Mashhad


Mashhad
Mashhad
Persian: مشهد ‹Mašhad›
Panorama of Mashhad

Seal
Nickname(s): Mashhad
Motto: City of paradise (Shahre behesht)
Mashhad is located in Iran
Mashhad
Location of Mashhad in Iran
Coordinates: 36°18′N 59°36′E / 36.3°N 59.6°E / 36.3; 59.6Coordinates: 36°18′N 59°36′E / 36.3°N 59.6°E / 36.3; 59.6
Country  Iran
Province Razavi Khorasan
County Mashhad
Bakhsh Central
Mashhad-Sanabad-Toos 818 AD (Martyrdom Of Imam Reza)
Government
 - Mayor (Ŝahrdār) Mohammad Pejman
Area
 - City 458 km2 (176.8 sq mi)
 - Metro 3,946 km2 (1,523.6 sq mi)
Elevation 985 m (3,232 ft)
Population (2006[1])
 - City 2,907,316
 - Population Rank in Iran 2nd
  Over 20 million pilgrims and tourists per year[2]
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 - Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Website http://www.mashhad.ir

Mashhad (Persian: مشهد Mashhad, Arabic: مشهد Mašhad‎, English: The Place of Martyrdom),[3][4] is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Muslim world. It is also the only major Iranian city with an Arabic name. It is located 850 kilometres (530 mi) east of Tehran, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its population was 2,427,316 at the 2006 population census.[1] It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv in the East.

Now Mashhad is notably known as the resting place of the Imam Reza. A shrine was later built there to commemorate the Imam, which in turn gave rise to increasing demographic development.

Mashhad is also known as the city of Ferdowsi, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran.

Contents

Geography and demographics

Mashhad (Mašhad)
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
33
 
7
−5
 
 
36
 
9
−3
 
 
52
 
14
2
 
 
49
 
21
8
 
 
26
 
27
12
 
 
3
 
32
16
 
 
1
 
34
18
 
 
1
 
33
15
 
 
1
 
29
10
 
 
11
 
22
5
 
 
16
 
16
1
 
 
27
 
10
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The city is located at 36.20º latitude and 59.35º east longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.

The city is the administrative centre of Mashhad County (or the shahrestan of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district (bakhsh) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding bakhsh and shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of almost 2,5 million.[1]

Mashhad consists mainly of people of Iranian descent(primarily Persian, Tajik, Hazara, Kurdish and Turkmen ethnic groups). Among the non-Iranians, there are sizable population of Afghanistani, Iraqi, Pakistani,as well as small population of Kuwaiti, Bahraini and (Chechen and Dagestani from Russia). In the 19th century and early 20th century, Mashhad was home to a sizable population of Azerbaijani, Armenian, Dagestani, Taleshi, Russian, Bokharan, Khivan, Afghan, Herati, Mervi, Kashmiri, and Indian.

There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.[2]

History

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim Part of a series on Shī‘ah Islam
Twelvers


The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad · Fatimah · and
The Twelve Imams:
Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Naqi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi

Concepts

Fourteen Infallibles
Occultation (Minor · Major)
Akhbar · Usul · Ijtihad
Taqleed · 'Aql · Irfan
Mahdaviat

Principles

Monotheism
Judgement Day · Justice
Prophethood · Imamate

Practices

Prayer · Fasting · Pilgrimage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the family of Muhammad
Dissociate from their Enemies

Holy cities

Mecca · Medina
Najaf · Karbala · Mashhad
Samarra · Kadhimayn

Groups

Usuli · Akhbari · Shaykhi
Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Tabarie

Scholarship

Marja · Hawza  · Ayatollah · Allamah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
List of marjas · List of Ayatollahs

Hadith collections

Peak of Eloquence · The Psalms of Islam · Book of Fundamentals · The Book in Scholar's Lieu · Civilization of Laws · The Certainty · Book of Sulaym ibn Qays · Oceans of Light · Wasael ush-Shia · Reality of Certainty · Keys of Paradise

Related topics

Criticism

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Molla Heydar mosque, 19th century Iranian architecture.

