Society of Jesus

Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
Abbreviation SJ, Jesuits
Motto Ad maiorem Dei gloriam
Formation 15 August 1534 (1534-08-15) (477 years ago)
Type Catholic religious order
Headquarters Church of the Gesu (Mother Church), General Curia (administration)
Location Rome, Italy
Coordinates 41°54′4.9″N 12°27′38.2″E / 41.901361°N 12.460611°E / 41.901361; 12.460611Coordinates: 41°54′4.9″N 12°27′38.2″E / 41.901361°N 12.460611°E / 41.901361; 12.460611
Superior General Adolfo Nicolás
Key people Ignatius of Loyola—founder
Main organ General Curia
Staff 19,216[1]
Website www.sjweb.info
Society of Jesus

History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Suppression

Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad majorem Dei gloriam
Magis
Discernment

Famous Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
Blessed Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ, or SI) is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Marines"[2] and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a perception of its members' willingness to go anywhere in the world and live in extreme conditions. The Society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. The Society's founding principles are contained in the document Formula of the Institute, written by Ignatius of Loyola. Jesuits are known for their work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits, and for their missionary efforts. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice and ecumenical dialogue.

Ignatius founded the Society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including St. Francis Xavier and Bl. Pierre Favre, gathered and professed vows of poverty, chastity, and later obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope. Rule 13 of Ignatius' Rules for Thinking with the Church said: "That we may be altogether of the same mind and in conformity[...], if [the Church] shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black."[3] Ignatius' plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by the bull containing the Formula of the Institute. The opening lines of this founding document would declare that the Society of Jesus was founded to "strive especially for the propagation and defense of the faith and progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine."[4] The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and later in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council in the Catholic Church.

The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General, currently Adolfo Nicolás.[5][6] The headquarters of the Society, its General Curia, is in Rome.[7] The historic curia of St Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church.

Contents

Statistics

The Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church, although they are surpassed by the Franciscan family of first orders OFMs, Capuchins, and Conventuals. As of 1 January 2007, Jesuits numbered 19,216:[1] 13,491 clerks regular (priests), 3,049 scholastics (students to become priests), 1,810 brothers (not priests) and 866 novices. Members serve in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and USA. Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics. and 65.5 years for brothers. The Society is divided into 91 Provinces with 12 dependent Regions: three in Africa, four in the Americas and five in Asia and Oceania. Altogether, they constitute 10 administrative units. (Assistancies).[8]

Jesuits in the World (1 January 2007)[1]
Region Jesuits Percentage
South Asia Assistancy 4,018 20.9%
United States of America 2,952 15.4%
South Europe 2,448 12.7%
West Europe 1,958 10.2%
East Asia-Oceania 1,672 8.7%
South Latin America 1,513 7.9%
Africa 1,430 7.4%
North Latin America 1,374 7.2%
East Europe 1,119 5.8%
Central Europe 732 3.8%

The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Spanish: Adolfo Nicolás. The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. In the United States alone, it maintains over 50 colleges, universities and high schools. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning and life-long spiritual and intellectual growth.[9]

Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus

Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus, which is "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform."[10] He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, spirituality, community life and apostolate of the new religious order. Its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background:

"Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, and to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, should, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity, poverty and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive especially for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching, lectures and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, and further by means of retreats, the education of children and unlettered persons in Christianity, and the spiritual consolation of Christ's faithful through hearing confessions and administering the other sacraments. Moreover, he should show himself ready to reconcile the estranged, compassionately assist and serve those who are in prisons or hospitals, and indeed, to perform any other works of charity, according to what will seem expedient for the glory of God and the common good".[11]

History

Foundation

Church of Saint Pierre de Montmartre Paris.
Fresco of Approving of bylaw of Society of Jesus depicting Ignatius of Loyola receiving papal bull Regimini militantis Ecclesiae from Pope Paul III. The fresco was created by Johann Christoph Handke in the Church of Our Lady Of the Snow in Olomouc after 1743.

On 15 August 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard of Basque origin, and six other students at the University of ParisFrancisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal—met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre.[12]

They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos En El Señor or "Friends in the Lord", because they felt "they were placed together by Christ." The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). The word "company" comes ultimately from Latin, cum + pane = "with bread", or a group that shares meals.

In 1537, they traveled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. These initial steps led to the founding of what would be called the Society of Jesus later in 1540. The term societas in Latin is derived from socius, a partner or comrade.

