Néstor Kirchner

Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Carlos Kirchner
President Néstor Kirchner in March 2007
54th President of Argentina
In office
25 May 2003 – 10 December 2007
Vice President Daniel Scioli
Preceded by Eduardo Duhalde
Succeeded by Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Secretary General of the Union of South American Nations
In office
4 May 2010 – 27 October 2010
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by María Emma Mejía Vélez[1]
Deputy of Argentina
For Buenos Aires Province
In office
3 December 2009 – 27 October 2010
Governor of Santa Cruz
In office
10 December 1991 – 25 May 2003
Vice Governor Eduardo Arnold (1991–1999)
Héctor Icazuriaga (1999–2003)
Preceded by Ricardo del Val
Succeeded by Héctor Icazuriaga
Mayor of Río Gallegos
In office
First Gentleman of Argentina
In office
10 December 2007 – 27 October 2010
Preceded by Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Personal details
Born 25 February 1950(1950-02-25)
Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina
Died 27 October 2010(2010-10-27) (aged 60)
El Calafate, Santa Cruz, Argentina
Nationality Argentine
Political party Front for Victory,
(Justicialist Party)
Spouse(s) Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Children Máximo Kirchner
Florencia Kirchner
Alma mater National University of La Plata
Profession Lawyer
Religion Roman Catholicism

Néstor Carlos Kirchner (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnestor ˈkarlos ˈkirʃner][2]; 25 February 1950 – 27 October 2010) was an Argentine politician who served as the 54th President of Argentina from 25 May 2003 until 10 December 2007. Previously, he was Governor of Santa Cruz Province since 10 December 1991.[3] He briefly served as Secretary General of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and as a National Deputy of Argentina for Buenos Aires Province. Kirchner's four-year presidency was notable for presiding over a dramatic fall in poverty and unemployment, following the economic crisis of 2001,[4][5] together with an extension of social security coverage, a major expansion in housing and infrastructure, higher spending on scientific research and education, and substantial increases in real wage levels.[6]

A Justicialist, Kirchner was little-known internationally and even domestically before his election to the Presidency, which he won by default with only 22.2 percent of the vote in the first round, when former President Carlos Menem (24.4%) withdrew from the ballotage. Soon after taking office in May 2003, Kirchner surprised some Argentinians by standing down powerful military and police officials. Stressing the need to increase accountability and transparency in government, Kirchner overturned amnesty laws for military officers accused of torture and assassinations during the 1976–1983 "Dirty War" under military rule.[7]

On 28 October 2007, his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was elected to succeed him as President of Argentina. Thus, Kirchner then became the First Gentleman of Argentina. In 2009, he was elected a National Deputy for Buenos Aires Province. He was also designated Secretary General of the Union of South American Nations on 4 May 2010.[8]

Kirchner, who had been operated on twice in 2010 for cardiovascular problems, died at his home in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province, on 27 October 2010, after reportedly suffering a heart attack.[9] For more than 24 hours, hundreds of thousands of people filed past Kirchner's body lying in state,[10] in a state funeral at the Casa Rosada attended by several Argentine personalities and eight South American leaders.[11] Starting on the afternoon of October 29, a massive procession accompanied Kirchner's remains from Casa Rosada to the metropolitan airport,[12] and then from the airport of Río Gallegos to the cemetery.[12]



Early life

Kirchner was born in Río Gallegos, in the Patagonian province of Santa Cruz.[13] His mother, María Juana Ostoić Dragnic, is of Croatian descent and his father, also named Néstor, a post office official, was of Swiss German descent. He received his primary and secondary education at local public schools, and his high-school diploma from the Argentine school Colegio Nacional República de Guatemala.

Néstor Kirchner as a teenager

He was part of the third generation of the family living in Río Gallegos. He moved to La Plata to study law in 1969 at the National University of La Plata, joining the political student unions of peronist ideology located there. He was present at the Ezeiza massacre and promoted the return of Juan Domingo Perón to the country.[14] He graduated as juris doctor in 1976 and met Cristina Fernández, marrying her six months later.

