on the railway had begun in February 1860 using the "cut-and-cover" method of construction. This caused great traffic disruption in north London; during the work the Fleet Sewer burst into the diggings, flooding the partly built tunnel.[6][7] The first section was opened from near Paddington to Farringdon Street (now Farringdon station) in January 1863.[8] Later in 1863, it was suggested that all the main-line termini of London should be linked by underground railway. Parliament recommended that the best way of doing this was to form an "inner circuit", part of which would be the existing Metropolitan Railway; another section would be built by a new company (the Metropolitan District Railway), whilst the Metropolitan would build the connecting lines.[9]

Between its opening and the 1930s the railway was expanded until its total mileage exceeded 90, most of it progressively electrified from 1905. In 1933 the Metropolitan Railway was nationalised by the London Passenger Transport Act 1933, becoming the Metropolitan line of London Transport. The line was successively rationalised during the ensuing period. The section northwest of Aylesbury was closed in 1936, though services did return to Quainton Road between 1943 and 1948. Also in 1936 the Metropolitan line was extended from Whitechapel to Barking along the tracks of the District line. In 1939 the Stanmore branch was transferred to the Bakerloo line. (It was subsequently transferred to the Jubilee line when that line opened in 1979.)

Metropolitan line Heraldry

Steam-hauled passenger trains ran north of Rickmansworth until 1961 and maintenance trains until 1972. A major modernisation of that part of the line took place by 1960. In September 1961 the service north of Amersham was withdrawn, along with the steam passenger service. The line north of Harrow-on-the-Hill was quadrupled to Northwood Hills by 1961 and to Croxleyhall Junction (north of Moor Park) by 1962. Formerly, local and semi-fast services from Aylesbury to Harrow had shared the double track with main line expresses of the former Great Central route.

Another major change took place in 1988, when the Hammersmith & City and East London Lines, were rebranded as separate lines rather than parts of the Metropolitan line. The Metropolitan line is now confined to its original route from Aldgate to Baker Street, running through the tunnels opened by the Metropolitan Railway back in 1868, and northwards, through the area that came to be known as "Metro-land". The East London Line shared stock with the Metropolitan line until its closure in 2007 for conversion into a London Overground line. While there was never through running between the two lines, there is a physical connection (via St Mary's curve), although this is now redundant, because the East London Line now uses Overground rolling stock.

In 1998, the infrastructure of the Metropolitan line was partly privatised in a controversial public–private partnership. It is now part of the "Sub-Surface Railways" group, managed along with the Circle, Hammersmith & City and District lines by London Underground Limited, formerly the Metronet consortium.[10]

The Metropolitan line, being the first underground railway in the world, has had a major influence on underground railways worldwide. The Paris Métro took its name, in full Chemin de fer Métropolitain, from the Metropolitan line. The modern word metro is derived from the word Metropolitan.

Rolling stock

A60 Stock at Baker Street tube station (2011)
New S Stock at Croxley tube station (2010)

The rolling stock still largely in use on the Metropolitan line is the sub-surface-gauge A Stock built by Cravens in Sheffield, which were shared with the East London Line until 2007. It ran in service with unpainted aluminium bodywork for many years, but when refurbished in the 1990s it received the now standard white and blue Underground livery, with red ends. A Stock Metropolitan line services are formed of two four-car units coupled together to make eight-car trains, although the former Chesham shuttle service was served by a four-car train, as was the East London Line when it was an Underground route.

The A Stock trains were built between 1960 and 1962. This is now the oldest passenger rail fleet on the UK mainland, and LUL says it requires "an intense maintenance regime" to keep up an acceptable level of reliability.[11] They replaced a wide variety of older rolling stock, including trains with hinged doors and compartments (T Stock electric multiple units for Watford services and locomotive-hauled carriages for Aylesbury services), as well as London Underground P stock (built in 1937) and F Stock (built in 1920) used on Uxbridge services.

