- Ferris wheel
A Ferris wheel (also known as an observation wheel or big wheel) is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with passenger cars (sometimes referred to as gondolas or capsules) attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, the cars are kept upright, usually by gravity.
Some of the largest and most modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, and electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels, and their cars referred to as capsules, however these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.
The original Ferris Wheel was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. as a landmark for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The term Ferris wheel later came to be used generically for all such structures.
Since the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, there have been eight subsequent world's tallest-ever Ferris wheels. The current record holder is the 165-metre (541 ft) Singapore Flyer, which opened to the public in March 2008.
Early pleasure wheels depicted in 17th century engravings, to the left by Adam Olearius, to the right a Turkish design, apparently for adults
The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667  describes and illustrates "severall Sorts of Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their Feast of Biram" on 17 May 1620 at Philippopolis in the Ottoman Balkans. Among means "lesse dangerous and troublesome" was one:
“ ...like a Craine wheele att Customhowse Key and turned in that Manner, whereon Children sitt on little seats hunge round about in severall parts thereof, And though it turne right upp and downe, and that the Children are sometymes on the upper part of the wheele, and sometymes on the lower, yett they alwaies sitt upright. ”
Five years earlier, in 1615, Pietro Della Valle, a Roman traveller who sent letters from Constantinople, Persia, and India, attended a Ramadan festival in Constantinople. He describes the fireworks, floats, and great swings, then comments on riding the Great Wheel:
“ I was delighted to find myself swept upwards and downwards at such speed. But the wheel turned round so rapidly that a Greek who was sitting near me couldn't bear it any longer, and shouted out "soni! soni!" (enough! enough!) ”
Similar wheels also appeared in England in the 17th century, and subsequently elsewhere around the world, including India, Romania, and Siberia.
A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, when he constructed a wooden pleasure wheel to attract visitors to his start-up fair in Walton Spring, Georgia. Ferris wheels are now the most common type of carnival ride at state fairs in the USA.
In 1892, William Somers installed three fifty-foot wooden wheels at Asbury Park, New Jersey; Atlantic City, New Jersey; and Coney Island, New York. The following year he was granted the first U.S. patent for a "Roundabout". It was Somers' wheel in Atlantic City that George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. was ordered by the planners of Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition to study, that they could challenge the magnitude of the Eiffel Tower of France's 1889 Paris Exposition.[unreliable source?]
The original Ferris Wheel
The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel, opened to the public on June 21, 1893, at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. Intended to rival the 324-metre (1,063 ft) Eiffel Tower, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition, it was the Columbian Exposition's largest attraction, with a height of 80.4 metres (264 ft).
It was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bridge-builder. He began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for structural steel and founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders.
The wheel rotated on a 71-ton, 45.5-foot axle comprising what was at that time the world's largest hollow forging, manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company and weighing 89,320 pounds, together with two 16-foot-diameter (4.9 m) cast-iron spiders weighing 53,031 pounds.
There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160. The wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents.
The Exposition ended in October 1893, and the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year. It was then rebuilt on Chicago's North Side, near Lincoln Park, next to an exclusive neighborhood. This prompted William D. Boyce, then a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success. It operated there from October 1895 until 1903, when it was again dismantled, then transported by rail to St. Louis for the 1904 World's Fair and finally destroyed by controlled demolition using dynamite on May 11, 1906.
Antique Ferris wheels
Wiener Riesenrad, Vienna, built in 1897, originally had 30 passenger cabins but was rebuilt with 15 cabins following a fire in 1944
The Wiener Riesenrad (German for "Viennese Giant Wheel") is a surviving example of nineteenth century Ferris wheels. Erected in 1897 in the Wurstelprater section of Prater public park in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, Austria, to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef I's Golden Jubilee, it has a height of 64.75 metres (212 ft) and originally had 30 passenger cars. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack to funds with which to carry out the destruction, it survived.
Following the demolition of the 100-metre (328 ft) Grande Roue de Paris in 1920, the Riesenrad became the world's tallest extant Ferris wheel. In 1944 it burnt down, but was rebuilt the following year with 15 passenger cars, and remained the world's tallest extant wheel until its 97th year, when the 85-metre (279 ft) Technocosmos was constructed for Expo '85, at Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
Still in operation today, it is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions, and over the years has featured in numerous films (including Madame Solange d`Atalide (1914), Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948), The Third Man (1949), The Living Daylights (1987), Before Sunrise (1995)) and novels.