The armed conflicts between the Peronist factions such as Montoneros and the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance led them to leave the city and return to Río Gallegos.[15] With his wife,[16] also a lawyer and member of the Justicialist Party (PJ), he established a successful private practice.

After the downfall of the military dictatorship and restoration of democracy in 1983, Kirchner became a public officer in the provincial government. The following year, he was briefly president of the Río Gallegos social welfare fund, but was forced out by the governor because of a dispute over financial policy. The affair made him a local celebrity and laid the foundation for his career.[17]

By 1986, Kirchner had developed sufficient political capital to be put forward as the PJ's candidate for mayor of Río Gallegos. He won the 1987 elections for this post by the very slim margin of about 100 votes. Fellow PJ member Ricardo del Val became governor, keeping Santa Cruz firmly within the hands of the PJ.

Kirchner's performance as mayor from 1987 to 1991 was satisfactory enough to the electorate and to the party to enable him to run for governor in 1991, where he won with 61% of the vote; by this time his wife was also a member of the provincial congress.

Governor of Santa Cruz

When Kirchner assumed the governorship, the province of Santa Cruz (pop. 197,000) contributed one percent to Argentina's gross national product, primarily through the production of raw materials (mostly oil), and was being battered by the then ongoing economic crisis, with high unemployment and a budget deficit equal to US$ 1.2 billion. He arranged for substantial investments to stimulate productivity, the labor market, and consumption. By eliminating unproductive expenditures and cutting back on tax exemptions for the key petroleum industry, Kirchner restored the financial balance of the province. Through his expansionist and social policies, Kirchner was credited with bringing a substantial measure of prosperity to Santa Cruz. The improved economic situation was achieved by a neo-Keynesian expansion of consumption and investment expenditure, in contrast to the neo-liberalism of the Menem Government. Subsequent studies showed that the province had a better distribution of wealth and lower levels of poverty, unemployment, and social unrest than most other provinces,[18] second only to Buenos Aires.

In 1994 and 1998, Kirchner introduced amendments to the provincial constitution,[19] to enable him to run for re-election indefinitely. As a member of the 1994 Constitutional Assembly organized by Menem and former president Raúl Alfonsín, Kirchner participated in the drafting of a new national constitution which allowed the president to be re-elected for a second four-year term.

In 1995, with his constitutional changes in place, Kirchner was easily re-elected to a second term as governor, with 66.5% of the votes. But by now, Kirchner was distancing himself from the charismatic and controversial Menem, who was also the nominal head of the PJ; this was made particularly apparent with the launch of Corriente Peronista, an initiative supported by Kirchner to create an alternative space within the Justicialist Party, outside of Menem's influence.[20]

In 1998, Menem's attempt to stand for re-election a second time, by means of an ad hoc interpretation of a constitutional clause, met with strong resistance among Peronist rank-and-file, who were finding themselves under increasing pressure due to the highly controversial policies of the Menem administration and its involvement in corruption scandals. Kirchner joined the camp of Menem's chief opponent within the PJ, the governor of Buenos Aires Province, Eduardo Duhalde.

President Eduardo Duhalde's endorsement helped propel the little-known Governor Kirchner to the Presidency in 2003, though they later became rivals.

Menem did not run, and the PJ nominated Duhalde, who was in turn defeated during the October 1999 elections by Buenos Aires Mayor Fernando de la Rúa, the Alliance candidate, and the party lost its majority in Congress. Although the Alianza also made headway in Santa Cruz, Kirchner managed to be re-elected to a third term as governor in May 1999 with 45.7% of the vote. De la Rúa's victory was in part a rejection of Menem's perceived flamboyance and corruption during his last term. De la Rúa instituted austerity measures and reforms to improve the economy; taxes were increased to reduce the deficit, the government bureaucracy was trimmed, and legal restrictions on union negotiations were eased.