The A Stock trains are now being progressively replaced by new S Stock. The first S Stock trains entered service in summer 2010[11] and it is intended that all 58 new eight-car sets for the Metropolitan will be in service by mid 2012. In combination with new signalling, the new fleet will increase overall capacity on the line by 27%.[12]

Map

Geographical layout of the Metropolitan line

Stations

[v · d · e]Metropolitan Main line
Legend
Unknown BSicon "utCONTg"
Jubilee Line
Unknown BSicon "utCONTr" Unknown BSicon "utUKRZu" Unknown BSicon "utABZ3lg" Unknown BSicon "utCONTl"
To Circle Line
Urban tunnel straight track Exit urban tunnel
Urban tunnel station on track + Hub
Urban station on track + Hub
Baker Street Bakerloo roundel1.PNG Circle roundel1.PNG H&c roundel.PNG Jubilee roundel1.PNG
Urban tunnel straight track Enter urban tunnel
Exit urban tunnel Exit urban tunnel Continuation backward
London to Aylesbury Line (to Marylebone station)
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of urban cross-platform interchange Straight track
Finchley Road Jubilee roundel1.PNG
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of urban cross-platform interchange Straight track
Wembley Park Jubilee roundel1.PNG
Unknown BSicon "ueABZrg" Waterway with unused branch to right Straight track
Urban End station Urban straight track Straight track
Stanmore (1932-1939)
Unknown BSicon "ueHST" Straight track
Preston Road (1908-1932)
Urban stop on track Straight track
Preston Road (1932-)
Urban stop on track Straight track
Northwick Park
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of cross-platform interchange
Harrow-on-the-Hill National Rail
Urban junction to left Unknown BSicon "mKRZo" Urban track turning from right
Urban straight track Straight track Urban End station
Uxbridge Piccadilly roundel1.PNG (1938-)
Urban stop on track Straight track
North Harrow
Urban stop on track Straight track
Pinner
Urban stop on track Straight track
Northwood Hills
Urban station on track Straight track
Northwood
Urban stop on track Straight track
Moor Park
Waterway turning from left Unknown BSicon "uexABZ rd" Straight track
Watford Curve
Urban stop on track Urban straight track Straight track
Croxley
Unknown BSicon "uKHSTe" Urban straight track Straight track
Watford
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of cross-platform interchange
Rickmansworth National Rail
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of cross-platform interchange
Chorleywood National Rail
Right side of urban cross-platform interchange Left side of cross-platform interchange
Chalfont & Latimer National Rail
Waterway turning from left Unknown BSicon "uABZrf" Straight track
Unknown BSicon "uKHSTe" Urban straight track Straight track
Chesham
Unknown BSicon "uxCPICle" Left side of cross-platform interchange
Amersham National Rail
Dates relate to Metropolitan Railway operations        
Notice explaining about step-free access. This can be found inside every Metropolitan line train.