They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (24 June). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, as the Italian War of 1535-1538 renewed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem impossible.

They presented the project to the Pope. After months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae ("To the Government of the Church Militant"), on 27 September 1540, but limited the number of its members to sixty. This is the founding document of the Jesuits as an official Catholic religious order.

This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (14 March 1543). Ignatius was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.[13]

In fulfilling the mission of the Formula of the Institute of the Society, the first Jesuits concentrated on a few key activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology, and their schools reflected this. Second, they sent out missionaries across the globe to evangelize those peoples who had not yet heard the Gospel, founding missions in widely diverse regions, such as modern-day Paraguay, Japan, Ontario, and Ethiopia. Finally, though not initially formed for the purpose, they aimed to stop Protestantism from spreading and to preserve communion with Rome and the successor of Peter. The zeal of the Jesuits overcame the drift toward Protestantism in Poland-Lithuania and southern Germany.

Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a tightly centralized organization and stressed total abnegation and obedience to the Pope and their religious superiors (perinde ac cadaver, "[well-disciplined] like a corpse" as Ignatius put it).[14]

His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam ("For the greater glory of God"). This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things considered normally indifferent.[13]

The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support.

The term "Jesuit" (of 15th-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the Society in reproach (1544–52). It was never used by its founder, though members and friends of the Society in time appropriated the name in its positive meaning.

Early works

The Jesuits were founded just before the Counter-Reformation (or at least before the date those historians with a classical view of the counter reformation hold to be the beginning of the Counter-Reformation), a movement whose purpose was to reform the Catholic Church from within and to counter the Protestant Reformers, whose teachings were spreading throughout Catholic Europe.

As part of their service to the Roman Church, the Jesuits encouraged people to continue their obedience to scripture as interpreted by Catholic doctrine. Ignatius is known to have written: "...: I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it."[15]

Ignatius and the early Jesuits did recognize, though, that the hierarchical Church was in dire need of reform. Some of their greatest struggles were against corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Roman Catholic Church. Ignatius's insistence on an extremely high level of academic preparation for ministry, for instance, was a deliberate response to the relatively poor education of much of the clergy of his time. The Jesuit vow against "ambitioning prelacies" was a deliberate effort to prevent greed for money or power invading Jesuit circles.

As a result, in spite of their loyalty, Ignatius and his successors often tangled with the pope and the Roman Curia. Over the 450 years since its founding, the Society has both been called the papal "elite troops" and been forced into suppression.

St. Ignatius and the Jesuits who followed him believed that the reform of the Church had to begin with the conversion of an individual's heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits have used to bring about this conversion has been the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the life of Christ. During this period, they meet regularly with a spiritual director, who helps them understand whatever call or message God has offered in their meditations.

The retreat follows a "Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive" pattern in the tradition of the spirituality of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers. Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life. Further, he used it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the Church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as "retreats".

The Jesuits’ contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought.

Jesuit missionary, painting from 1779.

In addition to teaching faith, the Ratio Studiorum emphasized the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences and the arts. Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric, and thereby became important centers for the training of lawyers and public officials.

The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland and Lithuania. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world. Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music.

Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to kings during the Early Modern Period. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living in community, saying the divine office together, etc.) allowed them to be flexible to meet the needs of the people at the time.

Expansion

The Bell of Nanbanji, made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church, established by Jesuit in 1576 and destroyed 1587, Japan.
The ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay, one of the many Jesuit missions established in South America during the 17th and 18th centuries

Early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. However, this was removed in 1587 due to fears over their growing influence.

Francis Xavier, one of the original companions of Loyola, arrived in Goa, in Western India, in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. In a 1545 letter to John III of Portugal, he requested an Inquisition to be installed in Goa (see Goa Inquisition). He died in China after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. Two Jesuit missionaries, Johann Grueber and Albert Dorville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661.

Jesuit missions in America were very controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay, they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reductions" (Spanish Reducciones, Portuguese Reduções). These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. It is partly because the Jesuits, such as Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, protected the natives (whom certain Spanish and Portuguese colonizers wanted to enslave) that the Society of Jesus was suppressed.

Jesuit priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion and education of Indian nations.