These moves did not prevent a deepening of the Argentine economic crisis, however, and a crisis of confidence ensued by November 2001, as domestic depositors began a run on the banks, resulting in the highly unpopular corralito, a limit, and subsequently a full ban, on withdrawals. These developments led to the December 2001 riots, and to President de la Rúa's resignation on December 21.

A series of interim presidents and renewed demonstrations ended with the appointment of Eduardo Duhalde as interim president in January 2002. Duhalde abolished the fixed exchange rate regime that had been in place since 1991, and the Argentine peso quickly devalued by more than two thirds of its value, diminishing middle-class savings and sinking the heavily import-dependent Argentine economy even deeper, but giving a significant profit boost to Argentinian exports. Amid strong public rejection of the entire political class, characterized by the pithy slogan que se vayan todos ("away with them all"), Duhalde brought elections forward by six months.

2003 presidential election

Even though Kirchner run for presidency with the support of Eduardo Duhalde, he was not the initial candidate chosen by the president. Trying to prevent a third term of Carlos Menem, he sought to promote a candidate that may defeat him, but Carlos Reutemann (governor of Santa Fe) did not accept and José Manuel de la Sota (governor of Córdoba) did not grow in the polls. He also tried with Mauricio Macri, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá, Felipe Solá and Roberto Lavagna, to no avail. He initially resisted helping Kirchner, fearing that he may ignore Duhalde once in the presidency.[21]

Kirchner's electoral promises included "returning to a republic of equals".[citation needed] After the first round of the election, Kirchner visited the president of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who received him enthusiastically. He also declared he was proud of his radical left-wing political past.[22]

With King Juan Carlos I

Although Menem, who was president from 1989 to 1999, won the first round of the election on April 27, 2003, he only got 24% of the valid votes — just 2% ahead of Kirchner. This was an empty victory, as Menem was viewed very negatively by much of the Argentine population and had virtually no chance of winning the runoff election. After days of speculation, during which polls forecast a massive victory for Kirchner with about a 30%–40% difference, Menem finally decided to stand down. This automatically made Kirchner president of Argentina, despite having secured only 22% of the votes in the election, the lowest percentage gained by the eventual winner of an Argentine presidential election. He was sworn in on May 25, 2003 to a four-year term of office.[23][24]

President of Argentina

Néstor Kirchner with former President Raúl Alfonsín, in 2004

Kirchner came into office on the tail of a deep economic crisis. A country which had once equalled Europe in levels of prosperity and considered itself a bulwark of European culture in Latin America found itself deeply impoverished, with a depleted middle class and malnutrition appearing in the lower strata of society. The country was burdened with $178 billion in debt, the government strapped for cash. While associated to the clientelist and nearly feudal style of government of many provincial governors and the corruption of the PJ, Kirchner was comparatively unknown to the national public, and he showed himself as a newcomer who had arrived at the Casa Rosada without the usual whiff of scandal about him, trying not to make a point of the fact that he himself had seven times been on the same electoral ballot with Menem.

Shortly after coming into office, Kirchner made changes to the Argentine Supreme Court. He accused certain justices of extortion and pressured them to resign, while also fostering the impeachment of two others. In place of a majority of politically right-wing and religiously conservative justices, he appointed new ones who were ideologically closer to him, including two women (one of them an avowed atheist). Kirchner also retired dozens of generals, admirals, and brigadiers from the armed forces, a few of them with reputations tainted by the atrocities of the Dirty War.[25][26]

Néstor Kirchner and the Minister of Economy during most of his term, Roberto Lavagna

