PlayStation (console)


PlayStation (console)
PlayStation
Playstation logo colour.svg
The original light grey PlayStation model with DualShock.
The original model design with DualShock and logo of the PlayStation.
Manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment
Product family PlayStation
Generation Fifth generation era
Retail availability PlayStation
PSone
  • JP July 7, 2000
  • NA September 19, 2000
  • EU September 29, 2000
Discontinued March 23, 2006[5]
Units sold 102 million[6]
Media CD-ROM
CPU MIPS R3000A-family R3051
@ 33.8688 MHz
Storage capacity Memory card
Best-selling game Gran Turismo, 10.85 million shipped (as of April 30, 2008)[7][8]
Successor PlayStation 2

The PlayStation (プレイステーション Pureisutēshon?, officially abbreviated as PS; unofficially referred to as the PSX[10] or PS1) is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, 1994.[1]

The PlayStation was the first of the PlayStation series of consoles and handheld game devices. Upgrades and variants include the Net Yaroze and the PSone, with the PlayStation 2 being the console's successor. The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch.[11] Sony ceased production of the PlayStation on March 23, 2006, eleven years after it was released.[5]

Contents

Development

An original PlayStation control pad. This model was later replaced by the Dual Analog, and then the DualShock.

The first conceptions of the PlayStation date back to 1986. Nintendo had been attempting to work with disc-based technology since the Famicom, but the medium had problems. The Famicom Disk System's rewritable magnetic discs could be easily erased (thus leading to a lack of durability), and they lacked any sort of copy protection, thus were vulnerable to piracy. Consequently, when details of CD-ROM XA (which had neither of those problems) were released to the public, Nintendo was interested. Simultaneously developed by Sony and Philips, CD-ROM/XA was an extension of the CD-ROM format that combines compressed audio, visual, and computer data, allowing all to be accessed simultaneously. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, and work began. Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would later be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities.[12]

Sony also planned to develop a Super Famicom-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super Nintendo cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design. This was also to be the format used in SNES-CD discs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.

The DualShock controller.

The SNES-CD was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show (CES). However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realized that the earlier agreement essentially handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was totally unacceptable and he secretly canceled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 a.m. the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V, and Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips headquarters in Europe and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.

After the collapse of the joint project, Sony considered halting their research, but ultimately the company decided to use what they had developed so far and make it into a complete, stand-alone console. As a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of the PlayStation, on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the new PlayStation was revealed. However, it is theorized that only 200 or so of these machines were ever produced.[citation needed]

PlayStation Memory Card.

By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, and the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and software. As part of this process the SNES cartridge port was dropped and the space between the names "Play Station" was removed becoming "PlayStation", thereby ending Nintendo's involvement with the project.

Launch

The PlayStation was launched in Japan on December 3, 1994, North America on September 9, 1995,[2] Europe on September 29, 1995,[3] and Oceania on November 15, 1995.[4] The launch price in the American market was US$299[2] and Sony enjoyed a very successful launch with titles of almost every genre, including Battle Arena Toshinden, Doom, Warhawk, Air Combat, Philosoma, and Ridge Racer. Almost all of Sony's and Namco's launch titles went on to spawn numerous sequels.

Functions

In addition to playing games, the PlayStation has the ability to read and play audio CDs. The CD player has the ability to shuffle the playback order, play the songs in a programmed order, and repeat one song or the entire disk. This function, as well as a memory card manager, can be accessed by starting the console either without inserting a game or keeping the CD tray open, thereby accessing a GUI for the PlayStation BIOS. The original PlayStation and PSone GUIs differ. The PlayStation GUI has a dark blue background and buttons that are designed like rainbow graffiti; the PSone has a blocked grey background with 2 icons; one for memory cards management, the other for CD player access (some versions of the original PlayStation have the blocked grey background, however, the memory card and CD player icons are different). If the CD lid is closed with a game inside at any time while at the menu, the game will immediately start.