At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH) Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24 km away from Tus. There was a summer palace of "Hamid ibn Qahtabi", the governor of Khorasan. In 808 when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of "Rafi ibn Leith" in Transoxania, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Hamid ibn Qahtabi. Several years later in 818 Imam Ali al-Reza was martyred by Al-Ma'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun.[5]

After this event this place was called as Mashhad al-Rida (the place of martyrdom of Ali al-Rida). Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and Bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times.[6]

It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids in 1220 which caused the destruction of many large cities in the Greater Khorasan territories, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad.[7] When the famous world traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.[2]

Later on, during the Shahrokh era, it became one of the main cities of the Timurid dynasty. In 1418 his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as Goharshad Mosque.[7] The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century.

Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks during the reign of Shah Abbas I, only to be retaken by the Shah Abbas in the year of 1597 after a long and severe struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River.

Shah Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad for pilgrimage, he himself is known to have walked from Isfahan to Mashhad. During the Safavid era Mashhad gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of the Greater Khorasan as several Madrasah and other structures were built beside the shrine of the Imam Reza.

Besides its religious significance, Mashhad has played an important political role as well. It saw its greatest glory under Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of the Imam Reza, making the city his capital. It remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796. In 1749 Ahmad Shah Durrani (The Duranni Pashtun Empire) took possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nadir Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh. Herat fell to Ahmad after almost a year of siege and bloody conflict, Afterwards Mashhad(in present-day Iran) was taken by the The Durrani Empire aswell.

In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed by the Russian forces, causing widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world.

1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion

In 1935 a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah erupted in the Mashed shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah's heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah is a new Yezid." For four full days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Azerbaijan arrived and broke into the shrine,[8] killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi'ite clergy and the Shah.[9]

1994 Imam Reza shrine bombing

On June 20, 1994, an explosion from a bomb occurred in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza[10] The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad exploded at Ashura.[11] Ramzi Yousef, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot.[12] However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MKO) in order to prevent sectarian violence.

Climate

Mashhad features a steppe climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 mm of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad enjoys on average just under 2900 hours of sunshine per year.

>
Climate data for Mashhad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24
(75)
26
(79)
32
(90)
35.4
(95.7)
39.2
(102.6)
41.6
(106.9)
43.8
(110.8)
42.4
(108.3)
42
(108)
35.8
(96.4)
29.4
(84.9)
28.2
(82.8)
43.8
(110.8)
Average high °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
9.2
(48.6)
13.9
(57.0)
20.8
(69.4)
26.6
(79.9)
32.2
(90.0)
34.4
(93.9)
33
(91)
28.9
(84.0)
22.3
(72.1)
15.4
(59.7)
9.7
(49.5)
21.1
Average low °C (°F) −3.8
(25.2)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.6
(36.7)
8.2
(46.8)
12.2
(54.0)
16.2
(61.2)
18.5
(65.3)
16.2
(61.2)
11.5
(52.7)
6.1
(43.0)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
7.1
Record low °C (°F) −27
(−17)
−28
(−18)
−13
(9)
−7
(19)
−1
(30)
4
(39)
10
(50)
5
(41)
−1
(30)
−8
(18)
−16
(3)
−25
(−13)
−28
(−18)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
35.2
(1.386)
55.6
(2.189)
46.3
(1.823)
27.6
(1.087)
4.2
(0.165)
1.1
(0.043)
0.8
(0.031)
1.7
(0.067)
8.6
(0.339)
15.4
(0.606)
24.7
(0.972)
255.2
(10.047)
Sunshine hours 149.1 147.3 161.2 198.6 279.2 341.7 366.1 358.7 304.5 247.4 187.5 151.1 2,892.4
Source: [13]

Religion

Shrine of Imam Reza.

Today the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam.

The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza shrine (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times.[2] Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine – are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. It is thought that over 20 million Muslims a year make the pilgrimage to Mashhad.