Jesuit scholars working in foreign missions were very important in studying their languages and strove to produce Latinized grammars and dictionaries. This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, (Vocabulary of the Japanese Language) a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written 1603), Vietnamese (French Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes formalized the Vietnamese alphabet in use today with his 1651 Vietnamese–Portuguese–Latin dictionary Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum) and Tupi (the main language of Brazil). Jean François Pons in the 1740s pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West.

Under Portuguese royal patronage, the order thrived in Goa and until 1759 successfully expanded its activities to education and healthcare. In 1594 they founded the first Roman-style academic institution in the East, St. Paul Jesuit College in Macau. Founded by Alessandro Valignano, it had a great influence on the learning of Eastern languages (Chinese and Japanese) and culture by missionary Jesuits, becoming home to the first western sinologists such as Matteo Ricci. On 17 December 1759, the Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and Portuguese possessions overseas.

Jesuit missionaries were active among indigenous peoples in New France in North America. Many of them compiled dictionaries or glossaries of the First Nations and Native American languages which they learned. For instance, Jacques Gravier, vicar general of the Illinois Mission in the Mississippi River valley, compiled the most extensive Kaskaskia Illinois–French dictionary among works of the missionaries before his death in 1708.[16]

Jesuit activity in China

The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when scientific innovation had declined in China:

[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.
—Agustín Udías, [17]

Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge and philosophy to Europe. Confucius's works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China.

Jesuits in China.
"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.

Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687.[18] It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity.[18][19]

Suppression and restoration

The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was troubling to the Society's defender, Pope Clement XIII. A decree signed under secular pressure by Pope Clement XIV in July 1773 suppressed the Order. The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia and Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden the papal decree to be executed. Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish provinces recently annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Empire, the Society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI would grant formal permission for the continuation of the Society in Russia and Poland. Based on that permission, Pole Stanislaus Czerniewicz was elected superior of the Society in 1782. Pope Pius VII during his captivity in France, had resolved to restore the Jesuits universally; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay: on 7 August 1814, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reversed the suppression of the Order and therewith, the then Superior in Russia, another Pole, Thaddeus Brzozowski, who had been elected in 1805, acquired universal jurisdiction.


The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the Society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. Some claim that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of Papal authority within the Church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in 1870.

In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Sonderbund of some Catholic cantons by the other cantons, the constitution was modified and Jesuits were banished in 1848. The ban was lifted on 20 May 1973, when 54.9% of voters accepted a referendum modifying the Constitution.[20]

The 20th century witnessed both aspects of growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a late 20th century focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in lay association with the order. Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray, was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council" and drafted what eventually became the council's endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae Personae.

In the Constitution of Norway form 1814, a relic from the earlier anti-catholic laws of Denmark-Norway, Paragraph 2 originally read, "The Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State. Those inhabitants, who confess thereto, are bound to raise their children to the same. Jesuits and monastic orders are not permitted. Jews are still prohibited from entry to the Realm." Jews were first allowed in to the Realm in 1851 after the famous Norwegian poet Henrik Wergeland had campaigned for it. Monastic orders were permitted 1897, but the ban on Jesuits was only lifted 1956.[citation needed]

Theological developments

In recent years

In Latin America,the Jesuits have had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement which has been highly controversial in the Catholic theological community and condemned by Pope John Paul II on several fundamental aspects.

Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. On 16 November 1989, six Jesuit priests (Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Joaquin López y López, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado López); their housekeeper, Elba Ramos; and her daughter, Celia Marisela Ramos, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government.[21] The assassinations galvanized the Society's peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, United States, where the assassins were trained under US government sponsorship.[22]

On 21 February 2001, Father Avery Dulles, SJ, an internationally known author, lecturer and theologian, was created a Cardinal of the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II. The son of former Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, Cardinal Dulles was long known for his carefully reasoned argumentation and fidelity to the teaching office of the Church. An author of 22 books and over 700 theological articles, Cardinal Dulles died on 12 December 2008 at Fordham University, where he taught for twenty years as the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society. He was, at his passing, one of ten Jesuit cardinals in the Catholic Church.

In 2002, Boston College president Father William P. Leahy, SJ, initiated the Church in the 21st century program as a means of moving the Church "from crisis to renewal." The initiative has provided the Society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Catholic sex abuse cases, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women's roles, and the role of the laity.