Titles

As of September 30, 2007, a total of 7,918 software titles have been released worldwide (counting games released in multiple regions as separate titles).[13] As of March 31, 2007, the cumulative software shipment was at 962 million units.[14] The very last game for the system released in the United States was FIFA Football 2005. However, it can be noted that on 07/26/07 in Japan and 03/18/08 in the US, Metal Gear Solid: The Essential Collection was released, which contained new printings of the game Metal Gear Solid in the original PlayStation format. Also in 2011, Capcom released Resident Evil 15th Anniversary Collection, which contains reprinted PlayStation copies of Resident Evil, 2 and 3.[15]

The OK and Cancel buttons on most of the Japanese PlayStation games are reversed in their North American and European releases. In Japan, the Circle button (maru, right) is used as the OK button, while the X button (batsu, wrong) is used as Cancel. North American and European releases have the X button or the Circle buttons as the OK button, while either the Square or the Triangle button is used as Cancel (some titles like Xenogears used the Circle button for cancelling actions and selections, along with the PlayStation 2 system browser and the XrossMedia Bar on the PlayStation 3 and the PSP). However, a few games, such as Square's Vagrant Story, Final Fantasy VII (which used the X button as cancel) and Final Fantasy Tactics, Namco's Ridge Racer Type 4, and Konami's Metal Gear Solid, have the buttons remain in the same Japanese configurational layout. Some other games, like the Japanese version of Gran Turismo, had used different controls that are similar to North American games. These Japanese button layouts still apply to other PlayStation consoles. This is because in the early years Sony America (SCEA), Sony Europe (SCEE), and Sony Japan (SCEJ) had different development and testing documents (TRCs) for their respective territories.

Variants

Developer's kit PlayStation (PAL)
A comparison of the SCPH-1001, SCPH-5001 and SCPH-9001 models. The SCPH-900x revision saw the removal of the Parallel I/O port while the RCA jacks were removed in the SCPH-500x revision.

The PlayStation went through a number of variants during its production run, each accompanied by a change in the part number. From an external perspective, the most notable change was the gradual reduction in the number of external connectors on the unit. This started very early on—the original Japanese launch units (SCPH-1000) had an S-Video port, which was removed on the next release. This also led to the strange situation where the US and European launch units had the same part number series (SCPH-100x) as the Japanese launch units, but had different hardware (Rev. C silicon and no S-Video port)—they were the same as the Japanese SCPH-3000, so for consistency should have been SCPH-3001 and SCPH-3002 (this numbering was used for the Yaroze machines, which were based on the same hardware and numbered DTL-H3000, DTL-H3001, and DTL-H3002). Also, the first models (DTL-H1000, DTL-H1001, DTL-H1002) had some problems with printf function and developers had to use another function instead. This series of machines had a reputation for CD drive problems—the optical pickup sled was made of thermoplastic, and eventually developed wear spots that moved the laser into a position where it was no longer parallel with the CD surface—a modification was made that replaced the sled with a die-cast one with hard nylon inserts, which corrected the problem.

With the release of the next series (SCPH-500x), the numbers moved back into sync. A number of changes were made to the unit internally (CD drive relocated, shielding simplified, PSU wiring simplified) and the RCA jacks and RFU power connectors were removed from the rear panel. This series also contained the SCPH-550x and SCPH-555x units, but these appear to have been bundle changes rather than actual hardware revisions. Starting with this series, PAL variants had the "power" and "open" buttons changed from text to symbols and the printed text on the back was changed to reliefs of the same.

These were followed by the SCPH-700x and SCPH-750x series—they are externally identical to the SCPH-500x machines, but have internal changes made to reduce manufacturing costs (for example, the system RAM went from 4 chips to 1, and the CD controller went from 3 chips to 1). A slight change of the startup screen was made. The diamond is seen as longer and thinner and the trademark symbol (™) is now placed after "COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT" instead of after the diamond, as it was on the earlier models. Also new to the SCPH-7xxx series was the introduction of the "Sound Scope" - light show music visualizations. These were accessible by pressing the Select button while playing any normal audio CD in the system's CD player. While watching these visualizations, players could also add various effects like color cycling or motion blur. These music visualizations were kept in all future PlayStation 1 models.