Culture

Relief in Tous depicting popular stories of Persian mythology, from the book of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.

Long a center of secular as well as of religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences. The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here. The Madrassa of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city's foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad attracts students, known as talaban, or "Molah" internationally.

Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. The Astan-e Quds Razavi Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, is home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation's central library.

In 1569 (977 H), 'Imad al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug indigenous to this region.

Main sites

Tous Museum

Apart from Imam Reza shrine there is a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur, the tomb of Nadir Shah and Kooh Sangi park and Mellat Park that have modern attractions for children such as the tallest Ferris wheel or fanfar (چرخ و فلک) in Iran[citation needed] and Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex that includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase (formerly Imam Reza airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.

Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi' located 6 kilometers north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid calligrapher Reza Abbasi; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometers from Mashhad along the road to Neishabur. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza).

Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi in Tus, 24 kilometers distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh, Torogh, Akhlamad, Zoshk, and Shandiz.

The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.

Gallery

Panoramic view

Panoramic view from a busy street near uptown Mashhad

Pictures

Transportation

Mashhad Urban Railway (under construction)

Airport

Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighboring, Arab countries.

Metro

The Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing a metro system for the city of Mashhad which includes four lines with 77 km length . The first phase (line) of the metro has been exploited in 21 Feb 2011 with 19 km length and 22 stations[14] and will be connected to Mashhad International Airport. The second line with 14 km length and 12 stations is under construction and is projected to be finished by 2014.[15]

Rail

Mashhad is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad-Sarakhs at the border with Turkmenistan. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan and to Kazakhstan, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad to Herat in Afghanistan, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by the national company R.A.J.A. and all trains are operated by R.A.I., Rah-Ahan Iran, the national railway company.

Colleges and universities

Universities

Colleges

Major sport teams

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
FC Aboomoslem
Azadegan League
soccer Samen Stadium
1970
0
Siah Jamegan Khorasan F.C.
2nd Division
soccer Samen Stadium and Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
2011
0
Elmo Adab Mashhad FSC
Iranian Futsal Super League
Futsal
Rahahan Khorasan W.C.
Iranian Premier Wrestling League
freestyle wrestling Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall[16]
Ferdowsi Club beach soccer
Mojhaye Abi swimming Takhti Stadium (Mashhad)
Persepolis Khorasan[17]
Iranian Volleyball Super League
volleyball Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex
Basketball Khorasan Razavi
Iranian Basketball Super League
basketball Mehran Hall

Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan

The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad as their capital:

Kianid Dynasty

  • Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722–1726

Afsharid dynasty

Safavid Dynasty

Autonomous Government of Khorasan

Notable Executions

Mahmoud Asgari, 16[citation needed], (Persian: محمود عسگري) and Ayaz Marhoni, 18[citation needed], (Persian: عياض مرهوني) were Iranian teenagers from the province of Khorasan who were publicly hanged in Edalat (Justice) Square in Mashhad, northeast Iran, on July 19, 2005. They were executed after being convicted by the court of having raped a 13-year old boy. The case attracted international media attention. A British group alleged that the teenagers were executed for consensual homosexual acts and not rape.