Kirchner kept the Duhalde administration's Minister of the Economy, Roberto Lavagna. Lavagna also declared that his first priority now was social problems. Argentina's default was the largest in financial history, and ironically it gave Kirchner and Lavagna significant bargaining power with the IMF, which loathes having bad debts on its books. During his first year of office, Kirchner achieved a difficult agreement to reschedule $84 billion in debts with international organizations, for three years. In the first half of 2005, the government launched a bond exchange to restructure approximately $81 billion of national public debt (an additional $20 billion in past defaulted interest was not recognized). Over 76% of the debt was tendered and restructured for a recovery value of approximately one third of its nominal value.[17]

Under Kirchner, Argentine foreign policy shifted from the "automatic alignment" with the United States during the 1990s, to one stressing stronger ties (economic and political) within Mercosur and with other Latin American countries, and rejecting the Free Trade Area of the Americas.[17][27]

Kirchner saw the 2005 parliamentary elections as a means to confirm his political power, since Carlos Menem's defection in the second round of the 2003 presidential elections had not allowed Kirchner to receive the large number of votes that surveys predicted. Kirchner explicitly stated that the 2005 elections would be like a mid-term plebiscite for his administration, and he actively participated in the campaign in most provinces. Due to internal disagreements, the Justicialist Party was not presented as such on the polls but split into several factions. Kirchner's Frente para la Victoria (FPV, Front for Victory) was overwhelmingly the winner (the candidates of the FPV got more than 40% of the national vote), following which many supporters of other factions (mostly those led by former presidents Eduardo Duhalde and Carlos Menem) migrated to the FPV.

Néstor and Cristina Kirchner at an election-eve campaign rally, 2007.

On 15 December 2005, following Brazil's initiative, Kirchner announced the cancellation of Argentina's debt to the IMF in full and offered a single payment, in a historic decision that generated controversy at the time (see Argentine debt restructuring). Some commentators, such as Mark Weisbrot of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, suggest that the Argentine experiment has thus far proven successful.[28] Others, such as Michael Mussa, formerly on the staff of the International Monetary Fund and now with the Peterson Institute, question the longer-term sustainability of Pres. Kirchner's approach.[29]

In a meeting with executives of multinational corporations on Wall Street—after which he was the first Argentine president to ring the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange—Kirchner defended his "heterodox economic policy, within the canon of classic economics" and criticized the IMF for its lack of collaboration with the Argentine recovery.[30]

On July 2, 2007, President Kirchner announced he would not seek re-election in the October elections, despite having the support of 60% of those surveyed in polls. Instead, Kirchner intended to focus on the creation of a new political party.[31]

Kirchner secured the Presidency of the Justicialist Party (to which his FPV belongs), in April 2008.[32] Following the FPV's loss of 4 Senators and over 20 Congressmen in the June 28, 2009 mid-term elections, however, he was replaced by Buenos Aires Province Governor Daniel Scioli.[33]


Return of Kirchner to Argentina, after the Operation Emmanuel.

Kirchner remained a highly influential politician during the term of his successor and wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. The press developed the term "presidential marriage" to make reference to both of them at once.[34] Some political analysts compared this type of government with a diarchy.[35] He took part in the Operation Emmanuel in Colombia to release a group of FARC hostages, in December 2007.[36] The Colombian politician Íngrid Betancourt was among the group of hostages. Kirchner returned to Argentina after the failure of the negotiations;[37] the hostages were later released a year later by a covert operation by Colombian military forces known as "Operacion Jaque" as a result of the reluctance of the guerilla to release the hostages, including Ingrid Betancourt and three Americans.