World's tallest Ferris wheels
Chronology of world's tallest-ever wheels
- 1893: the original Ferris Wheel was 80.4 metres (264 ft) tall. Built for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, it was moved to St. Louis, Missouri, in 1904 for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and demolished there in 1906.
- 1895: the Great Wheel was built for the Empire of India Exhibition at Earls Court, London, UK, and was 94 metres (308 ft) tall. Construction began in March 1894 and it opened to the public on July 17, 1895. It stayed in service until 1906 and was demolished in 1907, having carried over 2.5 million passengers.
- 1900: the Grande Roue de Paris was built for the Exposition Universelle, a world's fair held in Paris, France. It was demolished in 1920, but its 100-metre (328 ft) height was not surpassed until almost 90 years after its construction.
- 1989: the Cosmo Clock 21 was built for the YES '89 Yokohama Exposition at Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Japan. Originally constructed with a height of 107.5 metres (353 ft), it was dismantled in 1997 and then in 1999 relocated onto a taller base which increased its overall height to 112.5 metres (369 ft).
- 1997: the Tempozan Ferris Wheel, in Osaka, Japan, opened to the public on July 12, and is 112.5 metres (369 ft) tall.
- 1999: the Daikanransha at Palette Town in Odaiba, Japan, is 115 metres (377 ft) tall.
- 2000: the London Eye, in London, UK, is 135 metres (443 ft) tall. Although officially opened on December 31, 1999, it did not open to the public until March 2000, because of technical problems. It is still the tallest wheel in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
- 2006: the Star of Nanchang, in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China, opened for business in May and is 160 metres (525 ft) tall.
- 2008: the Singapore Flyer, in Singapore, is 165 metres (541 ft) tall, and currently the world's tallest Ferris wheel. It started rotating on February 11 and officially opened to the public on March 1.
Singapore Flyer  165 (541) 2008 Singapore Marina Centre, Downtown Core World's tallest 2008-current Star of Nanchang  160 (525) 2006 China Nanchang, Jiangxi World's tallest 2006-2008 London Eye  135 (443) 2000 UK South Bank, Lambeth, London World's tallest 2000-2006 Suzhou Ferris Wheel  120 (394) 2009 China Suzhou, Jiangsu The Southern Star  120 (394) 2008 Australia Waterfront City, Melbourne Closed January 2009 for repairs Tianjin Eye  120 (394) 2008 China Chihai Bridge, Tianjin Tallest built over a bridge Changsha Ferris Wheel  120 (394) 2004 China Changsha, Hunan Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel  120 (394) 2003 China Century Amusement Park, Henan Sky Dream Fukuoka  120 (394) 2002 Japan Evergreen Marinoa, Fukuoka, Kyūshū Closed September 2009 Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel 117 (384) 2001 Japan Kasai Rinkai Park, Tokyo, Honshū Star of Lake Tai  115 (377) 2008 China Lake Tai, Wuxi, Jiangsu Picture Daikanransha  115 (377) 1999 Japan Palette Town, Odaiba, Honshū World's tallest 1999-2000 Cosmo Clock 21 (2nd installation) 112.5 (369) 1999 Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū Tempozan Ferris Wheel  112.5 (369) 1997 Japan Osaka, Honshū World's tallest 1997-1999 Harbin Ferris Wheel  110 (361) 2003 China Harbin, Heilongjiang Picture Shanghai Ferris Wheel  108 (354) 2002 China Jinjiang Action Park, Shanghai Picture Cosmo Clock 21 (1st installation) 107.5 (353) 1989 Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū ? World's tallest 1989-1997 Space Eye  100 (328) ? Japan Space World, Kitakyūshū, Kyūshū Picture Grande Roue de Paris  100 (328) 1900 France Champ de Mars, Paris World's tallest 1900-1920 Great Wheel  94 (308) 1895 UK Earls Court, London World's tallest 1895-1900 Aurora Wheel  90 (295) ? Japan Nagashima Spa Land, Mie, Honshū Picture Eurowheel  90 (295) 1999 Italy Mirabilandia, Ravenna Tallest extant in Europe 1999 Sky Wheel  88 (289) ? Taiwan Janfusun Fancyworld, Gukeng Technostar
85 (279) ?
Japan Expoland, Osaka, Honshū (?-2009)
Expo '85, Tsukuba, Honshū (1985-?)
