Nationality


Nationality
Legal status of persons
Concepts

Citizenship
Immigration
Illegal immigration
Nationality
Naturalization
Leave to Remain
Statelessness

Designations

Administrative detainee
Alien
Citizen
Dual-citizen
Illegal immigrant
Migrant worker
Native-born citizen
Naturalized citizen
Political prisoner
Refugee
Stateless person

Social politics

Immigration law
Illegal immigration
Nationalism
Nationality law
Nativism (politics)

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Nationality is membership of a nation or sovereign state, usually determined by their citizenship, but sometimes by ethnicity or place of residence, or based on their sense of national identity.

Citizenship is determined by jus soli, jus sanguinis, or naturalization, which affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. The word citizenship is often used in a different sense from nationality. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election. The term national can include both citizens and non-citizens.

Nationality can refer to membership in a nation (collective of people sharing a national identity, usually based on ethnic and cultural ties and self-determination) even if that nation has no state, such as the Basques Really?, Kurds, Tamils and Scots. Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status which have ceded some power to a larger government, such as the federally recognized tribes of Native Americans in the United States. Spanish law recognises the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Galicia and the Basque Country as "nationalities" (nacionalidades), while in Italy, the German speakers of South Tyrol are considered to be Austrian Nationals.

Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality." By custom, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are. Such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality.

Contents

Nationality versus citizenship

In some countries, the cognate word for nationality in local language may be understood as a synonym of skin color. To determine citizenship, the nations in these areas of the world follow the principle of jus sanguinis rather than jus soli. But even then these countries would determine one's nationality by their ethnicity, rather than their citizenship.

In several areas of the world, the term nationality can be defined based on ethnicity, as well as cultural and family-based self-determination rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, there are people who would say that they are Kurds, i.e., of Kurdish nationality, even though no such Kurdish sovereign state exists at least at this time in history. In the context of former Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, nationality is often used as translation of the Russian nacional'nost' and Serbo-Croatian narodnost terms used for ethnic groups and local affiliations within those (former) states.

Even today the Russian Federation, as an example, consists of various people whose nationality is other than Russian, but who are considered to be Russian subjects and comply with the laws of the federation. Similarly, the term "nationalities of China" refers to cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made out by nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation.

See also

References

  • White, Philip L. (2006). "Globalization and the Mythology of the Nation State," In A.G.Hopkins, ed. Global History: Interactions Between the Universal and the Local Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 257-284.

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • nationality — I noun allegiance, birth, body politic, citizenry, commonwealth, country, fatherland, habitancy, homeland, inhabitancy, inhabitation, nation, national group, national status, native land, nativity, origin, people, polity, populace, society,… …   Law dictionary

  • Nationality — Na tion*al i*ty, n.; pl. {Nationalities}. [Cf. F. nationalit[ e].] 1. The quality of being national, or strongly attached to one s own nation; patriotism. [1913 Webster] 2. The sum of the qualities which distinguish a nation; national character.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • nationality — (n.) 1690s, national quality, from NATIONAL (Cf. national) + ITY (Cf. ity) (in some usages perhaps from Fr. nationalité. As fact of belonging to or being a citizen of a particular state, from 1828, gradually shading into race, ethnicity. Meaning… …   Etymology dictionary

  • nationality — [nash΄ə nal′ə tē] n. pl. nationalities 1. national quality or character 2. the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization; identification as to national origin 3. the condition or fact of being a nation 4. a national… …   English World dictionary

  • nationality — [n] place of birth allegiance, body politic, citizenship, community, country, ethnic group, nation, native land, origin, political home, race, society; concepts 380,510 …   New thesaurus

  • nationality — ► NOUN (pl. nationalities) 1) the status of belonging to a particular nation. 2) an ethnic group forming a part of one or more political nations …   English terms dictionary

  • nationality — /nash euh nal i tee/, n., pl. nationalities for 1, 2, 5, 6. 1. the status of belonging to a particular nation, whether by birth or naturalization: the nationality of an immigrant. 2. the relationship of property, holdings, etc., to a particular… …   Universalium

  • nationality — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ various ▪ cultural differences among various nationalities ▪ mixed ▪ The pupils are of mixed nationality. ▪ dual …   Collocations dictionary

  • nationality */ — UK [ˌnæʃəˈnælətɪ] / US noun Word forms nationality : singular nationality plural nationalities 1) [countable/uncountable] the legal status of being a citizen of a particular country British/American/German nationality dual nationality (=… …   English dictionary

  • nationality — na|tion|al|i|ty [ˌnæʃəˈnælıti] n plural nationalities 1.) [U and C] the state of being legally a citizen of a particular country →↑citizenship ▪ people of the same nationality French/Brazilian etc nationality ▪ He has British nationality. dual… …   Dictionary of contemporary English


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