- Imagined communities
The imagined community is a concept coined by
Benedict Andersonwhich states that a nationis a communitysocially constructed, which is to say imagined by the peoplewho perceive themselves as part of that group.Anderson, Benedict. "Imagined Communities". ISBN 0-86091-329-5, p. 6-7]
Benedict Anderson defined a nation as "an imagined political community [that is] imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign". An imagined community is different from an actual
communitybecause it is not (and cannot be) based on quotidian face-to-face interaction between its members. Instead, members hold in their minds a mental image of their affinity. As Anderson puts it, a nation "is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion".Anderson, Benedict. "Imagined Communities", p. 6-7. ISBN 0-86091-329-5]
These communities are imagined as both limited and sovereign. They are "limited" in that nations have "finite, if elastic boundaries, beyond which lie other nations". They are "sovereign" insofar as no dynastic monarchy can claim authority over them, an idea arising in the early modern period:
Finally, a nation is an imagined "community" because "regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. Ultimately it is this fraternity that makes it possible, over the past two centuries, for so many millions of people, not so much to kill, as willingly to die for such limited imaginings."
According to Anderson, creation of imagined communities became possible because of "print-capitalism". Capitalist entrepreneurs printed their books and media in the
vernacular(instead of exclusive script languages, such as Latin) in order to maximize circulation. As a result, readers speaking various local dialects became able to understand each other, and a common discourse emerged. Anderson argued that the first European nation-states were thus formed around their "national print-languages."
Benedict Anderson arrived at his theory because he felt that neither Marxist nor liberal theory adequately explained nationalism.
Anderson falls into the "
historicist" or " modernist" school of nationalismalong with Ernest Gellnerand Eric Hobsbawmin that he posits that nations and nationalism are products of modernityand have been created as means to political and economic ends. This school stands in opposition to the primordialists, who believe that nations, if not nationalism, have existed since early human history. Imagined communities can be seen as a form of social constructionismon a par with Edward Said's concept of imagined geographies.
In contrast to Gellner and Hobsbawm, Anderson is not hostile to the idea of nationalism nor does he think that nationalism is obsolete in a globalizing world. Anderson values the utopian element in nationalism. [ [http://www.culcom.uio.no/aktivitet/anderson-kapittel-eng.html Interview with Benedict Anderson by Lorenz Khazaleh] , University of Oslo website] According to his theory of imagined communities, the main causes of the nationalism are the declining importance of privileged access to particular script languages (such as
Latin) because of mass vernacular literacy; the movement to abolish the ideas of rule by divine right and hereditary monarchy; and the emergence of printing press capitalism — all phenomena occurring with the start of the Industrial Revolution. Anthony D. Smithstates that even when nations are the product of modernity, it is possible to find ethnic elements that survive in modern nations. Ethnic groups are different from nations. Nations are the result of a triple revolution that begins with the development of capitalism and leads to a bureaucratic and cultural centralization along with a loss of power by the Catholic Church. Since Smith considers nations as the product of modernity, he falls into the "modernity" school. Eric Hobsbawmargues that the nation is the product of nationalism, instead of nationalism's being an effect of the nation's mythical original existence. The modern nation was created by the unification of various people into a common society or community, which takes the 19th century nation-stateform, forged out of disciplinary institutionssuch as the school, the armyor the factory.
Jean-Luc Nancy's "The Inoperative Community" (1983)
* [http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=401&issue=117 Reimagined communities] - A
Marxistcritique of Anderson's book by Neil Davidson in International Socialism journal
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