World's tallest extant 1985-1989
The original Ferris Wheel 80.4 (264) 1893 USA Chicago (1893-1903); St.Louis (1904-06) Ferris Wheel coordinates World's tallest 1893-1894
- The 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller, to be built on the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada, was announced in August 2011. Part of Caesars Entertainment Corporation's Project Linq, construction was scheduled to begin in September 2011 and completion expected in late 2013.
- The 150 m (492 ft) Jeddah Eye proposed for Saudi Arabia is part of a development begun in 2008 and scheduled to open in 2012.
- The 145 m (476 ft) Skyvue Las Vegas Super Wheel, to be built on the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada, was approved by Clark County Commission in March 2011. It was announced at a media event and groundbreaking ceremony in May 2011 by Howard Bulloch of Compass Investments, who stated "We expect it to be up and running in time for New Year's 2012." Its 40 gondolas will each carry 20-25 people.
- A 120 m (394 ft) wheel for Manchester, England, was proposed by Manchester City Council in 2010 as a replacement for the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Wheel of Manchester installation, with Piccadilly Gardens the possible site and completion expected by Christmas 2011.
- The 88 m (289 ft) Malaysia Eye is to replace the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Eye on Malaysia installation, which was dismantled in October 2010, in Malacca, Malaysia. It will occupy a new site on Malacca Island, and is scheduled to open on December 1, 2011. It will have 54 air-conditioned gondolas, each able to carry six people.
Incomplete, delayed, or cancelled proposals
Wheels for which no completion date has been announced, or whose original completion date has already passed:
- The 208 m (682 ft) Beijing Great Wheel, construction begun 2007 and originally due to open 2008, went into receivership in 2010.
- The 198 m (650 ft) Baghdad Eye was proposed for Baghdad, Iraq, in August 2008. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given. In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site, and a 60 m (197 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011.
- The 185 m (607 ft) Great Dubai Wheel proposed for Dubailand, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was granted planning permission in 2006 and expected to open in 2009.
- The 183 m (600 ft) Voyager has been proposed several times for Las Vegas, Nevada.
- The 176 m (577 ft) Bangkok Eye, to be located near the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand, was announced by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration on 13 October 2010, at which time the actual site and means of funding the 30-billion baht project had yet to be determined.
- The 175 m (574 ft) Great Berlin Wheel was originally planned to open in 2008 but the project encountered financial obstacles.
- The 122 m (400 ft) Great Orlando Wheel was announced in June 2008 but then suspended in early 2009 after losing its funding.
- A 91.4 m (300 ft) wheel planned for Manchester, England, for 2008, was never constructed.
- The 87 m (285 ft) Pepsi Globe was proposed for the planned Meadowlands complex in New Jersey in February 2008 and originally due to open in 2009, then put on hold until 2010. It has since been further delayed, and construction of the host complex, originally due to be completed in 2007, has been stalled since 2009 due to financing problems.
The Shanghai Star, initially planned as a 200-metre (656 ft) tall wheel to be built by 2005, was revised to 170 metres (558 ft), with a completion date set in 2007, but then cancelled in 2006 due to "political incorrectness". An earlier proposal for a 250-metre (820 ft) structure, the Shanghai Kiss, with capsules ascending and descending a pair of towers which met at their peaks instead of a wheel, was deemed too expensive at £100m.
Rus-3000, a 170-metre (558 ft) wheel planned to open in 2004 in Moscow, has since been reported cancelled. More recently, an approximately 180-metre (591 ft) wheel has been considered for Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure, and a 150-metre (492 ft) wheel proposed for location near Sparrow Hills.
The Singapore Flyer, world's tallest Ferris wheel since 2008, has 28 air-conditioned passenger capsules, each able to carry 28 people  The London Eye's 32 ovoidal air-conditioned passenger capsules each weigh 10 tonnes (11 short tons) and can carry 25 people 
Observation wheel is an alternative name for Ferris wheel. In 1892, when the incorporation papers for the Ferris Wheel Company (constructors of the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel) were filed, the purpose of the company was stated as: [construction and operation of] "...wheels of the Ferris or other types for the purpose of observation or amusement".
Some Ferris wheels are marketed as observation wheels, any distinction between the two names being at the discretion of the operator, however the wheels whose operators reject the term Ferris wheel are often those having most in common with the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, especially in terms of scale and being an iconic landmark for a city or event.
Wheels with passenger cars mounted external to the rim and independently rotated by electric motors, as opposed to wheels with cars suspended from the rim and kept upright by gravity, are those most commonly referred to as observation wheels, and their cars are often referred to as capsules. However, these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.