In order from east to west

Shared Circle and Hammersmith & City lines
Station Image Opened Additional information
Aldgate Aldgate-Station-Entrance.jpg 18 November 1876 Terminusmap 1
Liverpool Street Liverpool Street Underground concourse entr.JPG 12 July 1875 Opened as Bishopsgate, renamed 1 November 1909map 2
Moorgate Moorgate.jpg 1865 Trains from the north/west can terminate at Moorgate, but none regularly do in the current timetablemap 3
Barbican Barbican Station.jpg 1865 Opened as Aldersgate Street, renamed to Aldersgate in 1910, renamed Aldersgate and Barbican in 1923, current name is from 1968map 4
Farringdon Farringdon station exterior.jpg 10 January 1863 map 5
King's Cross St. Pancras Handicapped/disabled access King's Cross St Pancras tube stn Euston Rd NE entrance.JPG 1863 map 6
Euston Square Euston Square stn look east.JPG 1863 Originally Gower Streetmap 7
Great Portland Street Great Portland St Tube Station.jpg 10 January 1863 Originally Portland Roadmap 8
Core Section
The Metropolitan line diverges from the Circle/Hammersmith & City lines just east of Baker Street station, where they use separate platforms, at a roughly 45 degree angle to the Circle/Hammersmith & City platforms
Baker Street BakerStEntrance.JPG 10 January 1863 Most trains begin their northbound journey heremap 9
Finchley Road* Finchley Road Tube.jpg 30 June 1879 map 10
Wembley Park** Handicapped/disabled access Wembley Park tube station extension.jpg 14 October 1893 Fully opened 12 May 1894map 11
Preston Road Preston Road Tube Station.jpg 21 May 1908 The line passed through here en route to Harrow, 2 August 1880map 12
Northwick Park Northwick Park tube station 1.jpg 28 June 1923 Opened as Northwick Park and Kenton, the line passed through here en route to Harrow, 2 August 1880map 13
Harrow-on-the-Hill Harrow-on-the-Hill stn north entrance.JPG 2 August 1880 At Harrow, the line splits into two branches – the main line to Watford and Amersham, and the Uxbridge branchmap 14
* – Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park the Metropolitan line's tracks run outside the tracks of the Jubilee line. Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, Metropolitan line trains do not stop at West Hampstead, Kilburn, Willesden Green, Dollis Hill, and Neasden stations. Willesden Green and Neasden stations have platforms on the Metropolitan line tracks, but Metropolitan line trains stop there only during emergencies, or when there are major operating issues with either the Metropolitan or Jubilee lines.
** – At Wembley Park, the Metropolitan lines split from two tracks to four, with the faster lines on the outside. Fast services (typically to Amersham and Chesham) and semi-fast services (typically to Watford) do not stop at Preston Road or Northwick Park. During peak periods, they also skip Wembley Park, running non-stop from Finchley Road to Harrow-on-the-Hill.

Uxbridge branch

Continuing from Harrow on the Hill
Station Image Opened Additional information
West Harrow West Harrow tube station 2.jpg 17 November 1913 map 15
Rayners Lane Rayners Lane stn building.JPG 26 May 1906 From Rayners Lane to Uxbridge the line shares tracks with the Piccadilly line

map 16

Eastcote Eastcote tube station 1.jpg 26 May 1906 Opened as Eastcote Haltmap 17
Ruislip Manor Ruislip Manor tube station 1.jpg 5 August 1912 Opened as Ruislip Manor Haltmap 18
Ruislip Ruislip station building.JPG 4 July 1904 map 19
Ickenham Ickenham tube station 1.jpg 25 September 1905 Opened as Ickenham Haltmap 20
Hillingdon Handicapped/disabled access Hillingdon stn entrance.JPG 10 December 1923 map 21
Uxbridge Handicapped/disabled access Uxbridge station entrance.JPG 4 July 1904 Terminusmap 22

Northwood branch

Continuing from Harrow on the Hill
Station Image Opened Additional information
North Harrow N Harrow station.jpg 22 March 1915 map 23
Pinner Handicapped/disabled access Pinner tube station.jpg 25 May 1885 map 24
Northwood Hills Northwood Hills tube station.jpg 13 November 1933 map 25
Northwood Northwood tube station.jpg 1 September 1887 The last station within Greater Londonmap 26
Moor Park Moor Park stn main entrance.JPG 9 May 1910 Opened as Sandy Lodge; renamed Moor Park & Sandy Lodge, 18 October 1923; current name from 25 September 1950map 27
After Harrow-on-the-Hill the lines are re-arranged into two neighbouring pairs: the slow (the northerly pair) and the fast. The fast lines are also shared with the National Rail line to Aylesbury (operated by Chiltern Railways) which south of Harrow on the Hill run parallel. The stations between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Moor Park (exclusive) have platforms only on the slow lines, and are stopped at only by slow and semi-fast services, which usually run to Watford. At Moor Park the line splits, with the fast line forming the main line towards Amersham and the slow line heading towards Watford.

