Kirchnerism (Spanish "kirchnerismo") is a term used in Argentina to refer to the political philosophy and supporters of Néstor Kirchner, president of Argentina from 2003 to 2007, and of his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, President from 2007. Although the Kirchners are allied with the Peronist Justicialist Party, their supporters do not coincide with the traditional definition of Peronism, and many Peronists oppose them ("Anti-Kirchnerist Peronism").

Virtually all political forces in Argentina are divided into Kirchnerist and Anti-Kirchnerist factions: not only Peronists, but also Radicals, Socialists, Christian democrats, etc. Kirchnerists are often distinguished with the letter K, for instance "radicales K".

In response, the term "Anti-Kirchnerism" has arisen to describe those sectors and persons, as much within as without Peronism, who opposed the governments of Kirchner and Fernández, and her selection as candidate in 2007. Within Peronism, Anti-Kirchnerism is most intense among the right-wing faction of Carlos Menem and Eduardo Duhalde. fact|date=December 2007 The Kirchners have tried to forge a wider political base within the Front for Victory and 'Plural Consensus', recruiting a Radical - Julio Cobos - as running mate to Fernández and now Vice-President and several others on their lists for Congress.


Both Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner come from the left wing of Peronism, and both began their political careers as members of the Peronist Youth ("Juventud Peronista"), affiliated to the Montoneros guerrilla organization. Many of the Kirchners' closest allies belong to the Peronist left. Antikirchnerists often criticize this ideological background with the term "setentista" ("seventies-ist"), suggesting that Kirchnerism is overly influenced by the populist struggle of the 1970s.

* Human rights. Kirchnerism has shown itself to be concerned with the defense of human rights, particularly in prosecuting those who committed human rights violations during the Dirty War and were later made immune from prosecution by the governments of Raúl Alfonsín (1983-1989) and Carlos Menem (1991-1999). The willingness of the Kirchner government to revoke these immunities has led many Argentine human rights organizations, such as the Madres de Plaza de Mayo and Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo to take an actively Kirchnerist position. [ [ "Reencuentro de Carlotto y Bonafini. Las titulares de las Abuelas y Madres de Plaza de Mayo fueron reunidas por Kirchner", Clarín 26 de mayo de 2006] ]

*Rejection of neoliberalism. Kirchnerism has shown itself to be expressly opposed to neoliberal policies.

*Industrial developmentalism. Economically, Kirchnerism has pursued an economic policy of industrialist developmentalism.

*Rejection of free trade agreements. Kirchnerism has strongly opposed multilateral and bilateral free trade agreements pursued by the United States. The climax of this policy occurred with the confrontation between Kirchner and George W. Bush at the Mar del Plata Summit of the Americas in 2005, which resulted in Argentina's refusal to sign the FTAA agreement. [ [ "Bush y el ALCA sufrieron duro traspié en Mar del Plata", Voltaire net, 2005] ]

*Defence of Mercosur. Internationally, Kirchnerism has strongly supported Mercosur and vice-versa, to the point that the president of Mercosur, Carlos Álvarez, is a Kirchnerist.

*International alignment. One of the most prominent positions of Kirchnerism is to strengthen Argentine relations with non-neoliberal countries of Latin America, especially Venezuela, Cuba, and Bolivia, and to establish a South American economic axis with Brazil.

*Progressive policies with respect to reproduction and sexuality. Kirchnerism, in particular the minister of health Ginés García, has shown a markedly progressive attitude to birth control and sexuality, which has provoked the opposition of the Catholic Church and other conservative sectors. [ [ "Ginés García legalizaría el aborto", La Nación, 15 de febrero de 2005] ]


Kirchnerism has encountered opposition from various sectors of Argentine society, who tend to criticize its personalism and a disinclination to build consensus with the political opposition. It has been accused of undermining the democratic system, and has been compared both to fascism and communism. [ [ "Néstor Kirchner y Cristina Fernández con la Legrand: “Yo completaré mi mandato”, Página/12, 16 de mayo de 2003] ]


ee also

*Plural Consensus

External links

*es [ "Kirchnerism launches its own syndical movement", Clarín, February 12, 2006]
*es [ "Practical guide to the complexities of Kirchnerism", by Diego Schurman, Página/12, February 12, 2006]
*es [ "When and how will Kirchnerism be defeated?"] , by Mariano Grondona in La Nación, August 26, 2007.

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