Néstor Kirchner took active part in the government conflict with the agricultural sector in 2008. During this conflict he became president of the Justicialist Party, and declared full support for Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in the conflict.[38] He accused the agricultural sector of attempting a coup d'état.[39] He was one of the speakers in a demonstration made next to the Argentine National Congress supporting a law project on the matter, that would be voted the following day. Kirchner requested by then to accept the result in the Congress.[40] Many senators who had formerly supported the government's proposal rejected it. The voting ended in a tie with 36 supporting votes and 36 rejecting votes. As a result, vicepresident Julio Cobos, president of the chamber of senators, was required to cast a decisive vote. Cobos voted for the rejection, and the law proposal was rejected.[41]

On June 2009 legislative elections he ran for National Deputy for the Buenos Aires Province district. He was elected along with other 11 Front for Victory candidates, as their ticket arrived close second to the Union PRO peronist-conservative coalition in that district.[42][43]

Néstor Kirchner was proposed by Ecuador as a candidate Secretary General of Unasur, but was rejected by Uruguay, at a time when Uruguay and Argentina were debating the Pulp mill dispute. The dispute was resolved in 2010 and the new Uruguayan president, José Mujica, supported Kirchner's candidacy. Kirchner was unanimously elected the first Secretary General of Unasur, during a Unasur Member States Heads of State summit held in Buenos Aires on 4 May 2010.[44] In that role, he successfully mediated in the 2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis.[45][46]


Néstor Kirchner died of heart failure on 27 October 2010.[47] He had been expected to run for president in 2011.[48]

A wake was held from 28 October at the Casa Rosada presidential palace in Buenos Aires with the attendance of Latin American leaders.[11] For more than 24 hours, hundreds of thousands of people filed past Kirchner's body lying in state,[10] at the Casa Rosada. Starting on the afternoon of October 29 a large procession accompanied the remains of Néstor Kirchner from Casa Rosada to the metropolitan airport,[12] and another from the airport of Río Gallegos to the cemetery.[12] Cristina Fernández de Kirchner presided over the funeral, making her first public appearance since Néstor's death.[49]

Argentina declared three days of national mourning.[50] Condolences came from the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon,[51] the European Union,[51] the OAS,[52] The Union of South American Nations declared three days of national mourning in all South American countries.[53][54] Eight South American heads of state traveled to Buenos Aires for the funeral[55] and many others offered condolences.

Personal style and ideology

Kirchner and Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez discuss the Gran Gasoducto del Sur - an energy and trade integration project for South America. They met on November 21, 2005 in Venezuela.

Néstor Kirchner is considered at times as a left-wing president,[56] but that consideration is relative.[57] Although Kirchner was to the left of previous Argentine presidents, from Raúl Alfonsín to Eduardo Duhalde, and contemporary Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, he was to the right of other latin american presidents as Hugo Chávez or Fidel Castro.[57] His strong nationalist approach to the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute is closer to Right-wing politics,[58] and he has not considered classic left-wing policies such as socialization of production or the nationalization of the public services privatized during the presidency of Carlos Menem.[58] He has not attempted either to modify the institutional system, the church–state relations or disestablish the armed forces.[58]

Néstor Kirchner is a Peronist, and manages the political power as the historical Peronist leaders have traditionally done.[59] One of the characteristics of his political style is the constant generation of controversies with other political or social forces, and the polarization of public opinion.[60] This strategy was used against financial sectors, military, police, foreign countries, international bodies, newspapers, and even Duhalde himself, with varying levels of success.[61] The rise of Kirchnerism reenacted the then outdated rivalry between Peronists and Antiperonists, and the use of the "Gorila" pejorative term.

Kirchner sought to generate an image contrasting that of former presidents Carlos Menem and Fernando de la Rúa. Menem was seen as frivolous, and De la Rúa as doubtful, so Kirchner worked to be seen as serious and determined.[62]

Kirchner was a critic of IMF structural adjustment programs. His criticisms were supported in part by former World Bank economist Joseph Stiglitz, who opposes the IMF's measures as recessionary and urged Argentina to take an independent path. According to some commentators, Kirchner was seen as part of a spectrum of new Latin American leaders, including Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brazil and Tabaré Vázquez in Uruguay, who see the Washington consensus as an unsuccessful model for economic development in the region.