Watford branch

Continuing from Moor Park
Station Image Opened Additional information
Croxley Croxley Tube Station - exterior.JPG 2 November 1925 Opened as Croxley Green, renamed 23 May 1949map 28
Watford Watford Tube Station.JPG 4 November 1925 map 29
A triangular connection ("the North Curve") also exists, allowing trains to run between Watford and Rickmansworth, and there are a few early-morning/late-evening services that do this.

Towards Amersham or Chesham

Continuing from Moor Park
Station Image Opened Additional information
Rickmansworth Rickmansworth station building.JPG 1 September 1887 map 30
Chorleywood Handicapped/disabled access Chorleywood station building.JPG 8 July 1889 Opened as Chorley Wood; renamed Chorley Wood & Chenies, 1 November 1915; reverted 1934; current name from 1964map 31
Chalfont & Latimer Handicapped/disabled access Chalfont & Latimer station building.JPG 8 July 1889 Opened as Chalfont Road, renamed 1 November 1915map 32
Stations between Rickmansworth and Amersham are also served by most Chiltern services to Aylesbury.
Here trains continue either to Amersham or on a separate branch to Chesham. Until December 2010, out of peak times, Chesham was served by a shuttle service by a 4 car A stock train, which was stabled at Chalfont & Latimer in the peak hours. The service interval to Chesham is roughly every 30 minutes.
Continuing from Chalfont & Latimer
Station Image Opened Additional information
Chesham Handicapped/disabled access Chesham station buidling.jpg 8 July 1889 The original northern terminus of the Metropolitan Railway from Baker Streetmap 33
Continuing from Chalfont & Latimer
Station Image Opened Additional information
Amersham Amersham tube station 1.jpg 1 September 1892 Renamed Amersham & Chesham Bois, 12 March 1922, reverted 1937map 34

Depot

The Metropolitan line is served by one depot at Neasden.[1]map 35

Former stations

A 1924 map of the Brill and Verney Junction branches

St John's Wood section

Beyond Amersham

Verney Junction Branch

Brill Tramway

Mainline character

The Metropolitan line differs significantly from other London Underground lines, having more of a suburban mainline feel. Only 6 mi (9.7 km) of the line is underground; the other 35.5 mi (57.1 km) are above ground.[2]It has full-size "sub-surface" rolling stock rather than "tube" trains, and it skirts rather than crosses both the West End and the City.

Also, unlike other lines, the Metropolitan operates a mixture of fast, semi-fast, and all-station services.[13] The "fast" services, usually to Amersham or Chesham, call at Baker Street, Finchley Road, Wembley Park (off-peak hours only), Harrow-on-the-Hill, Moor Park and then all stations. There are also semi-fast services, usually just in the peak, which use the fast stopping pattern as far as Harrow-on-the-Hill, but then stop at all stations, usually to Watford. The Metropolitan line does not stop at Jubilee line stations between Finchley Road and Wembley Park.[14]Off peak, the fast services terminate at Baker Street, on Marylebone Road, and do not continue further into the city. Several mainline stations to the North also have terminuses on the same ring road.[15]

The line goes well outside Greater London, serving parts of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. As a result it is the only Underground line to serve Travelcard zones 7, 8 and 9. It does not have any stations in Zone 3, making it the only Underground line serving non-contiguous zones.

The A Stock is fitted with transverse seating only, luggage racks, and umbrella hooks. The new S Stock that is replacing the A Stock has a mix of transverse and longitudinal seating and as a result has 32 per cent fewer seats.[16] The S Stock trains have train-length gangways which allow passengers to move between coaches, like main-line trains.