The final revision to the original PlayStation was the SCPH-900x series—these had the same hardware as the SCPH-750x machines with the exception of the removal of the parallel port and a slight reduction in the size of the PCB. The removal of the parallel port was probably partly because no official add-on had ever been released for it, and partly because it was being used to connect cheat cartridges that could be used to defeat the regional lockouts and copy protection.

The PSone was based on substantially the same hardware as the SCPH-900x, but had the serial port removed, the controller / memory card ports moved to the main PCB and the power supply replaced with an AC/DC converter that was also on the main PCB. Also the overall system menu received a graphical simplicity overhaul, along with a surround sound/echo effect being added to the CD player menu.

With the early units, many gamers experienced skipping full-motion video or physical "ticking" noises coming from their PlayStations. The problem appears to have come from poorly placed vents leading to overheating in some environments—the plastic moldings inside the console would warp very slightly and create knock-on effects with the laser assembly. The solution was to ensure the console was sat on a surface which dissipated heat efficiently in a well vented area, or raise the unit up slightly by propping something at its edges. A common fix for already affected consoles was to turn the PlayStation sideways or upside-down (thereby using gravity to cancel the effects of the warped interior) although some gamers smacked the lid of the PlayStation to make a game load or work.

Earliest series had potentiometers on the board for adjusting the reading mechanism, named BIAS, GAIN and an unknown one. By connecting a voltmeter between the upper-most metering point near the BIAS potentiometer and the chassis, the resulting voltage could be read. The supposed right values are 1.70 V when a CD is spinning at 1x speed and 1.85 V when a CD is spinning at 2x speed. Further tuning was also possible on the unique potentiometer present on the CD drive. Later series featured an automatic laser calibration mechanism.

Sony then released a version dubbed "Dual Shock", which included a controller with two analog sticks and a built-in vibration-feedback feature.

Another version that was colored blue (as opposed to regular console units that were grey in color) was available to game developers and select press. Later versions of this were colored green—on a technical level, these units were almost identical to the retail units, but had a different CD controller in them that did not require the region code found on all pressed disks, since they were intended to be used with CD-R media for debugging. This also allowed the use of discs from different regions, but this was not officially supported; different debug stations existed for each region. The two different color cases were not cosmetic—the original blue debug station (DTL-H100x, DTL-H110x) contained "Revision B" silicon, the same as the early retail units (these units had silicon errata that needed software workarounds), the green units (DTL-H120x) had Rev. C hardware. As part of the required tests, the user had to test the title on both. Contrary to popular belief, the RAM was the same as the retail units at 2 MB. The firmware was nearly identical—the only significant change was that debug prints got sent to the serial port if the title did not open it for communications—this used a DTL-H3050 serial cable (the same as the one used for the Yaroze).

Copy protection

Prior to the PlayStation, the reproduction of copyrighted material for gaming consoles was restricted to either enthusiasts with exceptional technical ability, or others that had access to CD manufacturers. However, the increased availability of cheap CD burners at this time led Sony to introduce several methods to make PlayStation discs difficult to copy:

  • Sectors 12 through 15 contain an invalid zeroised EDC/ECC checksum, so if the PS reads and does not see an invalid EDC/ECC then it knows that the CD in the drive is a copy. The error is pressed into the disc at the time of manufacture, and cannot be reproduced on most CD-R recorders because the recorder will automatically regenerate the 'corrupt' sector's checksum.
  • The PlayStation uses a mixed-mode format with most data in Mode 2/Form 1 and streaming audio/video data in Mode 2/Form 2. Most CD-R drives at the time could not handle this variation well, but newer drives are able to.
  • Discs were manufactured with a dark blue-colored plastic (transparent only to the infrared radiation used by CD-ROM lasers), and it was theorized[citation needed] that the PlayStation's drive was engineered to require these tinted discs. However, this is easily disproven, as PlayStation CD-ROMs can be read by most CD drives, and the PlayStation will read most recordable CDs.[citation needed]