Famous people from Mashhad and Tus

Religious and political figures
  • Shaykh Tusi, 385–460 A.H.; prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, born February 1201 in Tūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah near Baghdad; Persian of the Ismaili and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief
  • Seyyed Ali Khamenei, born 17 July 1939; former president and current supreme leader of Iran
  • Sheikh Ali Tehrani, brother-in-law of Seyyed Ali Khamenei, currently living in Iran Iraq. He is one of the oppositions of current Iranian government.
  • Nizam al-Mulk, 1018 – 14 October 1092; celebrated Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire
  • Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Shia scholar and muhaddith
  • Al-Ghazali, 1058–1111; Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin
  • Timur Shah Durrani, Emir of Afghanistan 1772-1793
  • Ali al-Sistani, born approximately August 4, 1930; Twelver Shi'a marja residing in Iraq since 1951
  • Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, 1839–1911; Twelver Shi'a Marja, Persian (Iranian) politician, philosopher, reformer
  • Hossein Vahid Khorasani, born in 1924; Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja
  • Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, born January 27, 1958; former Vice President of Iran and a close associate of former reformist President Mohammad Khatami
  • Abu Muslim Khorasani, c. 700–755; Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani, Abbasid general of Persian origin
  • Manouchehr Eghbal, October 14, 1909 – November 25, 1977, a Prime Minister of Iran
  • Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty), August 20, 1377 – March 12, 1447; ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur (Tamerlane)
  • Goharshad, Persian noble and wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, born August 23, 1961 in Torghabeh, near Mashhad; the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran
  • Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, Conservative political strategist and popular television personality in the Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Hadi Khamenei, b. 1947; mid-ranking cleric who is a member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics
  • Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi, current major general, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Saeed Jalili, born 1965 in Mashhad; Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council
Writers and scientists
  • Ferdowsi, 935–1020 in Tus; a Persian poet
  • Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, 935/942–976/980
  • Abolfazl Beyhaqi, 995–1077; a Persian historian and author
  • Nasir Khusraw, 1004–1088; Persian poet, philosopher, Isma'ili scholar and traveler
  • Abusa'id Abolkhayr, December 7, 967 – January 12, 1049 / Muharram ul Haram 1, 357 – Sha'aban 4, 440 AH; famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition
  • Anvari, 1126–1189, one of the greatest Persian poets
  • Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, 1928, Mashhad, Iran – 1990, Tehran, Iran; a Persian poet
  • Mohammad-Taghi Bahar, November 6, 1884, Mashhad, Iran – April 22, 1951; Tehran, Iran
  • Asadi Tusi, born in Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan, died 1072 Tabriz, Iran; Persian poet of Iranian national epics
  • Emad Khorasani
  • Gholam Hosein Yousefi
  • Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin, 900–971; Persian astronomer and mathematician from Khorasan
  • Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī, 1135–1213; Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages)
  • Jābir ibn Hayyān, c. 721 in Tus–c. 815 in Kufa; prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician
Artists
  • Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, born September 23, 1940 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and Master (Ostad) of Persian music
  • Homayoun Shajarian, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian's son, born May 21, 1975; renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player
  • Kayvan Saket, born in 1960 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian composer, Radif-preserver, researcher, teacher, and excellent Tar and Setar instrumentalist and improvisor
  • Noureddin Zarrinkelk, born 1937 in Mashhad, Iran; renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor
  • Reza Kianian, born July 17, 1951 in Mashhad, Iran, Iranian actor
  • Hamid Motebassem, born 1958 in Mashhad, Iranian musician and tar and setar player
  • Reza Attaran, born 31 March 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian actor and director
  • Hamed Behdad, born 17 November 1973 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian actor
  • Mahdi Bemani Naeini, born November 3, 1968; Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer
  • Rafi Pitts, born 1967 in Mashhad, Iran; internationally acclaimed Iranian film director
  • Iran Darroudi, born September 2, 1936 in Mashhad; Iranian artist
  • Mohsen Namjoo, born 1976 in Torbat-e-Jaam; Iranian singer-songwriter, author, musician, and setar player
  • Mitra Hajjar, born February 4, 1977; Iranian actress
  • Ovanes Ohanian, ?–1961 Tehran; Armenian-Iranian filmmaker who established the first film school in Iran
  • Valy[18], Afghan Singer
Scientists
  • Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer
  • Anousheh Ansari, born 12 September 1966; the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program
Sports figures
Others
  • Ayaz Marhoni, Ahwazi Arab youth (18) legally lynched on partially falsified charges of homosexuality and rape
  • Mahmoud Asgari, Ahwazi Arab youth (16) legally lynched on partially falsified charges of homosexuality and rape
  • Ali Akbar Fayyaz, a renowned historian of early Islam and literary critic, founder of the School of Letters and Humanities at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Mahmoud Khayami, born 1930 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian born industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality
  • Hossein Sabet, Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co.
  • Hesam Kolahan, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

Sister cities

Consulates

Active

Former

  •  United Kingdom: British Consulate-General (1889–1947)[21]
  •  Russia: Russian Consulate-General (1889–1917)
  •  USSR: Soviet Consulate-General (1917–1979?)