The fast lines north of Harrow, including all the lines north of Rickmansworth, appear to be signalled to Network Rail standards. However, this is not actually the case. Although standard 4 aspect Network Rail signal heads are installed, they actually use standard LUL signalling [17]. The upper 2 lights are a standard two aspect LUL stop signal displaying either a single green or single red aspect. The lower 2 lights are a standard LUL repeater signal for the next stop signal ahead showing either a single green or single yellow aspect. The repeater indication is suppressed when the stop signal shows a red aspect. Thus although the signal is really 2 signals combined, it nevertheless appears to a train driver as a 3 aspect signal. The danger indication is a single red light; the caution indication (i.e. the next stop signal shows danger) is a yellow light with a green light above it and the clear indication is two green lights. This combination departs from the usual railway standard of having the red light as the lowest light on the signal.

The Metropolitan line is the fastest London Undeground line, with large sections of track being at 50 or 60 mph (80 or 97 km/h) (previously 70 mph (110 km/h)). The normal line speed for an Underground line is 40–45 mph (64–72 km/h). A computerised signal control centre operates from Baker Street covering the line to Aldgate while other signalling points on the line are run locally.[2]

Unusually for the Underground, full timetables are published for the Watford to North Harrow, and Amersham/Chesham to Rickmansworth sections.[13] There is also a less-detailed leaflet covering the Uxbridge to West Harrow section.

Current service pattern

Platform information sign at Moorgate station advising passengers that some Metropolitan line trains do not call at all stations. Over the years the list of stations "non-stopped" has varied, with, for instance, at one time Harrow-On-The-Hill and West Harrow being included in the list. Trains that omit Wembley Park do so only during peak hours, in both directions.

The current off-peak service pattern is as follows:

  • 6 trains an hour Uxbridge – Aldgate (all stations)
  • 6 trains an hour Watford – Baker Street (all stations)
  • 2 trains an hour Amersham – Baker Street (fast). This section is also served by 2 Chiltern Railways trains an hour between Marylebone and Aylesbury, providing 4 trains an hour between Amersham and London.
  • 2 trains an hour Chesham – Baker Street (fast).[18]

During weekday peak hours the service is more complex, with trains running between Aldgate and all the four northern terminuses. The service pattern is a 16-minute cycle of six journeys between: (1) Aldgate and alternately Amersham and Chesham (fast), (2) Baker Street and Uxbridge (all stations), (3) Aldgate & Watford (semi-fast), (4) Aldgate and Uxbridge (all stations), (5) Baker Street and Watford (semi-fast), and (6) Aldgate and Uxbridge (all stations).

The first train each morning from Chesham runs directly to Watford via the "north curve" between Rickmansworth and Croxley. Two other early morning trains run directly from Rickmansworth to Watford. The last train from Watford at night runs directly to Rickmansworth.

On 12 December 2010 London Underground reduced the service to Amersham from 4 to 2 trains an hour, and provided a direct service between Chesham and Central London every 30 minutes all day. The 4-car Chesham shuttle service was withdrawn. This change was made because the new S Stock trains come in 8-car sets and there will not be any 4-car trains when the A-class rolling stock is withdrawn. There was no change in the frequency between Chalfont & Latimer and Baker Street, apart from late evening and early Sunday mornings, when 2 of the 6 Watford trains an hour were diverted to Chesham.[18]

Steam on the Met

LMS Black 5 44932 at Amersham in 1992

In 1989, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the opening of the Metropolitan to Chesham, the first Steam on the Met event took place, with London Underground running two weekends of steam specials between Chesham and Watford.[19]

The event was a great success and so in 1990, London Underground decided to run steam between Harrow and Amersham. In 1992, to celebrate 100 years of the Met at Amersham, the event was extended to 5 days at the end of May. In 1995, it was decided to run trains between Amersham and Watford.[20]

Engines used in the event included BR standard class 4 tank, BR standard class 5, and GWR Pannier tanks. There were also various other rolling stock used as static displays at Rickmansworth sidings. Initially, London Underground hired coaching stock from British Rail for the event, but found that it was actually cheaper to buy coaches instead, thus, LU acquired numerous coaches from BR. The steam trains ran in between normal timetabled Metropolitan and main line services.