On 6 January 2005, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, on the occasion of the Jubilee Year, wrote that the Jesuits "should truly profit from the jubilee year to examine our way of life and taking the means to live more profoundly the charisms received from our Founders."[23]

In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, SJ, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the Society. The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality and the right of life for the unborn. Following his resignation, Reese spent a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University before being named a fellow at the Woodstock Theological Center in Washington, D.C..

Visit of Benedict XVI to the Pontifical Gregorian University, "one of the greatest services the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church."

On 2 February 2006, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach informed members of the Society of Jesus, that, with the consent of Pope Benedict XVI, he intended to step down as Superior General in 2008, the year he would turn 80.

On 22 April 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVI greeted thousands of Jesuits on pilgrimage to Rome, and took the opportunity to thank God "for having granted to your Company the gift of men of extraordinary sanctity and of exceptional apostolic zeal such as St Ignatius of Loyola, St Francis Xavier and Bl Peter Faber." He said "St Ignatius of Loyola was above all a man of God, who gave the first place of his life to God, to his greater glory and his greater service. He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration."[24]

In May 2006, Benedict XVI also wrote a letter to Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pope Pius XII's encyclical Haurietis aquas, on devotion to the Sacred Heart, because the Jesuits have always been "extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion".[25] In his 3 November 2006 visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, Benedict XVI cited the university as "one of the greatest services that the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church".[26] The 35th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus convened on 5 January 2008 and elected Fr. Adolfo Nicolás as the new Superior General on 19 January 2008. A month after, the Pope received members of the General Congregation and urged them to "to continue on the path of this mission in full fidelity to your original charism" and asked them to reflect so as "to rediscover the fullest meaning of your characteristic 'fourth vow' of obedience to the Successor of Peter." For this, he told them to "adhere totally to the Word of God and to the Magisterium's task of preserving the integral truth and unity of Catholic doctrine." This clear identity, according to the Pope, is important so that "many others may share in your ideals and join you effectively and enthusiastically."[27] The Congregation responded with a formal declaration titled "With New Fervor and Dynamism, the Society of Jesus Responds to the Call of Benedict XVI", whereby they confirmed the Society's fidelity to the Pope.[28]

Ignatian spirituality

The spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, ultimately based on the Catholic faith and the gospels, is drawn from the "Constitutions", "The Letters", and "Autobiography", and most specially from St. Ignatius' "Spiritual Exercises", whose purpose is "to conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment."

Jesuit formation (training)

The formation (training) of Jesuits seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the Church and world. St. Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance and wanted Jesuits to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment, and especially, to be ready to respond to missions (assignments) from the Pope. Formation for Priesthood normally takes between 8 and 14 years, depending on the man's background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit formation among the longest of any of the religious orders.

Government of the Society

The Society is headed by a Superior General. In the Jesuit Order, the formal title of the Superior General is "Praepositus Generalis", Latin for Provost-General, more commonly called Father General or General, who is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns, is confirmed by the Pope, and has absolute authority in running the Society. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Jesuit, Fr. Adolfo Nicolás Pachón who was elected on 19 January 2008.

He is assisted by "assistants", four of whom are "assistants for provident care" and serve as general advisors and a sort of inner council to the superior general, and several other regional assistants each of whom heads an "assistancy", which is either a geographic area (for instance, the North American Assistancy) or an area of ministry (for instance, higher education). The assistants normally reside with the Superior General in Rome. The assistants, together with a number of other advisors, form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the Society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an "admonitor", a confidential advisor whose specific job is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he is acting imprudently or is straying toward disobedience to the Pope or heresy. The central staff of the General is known as the Curia.

The order is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius, who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, the father provincial appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local houses of Jesuits.

Each individual Jesuit community within a province is normally headed by a rector who is assisted by a "minister", from the Latin for "servant", a priest who helps oversee the community's day-to-day needs.

The General Congregation is a meeting of all of the assistants, provincials and additional representatives who are elected by the professed Jesuits of each province. It meets irregularly and rarely, normally to elect a new superior general and/or to take up some major policy issues for the order. The General meets more regularly with smaller councils composed of just the provincials.

Habit and dress

Jesuits do not have an official habit. In the Constitutions of the Society, it gives these instructions concerning clothing; "The clothing too should have three characteristics: first, it should be proper; second, conformed to the usage of the country of residence; and third, not contradictory to the poverty we profess..." (Const. 577)

Historically, a "Jesuit-style cassock" became standard issue: it wrapped around the body and was tied with a cincture, rather than the customary buttoned front, a tuftless biretta (only diocesan clergy wore tufts), and a ferraiolo (cape). As such, though Jesuit garb appeared distinctive, and became identifiable over time, it was the common priestly dress of Ignatius' day. During the missionary periods of North America, the various native peoples referred to Jesuits as "Blackrobes" because of their black cassocks.

