Yazd


Yazd

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Yazd
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native_name = يزد
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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = IRN
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Yazd
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Yazd (pronounced /jæzd/) (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, "the second most ancient and historic city in the world"Fact|date=June 2008 and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahan. In 2005 it had an estimated population of 433,836 people. [http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/2005_world_city_populations/Iran.html] In 2006 it had an estimated population of 505,037. [http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=1152404802&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-106&srt=npan&col=aohdq&geo=-1929] . Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweets shops.

Geography

Yazd with the area of 131,551km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, the city is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh, the tallest mountain in the region at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq. The city itself is located at 1203 m. above sea-level, and covers 16,000 km².

According to the administrative division rules, the Yazd province is divided into 10 districts, each includes at least one town and a number of villages. These districts are: Abarkuh, Ardakan, Bafq, Khatam, Maybod, Mehriz, Tabas, Sadough, Taft and Yazd.

The Mountains

* southern and Southern West MountainsThis mountains are widest than other groups of mountains.The most important mountain in these mountains is Shir Kuh

*Eastern MountainsThis mountains are located in east of Yazd provinceand the highest mountains among this mountains are [bon lokht (3002m)] and [bajegan(2879m)] .

*Northern East MountainsThese mountains are located east of [Tabas] .This group also includes the mountains Shir Kuh

Climate

Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only convert|60|mm|in|1, and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above convert|40|C|F in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below convert|0|C|F.

climate chart|Yazd
-1|12|10
1|15|11
6|20|13
12|26|9
17|32|4
22|38|0
23|39|0
22|38|0
17|34|0
11|28|1
4|20|3
0|14|8

History

The city has a 3000 year long history, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The present city name, however, may have been derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Islamic conquest of Persia, many Zoroastrians fled to Yazd from neighbouring provinces. The city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam come to be the dominant religion in the city



Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Genghis Khan. It was visited by Marco Polo in 1272 who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. It briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the 14th century, and was sieged unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) Mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty (18th Century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.

There is a very amazing thing about Yazd and its people who moved to the east of Yazd. In the rule of the Savafis (16. century) people from Yazd migrated to a place and called it Yazdi: This place is currently on the Iranian-Afghan border in the province of Farah, in Farah city in Afghanistan. The people of Yazdi in Farah city, in the province of Farah, are all Persians and Shi'ite (Shi'a) Muslims. They speak with an accent that is very similar to the Iranian people of Yazd. These Shi'ite-Persians in Yazdi of Farah city are forgotten.

Architecture and Heritage

.

Yazd's heritage as a centre of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Presently, Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20 - 40,000 or 5 to 10%.

Historical Sites in Yazd City



* Arab-ha House
* Malek-altojjar House
* Lari-ha House
* Mullah Ismall mosque
* sahl Ibn Ali Mausoleum
* Khan Bazaar
* Rasoulian House
* Sheikh Ahmad Fahadan Mausoleum
* Seyed Rokn-al din Mausoleum
* Seyed Shams-al din Mausoleum
* Masoudi Reservoir
* Malak-al Tojjar House
* Mortaz House
* Iran Shahr School
* Hajj Yusef Reservoir
* Rig mosque
* Fort mosque
* Shah Tahmasb mosque

* Zargari Bazzar
* Mortazian House
* Fortifications of Yazd
* Zia iah school

Yazd today

Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewelry industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.

Yazd's confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran, which has been a source of tourism for the city. Workshops ("experts" or "khalifehs") keep their recipes a guarded secret and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baghlava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.

In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened; [http://www.qanat.info/en/museam.php] it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.

Famous people from Yazd

* Mohammad Khatami, former president of Iran was born in Yazd.
* Mohammad Reza Aref, Vice President of Iran from 2001 to 2005.
* Mohammad Rahmati, Minister of roads and transportation from 2005 to Aug 2008.
* Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi, poet and politician.
* Saeed Mortazavi, General Prosecutor of Tehran.
* Mohammad Ali Sadouqi, parlementary assistan in Mohammad Khatami's cabinet.he is husband of khatami's sister and Imam Jum'a in Yazd
* Seyed Mehdi K. Ezzabady,Scientist,Researcher,Inventor.
* Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh, Iranian dissident murdered in 1998.
* Farhad Mortaz, Iranian Human Right Activist.
* Moshe Katsav, former president of Israel, was born in Yazd.
* Habibollah Bitaraf, Former Minister of Energy
* Seyyed Ziya-e-ddin Tabatabai, Iranian prime minister 21 Feb 1921-04 Jun 1921
* Moshe Khokshourzadeh - Moe Arman, Iranian-American Scientist, Researcher, Inventor

Higher education in Yazd

The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of Architecture specializing in traditional Persian Art and Architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:

*# University of Yazd
*# Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
*# [http://www.bafgh-iau.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Bafq]
*# [http://www.iaumaybod.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Maybod]
*# [http://www.iauyazd.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Yazd]
*# [http://www.sampad.info/ Yazd Sampad Information Center]
*# [http://www.ystp.org/ Yazd Science and Technology Park]

ister cities

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External links

* [http://www.yazdia.com/ Yazd news and ads site]
* [http://www.yazdcity.ir/ Yazd Cultural Heritage & Tourism Organization]
* [http://www.yazd.com/ Yazd.com]
* [http://yazdchto.ir/ Cultural Heritage Organization Bureau of Yazd Province]
* [http://www.ghoolabad.com/ GhoolAbad.com]
* [http://www.yazdtourism.com/ YazdTourism.com]
* [http://www.letsgoiran.com/yazd/yazd-travel-guide Yazd Photos & Videos]
* [http://www.yazdivf.org/ Yazd Research & Clinical Center for Infertility]
* [http://www.yazduni.ac.ir Yazd University]
* [http://tehran.stanford.edu/imagemap/yazd.html Yazd on stanford.edu]
* [http://www.yazdrollingmill.com/ The Largest private sector steel plant in Iran]
* [http://www.ekhteraat.persianblog.ir/ Ganjinehe Elmo Fan] Scientific&Technological Views.
* [http://homepages.tesco.net/~m_w_fenrych/wlodek_fenrych/yazd.htm Yazd - the everlasting flame (the Zoroastrians in Yazd)]
* [http://www.irpedia.com/iran/best/365/ Yazd, Bride of Desert]
* [http://wznn.org/ World Zoroastrian News Network (WZNN)]

yazd is the best


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Look at other dictionaries:

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