The installation of a modchip allowed the PlayStation to play games recorded on a regular CD-R. It also allowed the console's capabilities to be expanded in other ways, such as playing games from other regions. By the end of the system's life cycle almost anyone with minimal soldering experience was able to perform these modifications. This created a wave of games developed without official approval using free, unofficial tools, as well as the reproduction of original discs. With the introduction of such devices the console became very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers alike, as well as those who merely wished to protect the lifespan of their lawful, original discs.[citation needed]

Some companies (notably Datel) did manage to produce discs that booted on unmodified retail units, but this required special equipment and could only be done with "pressed" discs.[citation needed]

Net Yaroze

A version of the PlayStation called the Net Yaroze was also produced. It was more expensive than the original PlayStation, colored black instead of the usual gray, and most importantly, came with tools and instructions that allowed a user to be able to program PlayStation games and applications without the need for a full developer suite, which cost many times the amount of a PlayStation and was only available to approved video game developers. Naturally, the Net Yaroze lacked many of the features the full developer suite provided.[citation needed] Programmers were also limited by the 2 MB of total game space that Net Yaroze allowed.[16] The amount of space may seem small, but games like Ridge Racer ran entirely from the system RAM (except for the streamed music tracks). It was unique in that it was the only officially retailed PlayStation with no regional lockout; it would play games from any territory. It would not however play CD-R discs, so it was not possible to create self-booting Yaroze games without a modified PlayStation.

PSone

The redesigned PSone with optional LCD Screen

The PSone is Sony's smaller, redesigned version of its PlayStation video game console.[17] The PSone is considerably smaller than the original PlayStation (dimensions being 38 mm × 193 mm × 144 mm versus 45 mm × 260 mm × 185 mm). It was released on July 7, 2000,[18] and went on to outsell all other consoles throughout the remainder of the year—including Sony's own brand-new PlayStation 2.[17] Sony also released a small LCD screen and an adaptor to power the unit for use in cars. The PSone is fully compatible with all PlayStation software.

There were five differences between the PSone and the original PlayStation. The first was a major cosmetic change to the console, it became much smaller. The second was the system menu Graphical User Interface. The third was an added protection against the use of modchips (by changing the internal layout and making previous-generation modchip devices unusable). The fourth is a lack of the original PlayStation's parallel and serial ports. These ports allowed multiple consoles to be connected for multiplayer, connecting a console to debugging software, as well as third-party game enhancement devices such as the GameShark. The fifth is that when the console is started up, instead of a trademark symbol (™) beside the words "COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT" there is a registered trademark symbol (®).

Summary of PlayStation models

The last digit of the PlayStation model number denotes the region in which it was sold:

  • 0 is Japan (Japanese boot ROM, NTSC:J region, NTSC Video, 100 V PSU)
  • 1 is USA/Canada (English boot ROM, NTSC:U/C region, NTSC Video, 110 V PSU)
  • 2 is Europe/Australia/PAL (English boot ROM, PAL region, PAL Video, 220 V PSU)
  • 3 is Asia (Japanese boot ROM, NTSC:J region, NTSC video, 220 V PSU)

Consumer models

Model: Case: BIOS: Hardware: Region: A/V Direct Out: Parallel Port: Serial Port: Sound Scope: Notes:
SCPH-1000 Original (Grey) Unknown (09/22/94) Rev. A NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues. S-Video direct out.
SCPH-1001 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues.
Based on the SCPH-3000 series.
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.0 (05/10/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-3000 Original (Grey) 1.1 (01/22/95) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues. Earliest units had a PU-7 board, further units featured a PU-8 board like the SCPH-1002.
SCPH-3500 Original (Grey) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-5000 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues.
SCPH-5001 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes No CD-ROM drive re-located on right side of CD bay.
Lens carriage reinforced and power simplified, fixing FMV skipping issues.
A/V direct out and RFU power connector removed.
Model numbers synchronized worldwide.
Lens assembly attuned specifically to the black disks to circumvent piracy.[citation needed]

SCPH-5552:
A very rare Men in Black promotional model exists with a black case and the film's logo on the CD lid.