Today, most Jesuits in the USA wear the Roman collar and black clothing of ordinary priests, although some still wear the black cassock.[29]

Controversies

The Monita Secreta, also known as the "Secret Instructions of the Jesuits" was published (1612 and 1614) in Kraków, and is alternately alleged to have been written by either Claudio Acquaviva, the fifth general of the society, or by Jerome Zahorowski. The document appears to lay down the methods to be adopted for the acquisition of greater power and influence for the order and for the Roman Catholic Church. Scholars generally agree that the Secreta were merely fabricated to give the Jesuits a sinister reputation and it has become widely considered a forgery.[30]

Henry Garnet, one of the leading English Jesuits, was hanged for misprision of treason because of his knowledge of the Gunpowder Plot. The plan had been an attempt to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament in 1605; another Jesuit, Oswald Tesimond, managed to escape arrest for involvement in the same plot.[31]

Jesuits have also been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for the unjustifiable (See: formulary controversy; Blaise Pascals' Lettres Provinciales).[32] In English, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, "Jesuitical" has acquired a secondary meaning of "equivocating". Modern Jesuits have also been criticized by many including Jack Chick, Avro Manhattan, Alberto Rivera, and the late former Jesuit priest, Malachi Martin.[33]

Although in the first 30 years of the existence of the Society there were a large number of Jewish conversos in the order, a campaign by anti-conversos led to the Decree de genere in 1593 which proclaimed Jewish (and Muslim) ancestry, no matter how distant, an insurmountable impediment for admission to the Society. This stayed in force until 1946.[34]

Within the Catholic Church, there has existed a sometimes tense relationship between Jesuits and the Vatican due to questioning of official Church teaching and papal directives, such as those on abortion,[35][36] birth control,[37][38][39][40] women deacons,[41] homosexuality, and liberation theology.[42][43]

However, the last two Popes have appointed Jesuits to notable positions within the Church. For instance, John Paul II appointed Roberto Tucci, S.J., to the College of Cardinals, after serving for many years as the chief organizer of papal trips and public events. In all, John Paul II and Benedict XVI have appointed 10 Jesuit Cardinals. Benedict XVI has appointed several Jesuits to positions of prominence in his curia, such as Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S.J. as Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and Rev. Federico Lombardi, S.J., Vatican Press Secretary.[44]

Jesuits rescue efforts during the Holocaust

Twelve Jesuit priests have been formally recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust of World War II: Roger Braun (1910–1981) of France; Pierre Chaillet (1900–1972) of France; Jean-Baptist De Coster (1896–1968) of Belgium; Jean Fleury (1905–1982) of France; Emile Gessler (1891–1958) of Belgium; Jean-Baptiste Janssens (1889–1964) of Belgium; Alphonse Lambrette (1884–1970) of Belgium; Emile Planckaert (b. 1906–2006) of France; Jacob Raile (1894–1949) of Hungary; Henri Revol (1904–1992) of France; Adam Sztark (1907–1942) of Poland; and Henri Van Oostayen (1906–1945) of Belgium.

Several other Jesuits are known to have rescued or given refuge to Jews during that period.[45] A plaque commemorating the 152 Jesuit priests who gave of their lives during the Holocaust was installed at Rockhurst University, a Jesuit university, in Kansas City, Missouri, United States, in April 2007, the first such plaque in the world.

Famous Jesuits

Notable Jesuits include missionaries, educators, scientists, artists and philosophers. Among many distinguished early Jesuits was St. Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone before. José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega, founders of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were also Jesuit priests. Another famous Jesuit was St. Jean de Brebeuf, a French missionary who was martyred in what was once New France (now Ontario) in Canada during the 17th century. One other very famous Jesuit was Gerard Manley Hopkins, the famous poet.


Jesuit Educational institutions

Although the work of the Jesuits today embraces a wide variety of apostolates, ministries, and civil occupations, they are probably most well known for their educational work. Since the inception of the order, Jesuits have been teachers. Today, there are Jesuit-run universities, colleges, high schools and middle or elementary schools in dozens of countries. Jesuits also serve on the faculties of both Catholic and secular schools as well.


