- Automotive industry
The first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event.
Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle, the Daimler Reitwagen, in 1885, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle;.:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.:p.26
Until 2005, the U.S.A. was leading the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90% of the automobiles in the world, ie 28,551,500. And over one half the cars in foreign lands were of U.S. make. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.  In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2008. In 2009, China took the top spot with 13.78 million units produced. With 18.3 million units produced 2010, China produced nearly twice the amount of second place Japan (9.6 million units), the U.S. trailed in place 3 with 7.8 million units. 
About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate.
World motor vehicle production
Global production of motorvehicles
(cars and commercial vehicles)
Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000  1998 52,987,000 -2.7%  1999 56,258,892 6.2%  2000 58,374,162 3.8%  2001 56,304,925 -3.5%  2002 58,994,318 4.8%  2003 60,663,225 2.8%  2004 64,496,220 6.3%  2005 66,482,439 3.1%  2006 69,222,975 4.1%  2007 73,266,061 5.8%  2008 70,520,493 -3.7%  2009 61,791,868 -12.4%  2010 77,857,705 26.0% 
Motor vehicle production (units) Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 11,000,000 12,000,000 13,000,000 14,000,000 15,000,000 16,000,000 17,000,000 18,000,000 19,000,000 China 18,264,667 Japan 9,605,985 United States 7,761,443 Germany 5,905,985 South Korea 4,271,941 Brazil 3,648,358 India 3,536,783 Spain 2,387,900 Mexico 2,345,124 France 2,227,742 Canada 2,071,026 Thailand 1,644,513 Iran 1,599,454 Russia 1,403,244 UK 1,393,463 Turkey 1,097,554 Czech Rep. 1,076,385 Poland 869,736 Italy 857,359 Reference: "Production Statistics". OICA. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
Total motor vehicle production Group 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles Heavy Commercial Vehicles Heavy Buses Toyota 8,557,351 GM 8,476,192 Volkswagen 7,341,065 Hyundai Motor 5,764,918 Ford 4,988,031 Nissan 3,982,162 Honda 3,643,057 PSA 3,605,524 Suzuki 2,892,945 Renault 2,716,286 Fiat 2,410,021 Daimler AG 1,940,465 Chrysler 1,578,488 BMW 1,481,253 Mazda 1,307,540 Mitsubishi 1,174,383 Chana Automobile 1,102,683 2,378,052 Tata 1,011,343 FAW 896,060 2,572,260 Geely 802,319 Chery 692,438 Fuji 649,954 Dongfeng Motor 649,559 2,769,883 Beijing Automotive 617,725 1,504,083 AvtoVAZ 545,767 BYD 521,232 Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles Heavy Commercial Vehicles Heavy Buses Total: 77,743,862 Cars: 60,343,756 LCV: 13,370,432 HCV: 3,510,681 Heavy Bus: 518,993 Numbers in italics are including joint ventures Reference: "World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking of manufacturers 2010". OICA. August 2011. http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ranking-2010.pdf.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
- Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, a 10% stake in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Motors alliance. They are in the process of selling back their 40% stake (11% remaining) in McLaren Group. This process will be finalized in 2011.
- Dongfeng Motor Corporation is involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world, including: Honda (Japan), Hyundai (South Korea), Nissan (Japan), Nissan Diesel (Sweden), and PSA Peugeot Citroen (France).
- Fiat holds a 90% stake in Ferrari and a 53.5% stake in Chrysler.
- Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda and an 8.3% share in Aston Martin.
- Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings.
- General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile.
- Hyundai Kia Automotive Group holds a 38.67% stake in Kia Motors, down from the 51% that it acquired in 1998.
- MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
- Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% stake in Volkswagen Group. Due to liquidity problems, Volkswagen Group is now in the process of acquiring Porsche.
- Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
- Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and 20.5% of the voting stakes in Volvo Group.
- Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, and 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru.
- Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), and a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights). Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division.
- Volkswagen Group has a 49.9% stake in Porsche AG. Volkswagen is in the process of acquiring Porsche, which will be completed in late 2011.
- Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.
Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)
The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2010 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.
Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets 1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan) Daihatsu Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia Hino Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America Lexus Division Global Scion Division North America Toyota Division Global 2. General Motors Company ( United States) Buick Division North America, China, Israel, Taiwan Cadillac Division North America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Africa Chevrolet Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand GMC Division North America, Middle East Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand Opel Subsidiary Global, except North America, United Kingdom Vauxhall Subsidiary United Kingdom 3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany) Audi Subsidiary Global Bentley Subsidiary Global Bugatti Subsidiary Global Lamborghini Subsidiary Global Scania Subsidiary Global SEAT Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Middle East Škoda Subsidiary Global, except North America, Japan and South Africa Volkswagen Subsidiary Global Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Subsidiary Global 4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea) Hyundai Division Global Kia Division Global, except Mexico 5. Ford Motor Company ( United States) Ford Division Global Lincoln Division North America, Middle East, Japan, South Korea 6. Nissan ( Japan) Infiniti Division Global, except Japan, South America and Africa Nissan Division Global 7. Honda Motor Company ( Japan) Acura Division North America, China Honda Division Global 8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France) Citroën Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia Peugeot Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia 9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan) Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America Suzuki Division Global 10. Renault ( France) Dacia Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia, except Japan Renault Division Global, except North America, South Korea Renault Samsung Subsidiary South America, Asia, except Japan and China 11. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy) Abarth Subsidiary Global Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global Ferrari Subsidiary Global Fiat Subsidiary Global Fiat Professional Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan Lancia Subsidiary Europe and Japan (except UK and Republic of Ireland) Maserati Subsidiary Global 12. Daimler AG ( Germany) Freightliner Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand Master Subsidiary Pakistan Maybach Division Global Mercedes-Benz Division Global Mitsubishi Fuso Subsidiary Global Orion Subsidiary North America Setra Subsidiary Europe Smart Division North America, Europe, Japan, South East Asia, South Africa Thomas Built Subsidiary North America Western Star Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand 13. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States) Chrysler Division Global, UK and Republic of Ireland, except Europe Dodge Division Global, except Europe Jeep Division Global Ram Division North America 14. BMW AG ( Germany) BMW Division Global MINI Division Global Rolls-Royce Subsidiary Global 15. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan) Mazda Division Global 16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan) Mitsubishi Division Global 17. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) Chana Division China, South Africa, Europe 18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India) Hispano Subsidiary Europe Jaguar Subsidiary Global Land Rover Subsidiary Global Tata Division Global, except North America Tata Daewoo Subsidiary South Korea 19. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China) Besturn Division China Freewind Subsidiary China Haima Subsidiary China Hongqi Division China Jiaxing Subsidiary China Vita Subsidiary China Xiali Subsidiary China 20. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China) Geely Division China, Russia, North Africa Maple Division China Volvo (Cars) Subsidiary Global 21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) Chery Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia Riich Division China Rely Division China 22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan) Subaru Division Global 23. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China) Dongfeng Division China 24. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) BAW Division China Foton Subsidiary China 25. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia) Lada Division Global, except North America and Portugal VAZ Division Russia 26. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China) BYD Division China, Russia 27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan) Isuzu Division Global, except North America 28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) JAC Division China 29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) Brilliance Division China, North Africa Jinbei Subsidiary China 30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) Great Wall Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia Litex Motors Subsidiary Europe 31. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China) MG Motor Subsidiary China, United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina Roewe Division China Soyat Division China Yuejin Division China 32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India) Mahindra Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America SsangYong** Subsidiary Global 33. Hafei Motor ( China) Hafei Subsidiary China 34. AB Volvo ( Sweden) Mack Subsidiary Global Nissan Diesel Subsidiary Global NovaBus Subsidiary North America Prevost Subsidiary North America Renault (trucks) Subsidiary Global, except Japan Volvo (trucks) Division Global 35. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile ( China) Changhe Division China 36. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China) Qingling Division China 37. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia) Proton Division Asia Pacific (except Japan and South Africa), United Kingdom, Middle East Lotus Subsidiary Global 38. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile ( People's Republic of China) Jiangnan Division China 39. MAN SE ( Germany) MAN SE Division Europe 40. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China) Lifan Division China 41. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( People's Republic of China) Soueast Division China 42. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan) Kuozui Subsidiary Taiwan 43. Shandong Kaima ( China) Kaima Division China Jubao Division China Aofeng Division China 44. Porsche ( Germany) Porsche Subsidiary Global 45. Chenzhou Gonow Nanyan Chifeng Vehicle ( People's Republic of China) Gonow Division China 46. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( People's Republic of China) Nanjun Division China 47. Rongcheng Huatai Motor ( People's Republic of China) Huatai Division China 48. Aston Martin AG ( UK) Aston Martin Subsidiary Global 49. Spyker Cars ( NL) Spyker Subsidiary Global Saab Template:Country data SE Subsidiary Global
* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group. However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed in mid-2011.
Minor automotive manufacturers
There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.
- ^ a b Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
- ^ "U.S. Makes Ninety Percent of World's Automobiles" Popular Science Monthly, November 1929, p. 84.
- ^ "Production Statistics". OICA. http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/. Retrieved 9 Seitember 2011.
- ^ "Automobile Industry Introduction". Plunkett Research. 2008. http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
- ^ Paul A. Eisenstein Building BRIC's: 4 Markets Could Soon Dominate the Auto World at TheDetroitBureau.com
- ^ Bertel Schmitt (15 February 2011). "Auto industry sets new world record". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/2011/02/auto-industry-sets-new-world-record-in-2010-will-do-it-again-in-2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- ^ [http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/news/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2011018 "Global Automotive Outlook for 2011 Appears Positive as Mature Auto Markets Recover, Emerging Markets Continue to Expand"]. J.D. Power and Associates. 15 February 2011. http://businesscenter.jdpower.com/news/pressrelease.aspx?ID=2011018. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- ^ a b http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/cl98type.pdf
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/1999-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2000-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2001-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2002-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2003-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2004-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2005-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2006-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2007-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2008-statistics/
- ^ http://oica.net/category/production-statistics/2009-statistics
- ^ http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/
- ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers Year 2010" (PDF). OICA. http://oica.net/wp-content/uploads/ranking-2010.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ "GM Slips to Number Two Worldwide, Ford to Fourth". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/gm-slips-to-number-two-worldwide-ford-to-fourth/. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- ^ "TTAC Announces World's Top Ten Automakers". The Truth About Cars. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/ttac-announces-world%E2%80%99s-top-ten-automakers/. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- ^ "Porsche Supervisory Board agrees on the contracts of implementation" (Press release). Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart. 20 November 2009. http://www.porsche-se.com/pho/en/news/?pool=pho&id=2009-11-20. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- ^ "Volkswagen Supervisory Board approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche" (Press release). Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. 13 August 2009. http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/news/2009/08/Volkswagen_Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- ^ Nandini Sen Gupta, TNN, Feb 16, 2011, 12.56am IST (2011-02-16). "M&M seals $470m Ssangyong deal - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/MM-seals-470m-Ssangyong-deal/articleshow/7505113.cms. Retrieved 2011-02-25.
- Market Share Auto
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
- All vehicle manufacturers in the world (in Dutch with English etc. translation)
- Car makes of the world, 1894—present
- Automaker Rankings 2007: The Environmental Performance of Car Companies
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