SCPH-5903:
Only model capable of playing Video CD movies.
This model also has RCA plugs, like earlier PlayStation models.
SCPH-5002 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5003 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5500 Original (Grey) 3.0 (09/09/96) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5501 Original (Grey) 3.0 (11/18/96) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5502 Original (Grey) 3.0 (01/06/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5503 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5552 Original (Grey) 3.0 (01/06/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5903 Original (White) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-7000 Original (Grey) 4.0 (08/18/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes DualShock now standard.
Introduction of Sound Scope.
Major manufacturing cost reductions took place from this model onwards.
The number of memory chips and CD-ROM controllers were reduced, other components were simplified.

SCPH-7000, SCPH-7001, and SCPH-7002:
Available in midnight blue as promotional item to celebrate the 10 millionth PlayStation sold.
SCPH-7001 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7002 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7003 Original (Grey) 3.0 (11/18/96) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7500 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7501 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7502 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7503 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-9000 Original (Grey) 4.0 (08/18/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No No Yes Yes Parallel port removed (hidden under case on earlier 9000 units, completely removed on later 9000 models.).
Motherboard PCB reduced in size.
Higher quality CD-Rom than previous models.
SCPH-9001 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No No Yes Yes
SCPH-9002 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No No Yes Yes
SCPH-9003 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No No Yes Yes
SCPH-100 PSone (White) 4.3 (03/11/00) Rev. C NTSC-J No No No Yes Redesigned smaller case.
Controller and memory card ports integrated onto motherboard.
Serial port removed.
Has external power supply.
SCPH-101 PSone (White) 4.5 (05/25/00) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No No No Yes
SCPH-102 PSone (White) 4.4 (03/24/00) Rev. C PAL No No No Yes
SCPH-102 PSone (White) 4.5 (05/25/00) Rev. C PAL No No No Yes
SCPH-103 PSone (White) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No No No Yes

Specialty models

Model: Case: BIOS: Hardware: Region: Notes*:
DTL-H1000 Original (Blue) Unknown (09/22/94) Rev. A NTSC-J S-Video direct out. Debugger.
Can boot CD-R copies.
DTL-H1000H Original (Grey) 1.1 (01/22/95) Rev. B NTSC-J
DTL-H1001 Original (Blue) 2.0 (05/07/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C
DTL-H1001H Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. B NTSC-U/C
DTL-H1002 Original (Blue) 2.0 (05/10/95) Rev. B PAL
DTL-H1100 Original (Blue) 2.2 (03/06/96) Rev. B NTSC-J Has external power supply.
DTL-H1101 Original (Blue) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C
DTL-H1102 Original (Blue) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B PAL
DTL-H1200 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-J
DTL-H1201 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-U/C
DTL-H1202 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C PAL
DTL-H3000 Original (Black) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. B NTSC-J Net Yaroze hobbyist development system.
Can not boot CD-R copies.
DTL-H3001 Original (Black) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C
DTL-H3002 Original (Black) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B PAL

*All models feature A/V Direct Out, Parallel Port and Serial Port; none feature Sound Scope
*All models use a low-quality CD drive.
*All models can boot software with any region code.

Successors

Sony's successor to the PlayStation is the PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with its predecessor in that it can play almost every PlayStation game. The third generation of the PlayStation known as the PlayStation 3 (abbreviated PS3), was launched on November 11, 2006 in Japan, November 17, 2006 in North America, and March 23, 2007 in Europe. The PlayStation 3 was initially backward compatible with all games that were originally made for the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, but due to the removal of the PlayStation 2 Emotion Engine Chip after the introduction of the 40 GB version, the capability to play PlayStation 2 discs is limited now to software emulation, and the capability to play original PlayStation games is still possible. While PS3 games are not region-locked, PlayStation and PlayStation 2 games still only play on a PS3 console from the same territory. The redesigned "Slim" form factor PS3 introduced in 2009 has had the ability to play PlayStation 2 games entirely removed, though it can still play games from the original PlayStation.