Highlight of Jesuit University

Georgetown University's main campus.

In the United States, the 28 Jesuit colleges and universities are located in 19 states across the country.[46]

Boston College is the home to one of the world's largest Jesuit communities


Jesuit Universities include:

Publications

Jesuits are also known for their involvement in publications. La Civiltà Cattolica, a periodical produced in Rome by the Jesuits, has often been used as a semi-official platform for popes and Vatican officials to float ideas for discussion or hint at future statements or positions. In the United States, America magazine has long had a prominent place in intellectual Catholic circles, and the Jesuits produce Company, a periodical specifically about Jesuit activities. Most Jesuit colleges and universities have their own presses which produce a variety of books, book series, textbooks and academic publications as well. Ignatius Press, staffed by Jesuits, is an independent publisher of Catholic books, most of which are of the popular academic or lay-intellectual variety.

In Australia, the Jesuits produce a number of magazines, including Eureka Street, Madonna, Australian Catholics, and Province Express.

Literature & Jesuit Studies

In Canada, Fr. William Lonc has produced a total of thirty-six English and French translations of Jesuit Canadiana (memoirs, mission diaries, Huron & Quebec Relations). The collection features the works of the following authors: Campeau, Latourelle, Côté, Cadieux, Lonc-Pearen, Cholenec, Martin, Chaumonot, Brébeuf, Lalemant, Rageneau, Biard, Le Jeune, Shanahan, Nabarra and Du Ranquet.

Jesuit buildings

Birth place and sanctuary of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, in Azpeitia, Basque Country.

Pictured here is the Sanctuary of Loyola in Azpeitia, Spain, the main Jesuit shrine in the birth place of Saint Ignatius of Loyola.

Popular culture

  • The Mission 1986 award winning film in which 18th century Spanish Jesuits try to protect a remote South American Indian tribe in danger of falling under the rule of pro-slavery Portugal.
  • Black Robe 1991 film about a Jesuit in the 17th century Quebec and his struggles with the Algonquin tribe.
  • The Exorcist Novel and film set at Georgetown University and Fordham University, two Jesuit schools, with two Jesuit priests as exorcists. The novel and screenplay were written by William Peter Blatty, a 1950 graduate of Georgetown.
  • Possessed (2000 film) a film based on a book by Thomas B. Allen (author) concerning the same events that inspired The Exorcist.
  • The Sparrow 1996 science fiction novel about a Jesuit mission to an alien world. (See also its 1998 sequel, Children of God.)
  • A Case of Conscience 1958 science fiction novel about a Jesuit mission to an alien world.
  • The Vicomte de Bragelonne Novel, by Alexandre Dumas, in which Aramis, once musketeer now turned Jesuit, plays a key role.
  • A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 1916 novel by James Joyce in which the protagonist, Stephen Dedalus is educated at Jesuit schools Clongowes Wood College and Belvedere College while growing up in Ireland.
  • The Magic Mountain 1924 novel by Thomas Mann has an intellectual Jesuit named Naphta who represents one side in the book's philosophical conflict.
  • The Jesuit 1973 novel by John Gallahue about a Jesuit's mission to 1930s Russia.
  • Angélique Novel series, by Sergeanne Golon, One of Angélique's brothers became an influential Jesuit. While in the later part of the series when Angélique finally reunited with her family in the New World, both she and her husband, Joffrey de Peyrac, were constantly persecuted by the manipulative and fanatical Jesuit Sébastien d'Orgeval.
  • The Man In The Iron Mask Movie in which Jeremy Irons plays Aramis, who is the general of the Order of Jesuits.
  • Mason & Dixon 1997 novel by Thomas Pynchon about the team of men who surveyed the Mason-Dixon Line, in which the Jesuits are at the center of a vast conspiracy to regain Church control of science.
  • "The Star" 1955 science fiction short story by Arthur C. Clarke about a Jesuit who discovers amongst the rubble of a dead star the archival vault of a civilization which paid the ultimate price so that a star could shine above Bethlehem. In 1956, it won a Hugo award for best short story. The New Twilight Zone 1985 episode of "The Star ," based on Clarke's short story, ended in a more upbeat fashion.