Kirchner's increasing alignment with Hugo Chávez became evident when during a visit to Venezuela on July 2006 he attended a military parade alongside Bolivian president Evo Morales. On that occasion Mr. Chávez called for a defensive military pact between the armies of the region with a common doctrine and organization. Kirchner stated in a speech to the Venezuela national assembly that Venezuela represented a true democracy fighting for the dignity of its people.[63]

Kirchner and Presidents Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, and Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil, in a 2006 summit in Brasília.

Kirchner emphasised holding businesses accountable to Argentine institutions, laws prompting environmental standards, and contractual obligations. He pledged to not open his administration to the influence of interests that "benefited from inadmissible privileges in the last decade" during Carlos Menem's presidency. These groups, according to Kirchner, were privileged by an economic model that favored "financial speculation and political subordination" of politicians to well-connected elites.[64] For instance, in 2006, citing the alleged failure of Aguas Argentinas, a company partly owned by the French utility group Suez, to meet its contractual obligation to improve the quality of water, Kirchner terminated the company's contract with Argentina to provide drinking water to Buenos Aires.[65]

His preference for a more active role of the state in the economy was underscored with the founding, in 2004, of ENARSA a new state owned energy company. At the June 2007 Mercosur summit, he scolded energy companies for their lack of investment in the sector and for not supporting his strategic vision for the region. He said he was losing patience with energy companies as South America's second-largest economy faced power rationing and shortages during the Southern Hemisphere winter. Price controls on energy rates instituted in 2002 are attributed to have limited investment in Argentina's energy infrastructure, risking more than four years of economic growth greater than 8 percent.[66][67]

Kirchner's collaborators and others who supported him and were politically close to him were known informally as pingüinos ("penguins"), alluding to his birthplace in the cold southern region of Argentina.[68][69] Some media and sectors of society also resorted to using the letter K as a shorthand for Kirchner and his policies (as seen, for example, in the controversial group of supporters self-styled Los Jóvenes K,[70] that is "The K Youth", and in the faction of the Radical Civic Union that supports Kirchner, referred to by the media as Radicales K).[71]

Criticism and controversy

Kirchner was strongly criticized by commentators accusing him of authoritarianism by overly concentrating power in the executive branch and excessive use of decrees. The magazine The Economist in 2006 accused Kirchner of "populism", which it describes as a Latin American tendency that the Argentine president shares with a diverse range of figures, such as indigenous Peruvian nationalist Ollanta Humala, Mexican social democrat Andrés Manuel López Obrador, and socialist Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.[72]

The Wall Street Journal ran an article criticizing the NYSE for choosing Kirchner as a bell ringer, accusing him of being "anti-market."[73][74]

Joaquín Morales Solá, a political columnist for the Argentine newspaper La Nación, accused Kirchner of having a "personalistic style of governing, with a dose of authoritarianism and hegemony, an aggressive style of induced rupture and confrontation", and recently diverse allegations of cronyism and corrupt practices by his government's officials began to mount.[75]

Controversy also arose when the Minister of Economy, Felisa Miceli, removed an officer of the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina in charge of calculating the inflation indexes, allowing Commerce Secretary Guillermo Moreno to hand-pick an official from outside the institution for the post, in what was seen as a move to manipulate official data.[76]

In the last months of his presidency, Kirchner had to weather several scandals. His Minister of Economy Felisa Miceli was forced to resign over more than $60,000 found stashed in a bag in her office bathroom, and a businessman carrying a suitcase with US$800,000 in cash, on a government-hired jet traveling from Venezuela, was discovered at an Argentine airport.[77]

In May 2009, it was reported that the Argentine Intelligence Services (SIDE) were allegedly obeying Kirchner's orders in spying and harassing both his opponents as well as fellow Front for Victory and Justicialist Party figures to aid him in winning the 2009 mid-term elections, in which his party list struggled. The current SIDE Secretary, Héctor Icazuriaga, attended official acts with Kirchner and "offered political assistance" to him in the weekends at the official residence of the ex President.