Due to the imminent part privatisation of LUL and the condition of the coaching stock, the last Steam excursion took place in 2000. Since 2007, special trains run on the Met using the electric Sarah Siddons and diesel Class 20 locomotives.[21]

Future

Line upgrade work

Track and wiring replacements have been ongoing, with weekend closures of all or parts of the line at weekends.[22] The current signalling equipment on all the subsurface lines, some of which dates from before the Second World War and has become failure-prone, will be replaced with automatic train operation (ATO) controlled from a single new centre.[11][23] The entire line is scheduled to be fully upgraded by the end of 2018.[24]

New trains

The line upgrades are being accompanied by the gradual introduction of the S Stock, which is set to replace the current A Stock trains by 2012. S Stock trains began operating on part of the line on 31 August 2010.[25] As from 27 June 2011, it operates across the entire Metropolitan line network with regular services to all destinations.[citation needed]

Transport for London aims for a 27% increase in line capacity once all upgrade work is complete.[12]

Croxley Rail Link

Diagram of the rail link proposals

Transport for London and Hertfordshire County Council are developing plans to divert the Watford Branch from the current Watford tube station and reroute it over the disused Croxley Green branch line to Watford Junction. Public consultation commenced in May 2011 with a series of exhibitions held in the town centre and nearby Croxley.

The existing Watford terminus station stands in a housing estate by Cassiobury Park, rather than serving the centre of Watford. If the project goes ahead, the station would be closed and replaced by new stations at Ascot Road and Watford Hospital, thereby serving regeneration sites in west Watford. In February 2011 the Department for Transport placed the project into a "pool" of works that would be subjected to further assessments and a final bid is scheduled to be submitted to the DfT in September 2011. A decision to award funding will be made in December 2011.[26]

Reorganisation

As part of a wider overhaul of the sub-surface lines, there were plans to run Metropolitan line trains from Uxbridge through Aldgate East to Barking, with the Hammersmith and City line taking the Metropolitan's old terminus of Aldgate instead. These plans, if implemented, cannot go forward until the Metropolitan line's stock is totally replaced, as its trains are not permitted to travel beyond Aldgate due to technical reasons[why?].