Further reading

  • Desideri (1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri 1712–1727. Ippolito Desideri. Edited by Filippo De Filippi. Introduction by C. Wessels. Reproduced by Rupa & Co, New Delhi. 2005

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Curia Generalis, Society of Jesus (7 May 2007). "News from the Curia (Vol. 11, N. 9)". The Jesuit Portal – Society of Jesus Homepage. Archived from the original on 18 March 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5oK3zewfZ. "The annual statistics of the Society for 2006 have been compiled and will be mailed to the Provinces within a few days. As of January 1, 2007 the number of Jesuits in the world was 19,216 (364 fewer than in 2005)..." 
  2. ^ http://www.jesuits-chi.org/vocations/stories/knapp.htm
  3. ^ Loyola, Ignatius; Rules for Thinking with the Church (1999). Bettenson, Henry. ed. Documents of the Christian Church (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 272. ISBN 0192880713. http://wps.ablongman.com/long_longman_lwcdemo_1/0,9493,1532993-,00.html. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  4. ^ http://www.jesuit.org.mt/vocation/formula.html
  5. ^ News on the elections of the new Superior General
  6. ^ africa.reuters.com, Spaniard becomes Jesuits' new "black pope"
  7. ^ Curia Generalizia of the Society of Jesus
  8. ^ Puca, Pasquale (30 January 2008). "St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Development of the Society of Jesus". L'Osservatore Romano Weekly Edition in English (The Cathedral Foundation): 12. http://www.ewtn.com/library/MARY/ignatloysj.htm. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  9. ^ St. Aloysius College mission statement.
  10. ^ O'Malley, John (1993). The First Jesuits. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0674303133. 
  11. ^ Puca, Pasquale (30 January 2008). "St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Development of the Society of Jesus". L'Osservatore Romano Weekly Edition in English (The Cathedral Foundation): 12. http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?id=8113. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  12. ^ Coyle, Henry (1908). Our church, her children and institutions. Angel Guardian Press. p. 142. http://books.google.com/books?id=w5Tt_nBVzcoC&pg=PA142. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  13. ^ a b Höpfl, Harro (2004). Jesuit political thought: the Society of Jesus and the state, c. 1540–1630. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 426. ISBN 0521837790. 
  14. ^ Franklin Verzelius N. Painter (1903). A History of Education. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 167. 
  15. ^ Ignatius Loyola, The spiritual exercise, trans. Anthony Mottola. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964, pp. 140–141. Reference from William B. Ashworth Jr, "Catholicism and Early Modern Science" in David C. Lindberg, Ronald L. Numbers, God and Nature, p. 159, n. 91 (p.166)
  16. ^ "Review" of Carl Masthay, Kaskaskia Illinois-to-French Dictionary, Saint Louis: Carl Masthay, 2002, International Journal of Lexicography, 17(3):325–327, accessed 1 March 2010
  17. ^ Udías, Agustín (2003). Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories (Astrophysics and Space Science Library). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 140201189X. 
  18. ^ a b Parker, John (1978). Windows into China: the Jesuits and their books, : delivered on the occasion of the fifth annual Bromsen Lecture, April 30, 1977. Boston: Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston. p. 25. 
  19. ^ Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern origins of Western civilisation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 194–195. 
  20. ^ Chancellerie Fédérale Suisse, Votation populaire du 20 mai 1973 (20 May 1973). "Arrêté fédéral abrogeant les articles de la constitution fédérale sur les jésuites et les couvents (art. 51 et 52)" (in French). http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/pore/va/19730520/det236.html. Retrieved 23 October 2007 
  21. ^ Global Capitalism, Liberation Theology, and the Social Sciences: An Analysis of the Contradictions of Modernity at the Turn of the Millennium (Paperback)by Andreas Muller (Editor), Arno Tausch (Editor), Paul M. Zulehner (Editor), Henry Wickens (Editor), Hauppauge/Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers, ISBN 1560726792
  22. ^ Krickl, Tony (3 February 2007). "CGU Student Josh Harris to Spend Two Months in Federal Prison for Protesting". Claremont Courier. http://www.claremont-courier.com/pages/Topstory020307.1.html. 
  23. ^ Letter to major superiors, 6 January 2005.
  24. ^ Benedict XVI (22 April 2006). "Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI to the Fathers and Brothers of the Society of Jesus". http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2006/april/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20060422_gesuiti_en.html. Retrieved 23 October 2007 
  25. ^ Benedict XVI (15 May 2006). "Letter to the Superior General of the Society of Jesus on the 50th anniversary of the Encyclical Haurietis Aquas". http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/letters/2006/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20060515_50-haurietis-aquas_en.html. Retrieved 23 October 2007 