In March 2007, it was confirmed that the SIDE had intervened and disrupted calls shortly before Cristina succeeded Néstor in the Casa Rosada; the Federal Police were linked to a clandestine operation involving the SIDE and 15,000 to 20,000 telephone numbers.[78]

Allegations of embezzlement

Official reports from Argentina's anti-corruption office show that the fortune of the Argentine presidential couple, President Cristina Kirchner and her immediate predecessor and husband, Néstor Kirchner jumped 20.6% in 2009 totaling the equivalent of 14.5 million US dollars, and soared 700% since they first took office in 2003. The couple and several of their closest aides have been accused of purchasing from the Santa Cruz province government (their political turf) land at rock bottom farm prices which rapidly were converted into urban and suburban districts in exclusive resort areas valued in millions of dollars.

Several illicit enrichment claims filed in Buenos Aires did not prosper or were shelved with the same prosecutor involved in all cases. [79]


  • Alberto Amato (2010-10-28) Facundo Landívar ed. "1950–2010 / Néstor Kirchner, ex presidente de la Nación" (in Spanish) Clarín (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Special edition (23.293) ISSN 1514-965x 
  • Fraga, Rosendo (2010) (in Spanish). Fin de ciKlo: ascenso, apogeo y declinación del poder kirchnerista. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-167-7. 
  • Mendelevich, Pablo (2010) (in Spanish). El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0. 