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Statistical Centre of Iran, 2006 Population and Housing Census, Administrative units of Razavi Khorasan and their populations. (excel-file, in Persian). Retrieved 2008-07-05.[dead link]
  2. ^ a b c d "Sacred Sites: Mashhad, Iran". sacredsites.com. http://www.sacredsites.com/middle_east/iran/mashad.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-13. 
  3. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936 P.127
  4. ^ The shiites: a short history, Heinz Halm, P.26
  5. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 12–13.
  6. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 13–16.
  7. ^ a b Zabeth (1999) pp. 14–15.
  8. ^ Ervand, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.94
  9. ^ Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution by Shaul, Bakhash, Basic Books, c1984, p.22
  10. ^ "ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1994-06-20. http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/program.pl?ID=154427. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  11. ^ "Explosive circles: Iran. (Mashhad bombing)". Highbeam.com. 1994-06-25. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-16070232.html. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  12. ^ "Context of 'Mid-1994: Ramzi Yousef Works Closely with Al-Qaeda Leaders". Historycommons.org. http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=amid94yousefradio. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  13. ^ http://www.irimo.ir/farsi/drought/synopH/Mashhad.txt
  14. ^ . Fars News Agency. 21 February 2011. http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8912020113. Retrieved 29 July 2011 (in Persian). 
  15. ^ . Fars News Agency. 5 July 2011. http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=9004141078. Retrieved 29 July 2011 (in Persian). 
  16. ^ "هیات کشتی استان خراسان رضوی". Razavisport.ir. http://www.razavisport.ir/news/show_detail.asp?id=668. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ http://www.afghanstarz.com/apps/photos/album?albumid=3578259
  19. ^ "Mashad-Kuala Lumpur Become Sister cities". FARS News Agency. 2006-10-14. http://kuala-lumpur-news.newslib.com/story/453-3234431/. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  20. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 2007-03-02. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007%5C03%5C02%5Cstory_2-3-2007_pg7_43. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  21. ^ Onley, James. The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj: Merchants, Rulers, and the British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 15. ISBN 0-19-922810-8.

References

  • Zabeth, Hyder Reza (1999). Landmarks of Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran: Islamic Research Foundation. ISBN 9644442210. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mashhad — مشهد Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mashhad — [mə shäd′] city in NE Iran: site of a Shiite shrine: pop. 1,464,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Mashhad — 36° 17′ 45″ N 59° 36′ 43″ E / 36.2958333, 59.6119444 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mashhad — Maschad DEC …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mashhad — 1 Original name in latin Mashhad Name in other language Mashad, Mashhad, mshhd State code AF Continent/City Asia/Kabul longitude 36.81665 latitude 70.10211 altitude 977 Population 0 Date 2012 02 28 2 Original name in latin Mashhad Name in other… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Mashhad — /mash had /, n. Persian name of Meshed. * * * or Meshed City (pop., 1996: 1,887,405), northeastern Iran. It is situated in the valley of the Kashaf River. For centuries it has been an important trade centre along the caravan routes and highways… …   Universalium

  • Mashhad — geographical name city NE Iran population 1,463,508 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Mashhad — ► C. de Irán, cap. de la prov. de Khorasán; 1 463 508 h. Centro agrícola y de producción de lanas. Nudo de comunicaciones. Centro de peregrinación al sepulcro del califa Hārûn´n al Rashî´d …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Mashhad — Mạshhad   [ ʃ ], Stadt in Iran, Meschhed …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Mashhad — n. city in north Iran which is a holy city of Shiite Muslims …   English contemporary dictionary


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