  26. ^ Benedict XVI (3 November 2006). "Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI—Visit of the Holy Father to the Pontifical Gregorian University". http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2006/november/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20061103_gregoriana_en.html. Retrieved 23 October 2007 
  27. ^ Benedict XVI (4 March 2008). "Papal Address to Members of Jesuit General Congregation: Rediscover the Fullest Meaning of Your Characteristic '4th Vow' of Obedience". http://zenit.org/article-21968?l=english. Retrieved 8 March 2008 
  28. ^ Jesuits end meeting by approving decrees, confirming fidelity to pope, CNS 7 March 2008
  29. ^ The Society of Jesus in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions
  30. ^ Gerard, John (1911). "Monita Secreta". Catholic Encyclopedia. newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10487a.htm. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  31. ^ Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996]. The Gunpowder Plot. London, UK: Phoenix. p. 448. ISBN 0753814013. 
  32. ^ "Pascal: Adversary and Advocate" Robert J. Nelson, Harvard University Press, 1981. p. 190
  33. ^ see Malachi Martin (1987) The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church, Simon & Schuster, Linden Press, New York, 1987, ISBN 0-671-54505-1
  34. ^ Robert A. Maryks (2009). The Jesuit Order as a Synagogue of Jews (Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions). Brill. 
  35. ^ John F. Kavanaugh (15 December 2008). "Abortion Absolutists". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=11284. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  36. ^ Dennis O’Brien (30 May 2005). "No to Abortion:Posture, Not Policy". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=4214. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  37. ^ Norbert J. Rigali, S.J. (23 September 2000). "Words and Contraception". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=2282. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  38. ^ Richard A. McCormick (17 July 1993). "'Humanae Vitae' 25 Years Later". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=10960. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  39. ^ Cardinal Avery Dulles, S.J. (28 September 1968). "Karl Rahner on 'Humanae Vitae'". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=10722. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  40. ^ Thomas J. Reese, S.J. & various correspondents (31 March 2009). "Pope, Condoms and AIDS". The Washington Post. http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/georgetown/2009/03/pope_condoms_and_aids.html. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  41. ^ Phyllis Zagano (17 February 2003). "Catholic Women Deacons". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=2778. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  42. ^ James Martin, S.J. (21 November 2008). "Jesuit General: Liberation Theology "Courageous"". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/blog/entry.cfm?blog_id=2&id=BF67420F-1321-AEAA-D33BE2D27DC3AB28. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  43. ^ James Martin, S.J. (29 August 2010). "Glenn Beck and Liberation Theology". America. http://www.americamagazine.org/blog/entry.cfm?blog_id=2&entry_id=3224. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  44. ^ John Thavis (8 September 2006). "'Sala Stampa' style change: From toreador to low-key mathematician". Catholic News Service. http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0605114.htm. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  45. ^ Hiatt Holocaust Collection
  46. ^ "U.S. News & World Report's NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES 2011". http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/university-of-san-francisco-1325. 

External links

Catholic Church documents

Jesuit documents

Media

  • The BBC Radio 4 In Our Time programme on 18 January 2007 was devoted to the early history and educational role of the Jesuits; the programme's website offers a free podcast and 'listen again' service In Our Time website
  • Jesuits Saints and Blessed

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  • Society of Jesus — Society So*ci e*ty, n.; pl. {Societies}. [L. societas, fr. socius a companion: cf. F. soci[ e]t[ e]. See {Social}.] 1. The relationship of men to one another when associated in any way; companionship; fellowship; company. Her loved society.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Society of Jesus — n. JESUIT * * * …   Universalium

  • Society of Jesus. — See under Jesuit (def. 1). * * * …   Universalium

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Фильмы

  • Tragedy Of Peru., 1970 — The film about the tragedy of the Peruvian people, which suffered from the biggest earthquake of the century, about help of the Soviet Union to this countrty.
  • Peru - one thousand and three years., 1972 — The film is about one of the countries in Latin America - Peru, about today's life of the country, about first reformations by the revolutionary military government.
  • The Charm of Bygone Times., 1992 — On the interpreter of Russian romances Lyudmila Illarionova.