Automotive industry


Automotive industry

The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.

The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to automobiles after delivery to the customer, such as repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

Contents

History

The first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.

Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.[1]:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.[1]:p.26

Until 2005, the U.S.A. was leading the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90% of the automobiles in the world, ie 28,551,500. And over one half the cars in foreign lands were of U.S. make. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons. [2] In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2008. In 2009, China took the top spot with 13.78 million units produced. With 18.3 million units produced 2010, China produced nearly twice the amount of second place Japan (9.6 million units), the U.S. trailed in place 3 with 7.8 million units. [3]


Economy

About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[4] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[5] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate.[6][7]

World motor vehicle production

By year

Global production of motorvehicles

(cars and commercial vehicles)

Year Production Change Source
1997 54,434,000   [8]
1998 52,987,000 -2.7% [8]
1999 56,258,892 6.2% [9]
2000 58,374,162 3.8% [10]
2001 56,304,925 -3.5% [11]
2002 58,994,318 4.8% [12]
2003 60,663,225 2.8% [13]
2004 64,496,220 6.3% [14]
2005 66,482,439 3.1% [15]
2006 69,222,975 4.1% [16]
2007 73,266,061 5.8% [17]
2008 70,520,493 -3.7% [18]
2009 61,791,868 -12.4% [19]
2010 77,857,705 26.0% [20]


By country

By manufacturer


Company relationships

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:[citation needed]

Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2010 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[22][23]

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia
Hino Japan Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America
Lexus Japan Division Global
Scion United States Division North America
Toyota Japan Division Global
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
Buick United States Division North America, China, Israel, Taiwan
Cadillac United States Division North America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa
Chevrolet United States Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand
GMC United States Division North America, Middle East
Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Opel Germany Subsidiary Global, except North America, United Kingdom
Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom
3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)
Audi Germany Subsidiary Global
Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Bugatti France Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East
Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Global, except North America, Japan and South Africa
Volkswagen Germany Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global
4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea)
Hyundai South Korea Division Global
Kia South Korea Division Global, except Mexico
5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
Ford United States Division Global
Lincoln United States Division North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea
6. Nissan ( Japan)
Infiniti Japan Division Global, except Japan, South America and Africa
Nissan Japan Division Global
7. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura United States Division North America, China
Honda Japan Division Global
8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
Peugeot France Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
Suzuki Japan Division Global
10. Renault ( France)
Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan
Renault France Division Global, except North America, South Korea
Renault Samsung South Korea Subsidiary South America, Asia, except Japan and China
11. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global
Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global
Ferrari Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Professional Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Lancia Italy Subsidiary Europe and Japan (except UK and Republic of Ireland)
Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
12. Daimler AG ( Germany)
Freightliner United States Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Master Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Maybach Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Germany Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japan Subsidiary Global
Orion Canada Subsidiary North America
Setra Germany Subsidiary Europe
Smart Germany Division North America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa
Thomas Built United States Subsidiary North America
Western Star United States Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand
13. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States)
Chrysler United States Division Global, UK and Republic of Ireland, except Europe
Dodge United States Division Global, except Europe
Jeep United States Division Global
Ram United States Division North America
14. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germany Division Global
MINI United Kingdom Division Global
Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
15. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japan Division Global
16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japan Division Global
17. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chana China Division China, South Africa, Europe
18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)
Hispano Spain Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Land Rover United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division Global, except North America
Tata Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
19. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Besturn China Division China
Freewind China Subsidiary China
Haima China Subsidiary China
Hongqi China Division China
Jiaxing China Subsidiary China
Vita China Subsidiary China
Xiali China Subsidiary China
20. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
Geely China Division China, Russia, North Africa
Maple China Division China
Volvo (Cars) Sweden Subsidiary Global
21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chery China Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia
Riich China Division China
Rely China Division China
22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japan Division Global
23. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Dongfeng China Division China
24. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BAW China Division China
Foton China Subsidiary China
25. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Russia Division Global, except North America and Portugal
VAZ Russia Division Russia
26. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)
BYD China Division China, Russia
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japan Division Global, except North America
28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
JAC China Division China
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Brilliance China Division China, North Africa
Jinbei China Subsidiary China
30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Great Wall China Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia
Litex Motors Bulgaria Subsidiary Europe
31. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
MG Motor United Kingdom Subsidiary China, United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina
Roewe China Division China
Soyat China Division China
Yuejin China Division China
32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America
SsangYong** South Korea Subsidiary Global
33. Hafei Motor ( China)
Hafei China Subsidiary China
34. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack United States Subsidiary Global
Nissan Diesel Japan Subsidiary Global
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault (trucks) France Subsidiary Global, except Japan
Volvo (trucks) Sweden Division Global
35. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile ( China)
Changhe China Division China
36. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)
Qingling China Division China
37. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)
Proton Malaysia Division Asia Pacific (except Japan and South Africa), United Kingdom, Middle East
Lotus United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
38. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
Jiangnan China Division China
39. MAN SE ( Germany)
MAN SE Germany Division Europe
40. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Lifan China Division China
41. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( People's Republic of China)
Soueast China Division China
42. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Republic of China Subsidiary Taiwan
43. Shandong Kaima ( China)
Kaima China Division China
Jubao China Division China
Aofeng China Division China
44. Porsche ( Germany)
Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global
45. Chenzhou Gonow Nanyan Chifeng Vehicle ( People's Republic of China)
Gonow China Division China
46. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( People's Republic of China)
Nanjun China Division China
47. Rongcheng Huatai Motor ( People's Republic of China)
Huatai China Division China
48. Aston Martin AG ( UK)
Aston Martin United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
49. Spyker Cars ( NL)
Spyker Newfoundland and Labrador Subsidiary Global
Saab Template:Country data SE Subsidiary Global

Notes

* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group.[24] However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.[25][26]

** SsangYong Motor Company was acquired by India's Mahindra & Mahindra Limited in February 2011.[27]

Minor automotive manufacturers

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

References

  1. ^ a b Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  2. ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles" Popular Science Monthly, November 1929, p. 84.
  3. ^ "Production Statistics". OICA. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/. Retrieved 9 Seitember 2011. 
  4. ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2010-09-09. 
  5. ^ Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
  6. ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2011/02/auto-industry-sets-new-world-record-in-2010-will-do-it-again-in-2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  7. ^ [http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/news/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2011018 "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand"]. J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/news/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2011018. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  8. ^ a b http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
  9. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
  10. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
  11. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
  12. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
  13. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
  14. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
  15. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
  16. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
  17. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
  18. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
  19. ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2009-statistics
  20. ^ http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/
  21. ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers Year 2010" (PDF). OICA. http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ranking-2010.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  22. ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/gm-slips-to-number-two-worldwide-ford-to-fourth/. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  23. ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/ttac-announces-world%E2%80%99s-top-ten-automakers/. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  24. ^ "Volkswagen Group - Shareholder Structure". Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. VolkswagenAG.com. http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/content/en/investor_relations/share/Shareholder_Structure.html. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  25. ^ "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation" (Press release). Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart. 20 November 2009. http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  26. ^ "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche" (Press release). Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. 13 August 2009. http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  27. ^ Nandini Sen Gupta, TNN, Feb 16, 2011, 12.56am IST (2011-02-16). "M&M seals $470m Ssangyong deal - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/MM-seals-470m-Ssangyong-deal/articleshow/7505113.cms. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 

External links

See also


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