The PlayStation Portable (abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console first released in late 2004. The PSP is capable of playing PlayStation games downloaded via Sony's online store, and can also play any PlayStation game by using the PlayStation 3's remote play feature while the disc in the PlayStation 3. Sony hopes to release nearly all PlayStation games on a gradual basis.[19] It is also possible to convert original PlayStation disc images into executable binaries using freely available software. These games are then playable on PSPs that have been modified to run unsigned code.

Slimline and original PlayStation 2  
Original (60 GB) and slim PlayStation 3.  
An original (1000 series) PlayStation Portable  

Legacy

The success of the PlayStation is widely believed to have influenced the demise of the cartridge-based home console. While not the first system to utilize an optical disc format, it was the first success story, and ended up going head-to-head with the last major home console to rely on proprietary cartridges—the Nintendo 64.

Nintendo was very public about its skepticism toward using CDs and DVDs to store games, citing longer load times and durability issues. It was widely speculated that the company was even more concerned with copyright infringement, given its substantial reliance on licensing and exclusive titles for its revenue.[citation needed]

The increasing complexity of games (in content, graphics, and sound) pushed cartridges to their storage limits and this fact began to turn off third party developers. Also, CDs were appealing to publishers due to the fact that they could be produced at a significantly lower cost and offered more flexibility (it was easy to change production to meet demand).

Quality of construction

The first batch of PlayStations used a KSM-440AAM laser unit whose case and all movable parts were completely made out of plastic. Over time, friction caused the plastic tray to wear out—usually unevenly. The placement of the laser unit close to the power supply accelerated wear because of the additional heat, which made the plastic even more vulnerable to friction. Eventually, the tray would become so worn that the laser no longer pointed directly at the CD and games would no longer load. Sony eventually fixed the problem by making the tray out of die-cast metal and placing the laser unit farther away from the power supply on later models of the PlayStation.

Some units, particularly the early 100x models, would be unable to play FMV or music correctly, resulting in skipping or freezing. In more extreme cases the PlayStation would only work correctly when turned onto its side or upside down.

Technical specifications

Central processing unit

R3051
  • MIPS R3000A-compatible 32-bit RISC chip running at 33.8688 MHz
  • The chip is manufactured by LSI Logic Corp. with technology licensed from SGI.
  • Features:
    • Operating performance of 30 MIPS
    • Bus bandwidth 132 MB/s
    • kB Instruction Cache
    • 1 kB non-associative SRAM Data Cache
    • 2 MB of main RAM
Geometry transformation engine
  • Resides inside the main CPU chip, giving it additional vector math instructions used for 3D graphics
  • Features:
    • Operating performance of 66 MIPS
    • 360,000 polygons per second[20]
      • 180,000 texture mapped and light-sourced polygons per second[citation needed]
Data decompression engine
  • Also residing within the main CPU, it is responsible for decompressing images and video.
  • Documented device mode is to read three RLE-encoded 16×16 macroblocks, run IDCT and assemble a single 16×16 RGB macroblock.
  • Output data may be transferred directly to GPU via DMA.
  • It is possible to overwrite IDCT matrix and some additional parameters, however MDEC internal instruction set was never documented.
  • Features:
    • Compatible with MJPEG and H.261 files
    • Operating Performance of 80 MIPS
    • Directly connected to CPU Bus
An SCPH-1001 motherboard.
An SCPH-5001 motherboard
An SCPH-9001 motherboard

Graphics processing unit

Name unknown
  • Handles 2D graphics processing separate from the main 3D engine on the CPU
  • Features:
    • Maximum of 16.7 million colors (24-bit color depth)
    • Resolutions from 256 × 224 to 640 × 480
    • Adjustable frame buffer
    • Unlimited color lookup tables
    • Emulation of simultaneous backgrounds (for parallax scrolling)
    • Flat or Gouraud shading and texture mapping
    • 1 MB of VRAM