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  2. ^ This is the most widespread pronunciation, but is baseless; Kirchner himself used to say simply ˈkirner.
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  35. ^ Mendelevich, p. 280
  36. ^ Sarkozy le pidió "ayuda" a Kirchner en el conflicto con las FARC (Spanish)
  37. ^ Tras fracasar el rescate de los tres rehenes, volvió Kirchner (Spanish)
  38. ^ Contraataque de Kirchner: sumará al PJ a la pelea (Spanish)
  39. ^ El PJ acusó al campo de agorero y golpista y respaldó a Cristina (Spanish)
  40. ^ Kirchner reforzó los ataques al campo en su última apuesta antes del debate (Spanish)
  41. ^ Argentine Senate rejects farm tax, BBC News, 17 July 2008.
  42. ^ "República Argentina - Elecciones 2009". Elecciones.gov.ar. http://www.elecciones.gov.ar/paginas/if_top.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  43. ^ "Clarín, 2009 Legislative Election Results, published 28 June 2009". Clarin.com. 2009-06-28. http://www.clarin.com/diario/2009/06/28/conexiones/inicio_info.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  44. ^ "Kirchner to head Americas bloc". Al Jazeera English. 2010-05-05. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2010/05/20105592438483490.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  45. ^ "Kirchner: "We Latin Americans have proved we can solve our own problems"". english.telam.com.ar. 11 August 2010. http://english.telam.com.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9909:kirchner-we-latin-americans-have-proved-we-can-solve-our-own-problems&catid=42:politics. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  46. ^ "Hillary Clinton praises Argentina's role in Venezuela-Colombia conflict". /www.buenosairesherald.com. 12 August 2010. http://www.buenosairesherald.com/BreakingNews/View/41923. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  47. ^ "Murió el ex presidente Néstor Kirchner [Former president Néstor Kirchner has died]" (in Spanish). Clarín. Buenos Aires. 27 October. http://www.clarin.com/politica/gobierno/Kirchner-sufrido-descompensacion-cardiaca-Calafate_0_361164064.html. 
  48. ^ "Argentine ex-leader Kirchner dies — Americas". Al Jazeera English. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2010/10/2010102713264244362.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  49. ^ "Argentine president presides over Kirchner's funeral". News.xinhuanet.com. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2010-10/29/c_13581863.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  50. ^ "Tres días de duelo, Página/12". Pagina12.com.ar. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/subnotas/20-49998-2010-10-27.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  51. ^ a b "Líderes de todo el mundo lamentan el fallecimiento de Kirchner". El País. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/Lideres/todo/mundo/lamentan/fallecimiento/Kirchner/elpepuint/20101027elpepuint_22/Tes. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  52. ^ "El recuerdo de Sudamérica y del mundo". página12.com.ar. 2010-10-28. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-155830-2010-10-28.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  53. ^ "Unasur declaró tres días duelo sudamericano por la muerte de Kirchner". ambitoweb.com. 2010-10-28. http://www.ambito.com/noticia.asp?id=550714. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  54. ^ "Unasur: Kirchner "fue un convencido de la unidad de los pueblos latinoamericanos", Telesur". Telesurtv.net. 2006-11-14. http://www.telesurtv.net/noticias/secciones/nota/80597-NN/unasur-kirchner-fue-un-convencido-de-la-unidad-de-los-pueblos-latinoamericanos/. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  55. ^ "Elocuente apoyo de los presidentes latinoamericanos". Lanacion.com.ar. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1319625. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  56. ^ BBC News. 18 April 2006. Analysis: Latin America's new left axis.
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  58. ^ a b c Fraga, p. 34
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  60. ^ Fraga, p. 40
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  62. ^ Fraga, p. 52
  63. ^ (Spanish) La Nación. 5 July 2006. "Kirchner dejó un fuerte apoyo a Chávez y se llevó un gesto por Malvinas".
  64. ^ "The Argentine Presidential Election: Is Political Renewal Possible?". Americas IRC Online. 2003-06-05. Archived from the original on 2006-07-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712052147/http://americas.irc-online.org/reports/2003/0306argelect.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  65. ^ "Argentina severs Suez water deal". BBC News. 2006-03-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4830720.stm. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  66. ^ (Spanish) La Nación 30 June 2007. "Duras críticas a empresas energéticas"
  67. ^ Bloomberg 29 June 2007 "Argentina's Kirchner Says Patience Is Wearing Thin"
  68. ^ Buenos Aires Herald. "March of the Penguins"
  69. ^ (Spanish) Clarín. 18 January 2006. "Un combate entre "pingüinos" por la estratégica secretaría de Agricultura"
  70. ^ (Spanish) Jóvenes K — Official website.
  71. ^ (Spanish) Clarín. 12 August 2006. "Los radicales K respaldaron las políticas del gobierno y se distancian de la UCR"
  72. ^ The Economist. 12 April 2006. Latin America - The return of populism
  73. ^ La Nación, 20 Sep 2006. "Duro editorial de The Wall Street Journal contra Kirchner".
  74. ^ Clarín, 20 Sep 2006. "En la ONU, Kirchner volvió a criticar al Fondo y a reclamarle a Gran Bretaña por Malvinas".
  75. ^ The New York Times, 3 Jan 2006. "Dwindling Debt Boosts Argentine Leader"
  76. ^ "Economía designó a la nueva cúpula del INDEC" Clarín (Spanish)
  77. ^ Reuters, 9 Aug 2007 "Suitcase of cash sparks new scandal in Argentina"
  78. ^ "La inteligencia argentina, al servicio de Néstor Kirchner | Mundo". elmundo.es. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2009/05/17/internacional/1242577339.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  79. ^ "Kirchner couple fortune climbs 20.6% in one year totalling 14.5 million USD". En.mercopress.com. http://en.mercopress.com/2010/07/09/kirchner-couple-fortune-climbs-20.6-in-one-year-totalling-14.5-million-usd. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
position created
Secretary General of Unasur
Succeeded by
María Emma Mejía Vélez
Preceded by
Eduardo Duhalde
President of Argentina
Succeeded by
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Preceded by
Héctor Marcelino García
Governor of Santa Cruz
Succeeded by
Héctor Icazuriaga
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
First Spouse of Argentina
Succeeded by

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