Maps

References

  1. ^ a b "London Underground Key Facts". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/modesoftransport/londonunderground/1608.aspx. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c "Line facts – Metropolitan". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/linefacts/?line=metropolitan. 
  3. ^ London Underground. "Corporate identity – colour standards". Transport for London. http://static.scribd.com/docs/6wfl4g62vle8w.swf?INITIAL_VIEW=width. Retrieved 22 December 2007. 
  4. ^ London Underground. "FAQ". Transport for London. https://custserv.tfl.gov.uk/icss_csip/GetDetailInformation.do?entityNum=00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000002672&kbname=SDB&src=searchSolution&newTabtext=Tube. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  5. ^ Day, John R.; Reed, John (2008) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground (10th ed.). Harrow: Capital Transport. p. 9. ISBN 978 1 85414 316 7. 
  6. ^ Wolmar, Christian (2005). The Subterranean Railway (Revised & Updated Edition). London: Atlantic Books. p. 36. ISBN 1-84354-023-1
  7. ^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 10–12
  8. ^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 8,13–14
  9. ^ Day & Reed 2008, pp. 18,20
  10. ^ "Line facts". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/tfl/corporate/modesoftransport/tube/linefacts/?line=metropolitan#section-3. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Waboso, David (December 2010). "Transforming the tube". Modern Railways (London): pp. 42–45. 
  12. ^ a b "Tube Upgrade Plan: Metropolitan line". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/18097.aspx. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "Metropolitan Line services, tracks, ...". John Francis Rowland. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091027142803/http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/7069/metserv.html. 
  14. ^ "CULG Jubilee line". Clive Feather. http://www.davros.org/rail/culg/jubilee.html. 
  15. ^ "CULG Metropolitan". Clive Feather. http://www.davros.org/rail/culg/metropolitan.html. 
  16. ^ "A60/62 stock". SQUAREWHEELS.org.uk. http://www.squarewheels.org.uk/rly/stock/AsubsurfaceStock/. 
  17. ^ British Railway Signalling - G M Kichenside & Alan Williams
  18. ^ a b "Chesham trains to run direct into Central London" (Press release). Transport for London. 7 December 2010. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/17617.aspx. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  19. ^ www.metroland.org.uk. "Steam on the Met". http://www.metroland.org.uk/steamonthemet/index.htm. 
  20. ^ Geoffrey King. "Steam on the Met". http://www.offshed.com/mainline/showcategory.php?catID=13. 
  21. ^ "Not quite Steam on the Met". http://www.peat.me.uk/2008/08/30/not-quite-steam-on-the-met. /
  22. ^ Proctor, Ian (14 May 2010). "Passenger group tells Tube bosses "Met Line upgrades essential"". Harrow Observer. http://www.harrowobserver.co.uk/west-london-news/local-harrow-news/2010/05/14/passenger-group-tells-tube-bosses-met-line-upgrades-essential-116451-26447370/. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  23. ^ Cracknell, James (15 December 2010). "Softly, softly: trains make their debut". Uxbridge Gazette. http://www.uxbridgegazette.co.uk/west-london-news/local-uxbridge-news/2010/12/15/softly-softly-trains-make-their-debut-113046-27830629/. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  24. ^ "Tube upgrade plan timeline". Transport for London. February 2011. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/corporate/tube_upgrade_plan_timeline.pdf. 
  25. ^ "'S' stock making its mark". Modern Railways (London): p. 46. December 2010. 
  26. ^ Pickard, Michael (8 February 2011). "Croxley Rail Link fight 'far from over'". Watford Observer. http://www.watfordobserver.co.uk/news/8839387.Rail_link_fight__far_from_over_/. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 

Further reading

  • Foxell, Clive (2010). The Metropolitan Line. History Press. ISBN 978 0 7524 5396 5. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Metropolitan Line — Linienfarbe: Violett Eröffnungsjahr: 1863 Linientyp: Unterpflasterbahn Stationen: 34 Länge …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Metropolitan Line — Color en el mapa Morado Año de apertura 1863 Tipo de línea Subsuperficial Material rodante Serie A Nº de estaciones 34 Longitud de la línea …   Wikipedia Español

  • Metropolitan line — Metropolitan Line …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Metropolitan Line — Metropolitan Line …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Swiss Cottage (Metropolitan Line) tube station — Swiss Cottage (Metropolitan Line) is a disused London Underground station. It was opened in 1868 as the northern terminus of the Metropolitan St. John s Wood Railway, the first northward branch extension from Baker Street of the Metropolitan… …   Wikipedia

  • Wood Lane (Metropolitan Line) tube station — Wood Lane was a station in west London on the Metropolitan Railway (now London Underground s Metropolitan Line). It was located on the Hammersmith City Line viaduct adjacent to the bridge over Wood Lane and close to a similarly named station on… …   Wikipedia

  • Wood Lane (Metropolitan Line) — Lage der Stationen in der Gegend um Shepherd’s Bush Wood Lane war der Name zweier heute geschlossener Stationen der London Underground. Sie lagen beide in unmittelbarer Nähe, waren aber betrieblich nicht miteinander verbunden. Eine war… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Swiss Cottage (Metropolitan Line) — Übersicht der Geschlossenen Stationen zwischen Baker Street und Finchley Road Swiss Cottage ist eine geschlossene Station der London Underground auf der Metropolitan Line. Sie gehört zu einer Gruppe von drei geschlossenen Stationen, die zwischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Metropolitan Main Line (Chicago Transit Authority) — Metropolitan Line Overview Type Rapid transit System Chicago L Locale Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Termini …   Wikipedia

  • Metropolitan Railway E Class — No 1 at Amersham, 1990 Power type Steam Builder Metropolitan Railway s N …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.