Sound processing unit

Name unknown
  • Supports ADPCM sources with up to 24 channels
  • Sampling rate of up to 44.1 kHz
  • 512 kB of memory

Other

CD-ROM drive
  • 2x, with a maximum data throughput of 300 kB/s
  • XA Mode 2 Compliant
  • CD-DA (CD-Digital Audio)
  • 32 kB buffer
Bios
  • Stored on 512 kB ROM
Memory Card

Connectivity

  • AV Multi Out
  • RCA Composite video and Stereo out (SCPH-100x to 3xxx only)
  • RFU DC Out (SCPH-100x to 3xxx only)
  • S-Video Out (SCPH-1000 only)
  • Serial I/O (used for PlayStation Link Cable, not on PSone)
  • Parallel I/O (no official use, SCPH-100x to 750x only)

See also

PS3-slim-console.png Sony PlayStation portal

References

  1. ^ a b "Business Development/Japan". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatajpn_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  2. ^ a b c "Business Development/North America". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatausa_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  3. ^ a b "Business Development/Europe". Sony Computer Entertainment. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdataeu_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  4. ^ a b "SCEE 1995—Key Facts and Figures". Sony Computer Entertainment. http://www.scee.presscentre.com/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=93&NewsAreaID=22. Retrieved 2006-11-25. 
  5. ^ a b Sinclair, Brendan (2006-03-24). "Sony stops making original PS". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6146549.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  6. ^ Alexander, Leigh (September 9, 2010). "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Gamasutra. http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/30313/On_PlayStations_15th_Birthday_Platform_Claims_377_Million_Consoles_Sold.php. Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Gran Turismo Series Shipment Exceeds 50 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 2008-05-09. http://asia.playstation.com/eng_hk/index.php?q=node/1517. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  8. ^ ""Gran Turismo" Series Software Title List". Polyphony Digital. March 2010. http://www.polyphony.co.jp/english/list.html. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  9. ^ "The Making Of: PlayStation". Edge. Future Publishing. 24 April 2009. p. 5. http://www.next-gen.biz/features/making-playstation. Retrieved 27 September 2009. "SCEA hated the name and wanted to change it to PSX, a contraction of the project’s codename […] the US nevertheless went ahead with early trade promotion, calling it PSX," 
  10. ^ PS-X (PlayStation Experimental) was an internal code name for the PlayStation during development.[9] The popular use of the "PSX" abbreviation outside Sony became a source of confusion when Sony introduced its PSX digital video recorder in 2003.
  11. ^ "PlayStation 2 Breaks Record as the Fastest Computer Entertainment Platform to Reach Cumulative Shipment of 100 Million Units" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 2005-11-30. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/release/pdf/051130e.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  12. ^ "Game Over", by David Scheff
  13. ^ "Cumulative Software Titles". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatatitle_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  14. ^ "Cumulative Production Shipments of Software Titles". Sony Computer Entertainment. 2007-03-31. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatapssoft_e.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10. 
  15. ^ Search: (2008-03-18). "Gamefaqs Product page". Gamefaqs.com. http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/ps2/data/944753.html. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  16. ^ "PlayStation Turns 10". Electronic Gaming Monthly (197): 174. Nov. 2005. 
  17. ^ a b Smith, Tony (2000-12-06). "Sony PS One sales rocket as PS Two famine continues". theregister.co.uk. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/12/06/sony_ps_one_sales_rocket/. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  18. ^ "SCEE 2000—Key Facts and Figures". Sony Computer Entertainment Europe. http://www.scee.presscentre.com/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=98&NewsAreaID=22. Retrieved 2006-11-25. 
  19. ^ Gantayat, Anoop (2006-03-15). "Sony Outlines PSP Future". IGN. http://psp.ign.com/articles/696/696079p1.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10. 
  20. ^ http://www.8-bitcentral.com/images/sony/playstation/boxBack.jpg[verification needed]

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