There are currently only three major Ferris wheels with motorised capsules.
The 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer has cylindrical externally-mounted motorised capsules and is described as an observation wheel by its operators, but credited as "world's largest Ferris wheel" by the media.
The 135 m (443 ft) London Eye, typically described as a "giant Ferris wheel" by the media, has ovoidal externally-mounted motorised capsules and is the "world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel" according to its operators, who claim: "The London Eye is often mistakenly called a Ferris wheel. This is not the case: first, the passenger capsules are completely enclosed and are climate controlled; secondly, the capsules are positioned on the outside of the wheel structure and are fully motorised; and third, the entire structure is supported by an A-frame on one side only." However, the operators of the Singapore Flyer claim their wheel is the "world's largest observation wheel" despite it not being supported by an A-frame on one side only.
The 120 m (394 ft) Southern Star (which opened 20 December 2008, then closed the following month, and is currently dismantled for major repairs) has ovoidal externally-mounted motorised capsules and is described by its operators as "the only observation wheel in the southern hemisphere", but also as a Ferris wheel by the media.
A fourth wheel, the proposed 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller, announced in August 2011 and scheduled for completion on the Las Vegas Strip in late 2013, is to feature externally-mounted motorised spherical capsules, and is described as both a Ferris wheel and an observation wheel by the media.
Transportable Ferris wheels are designed to be operated at multiple locations, as opposed to fixed wheels which are usually intended for permanent installation. Small transportable designs may be permanently mounted on trailers, and can be moved intact. Larger transportable wheels are designed to be repeatedly dismantled and rebuilt, some using water ballast instead of the permanent foundations of their fixed counterparts.
Fixed wheels are also sometimes dismantled and relocated. Larger examples include the original Ferris Wheel, which operated at two sites in Chicago, Illinois, and a third in St. Louis, Missouri; Technocosmos/Technostar, which moved to Expoland, Osaka, after Expo '85, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, for which it was built, ended; and Cosmo Clock 21, which added 5 metres (16 ft) onto its original 107.5-metre (353 ft) height when erected for the second time at Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, in 1999.
One of the most famous transportable wheels is the 60-metre (197 ft) tall Roue de Paris, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde in Paris for the 2000 millennium celebrations. Roue de Paris left France in 2002 and in 2003–04 operated in Birmingham and Manchester, England. In 2005 it visited first Geleen then Amsterdam, Netherlands, before returning to England to operate at Gateshead. In 2006 it was erected at the Suan Lum Night Bazaar in Bangkok, Thailand, and by 2008 had made its way to Antwerp, Belgium.
Roue de Paris is a Ronald Bussink series R60 design using 40,000 litres (8,800 imperial gallons; 11,000 US gallons) of water ballast to provide a stable base. The R60 weighs 365 tonnes (402 short tons), and can be erected in 72 hours and dismantled in 60 hours by a specialist team. Transport requires seven 20-foot container lorries, ten open trailer lorries, and one closed trailer lorry. Its 42 passenger cars can be loaded either 3 or 6 at a time, and each car can carry 8 people. Bussink R60 wheels have operated in Australia (Brisbane), Canada (Niagara Falls), France (Paris), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur & Malacca), UK (Belfast, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield), USA (Myrtle Beach), and elsewhere.
Other notable transportable wheels include the 60-metre (197 ft) Steiger Ferris Wheel, which was the world's tallest transportable wheel when it began operating in 1980. It has 42 passenger cars, and weighs 450 tons. On October 11, 2010, it collapsed at the Kramermarkt in Oldenburg, Germany, during deconstruction.
Notable transportable Ferris wheel installations:
Belfast Wheel 60 (197) 2007-2010 UK Belfast Eye on Malaysia 60 or 62 m 2007-2008
Royal Windsor Wheel 60 m in 2011 various UK Windsor, Berkshire Wheel of Birmingham 60 (197) various UK Birmingham Wheel of Brisbane 60 (197) 2008-2012 Australia Brisbane Wheel of Dublin 60 (197) 2010-? Ireland North Wall, Dublin Wheel of Manchester 60 (197) various UK Exchange Square, Manchester Wheel of Sheffield 60 (197) 2009-2010 UK Sheffield Yorkshire Wheel 54 (177) 2006-2008 UK York
Double and triple wheels
Swiss manufacturer Intamin produced a series of rides comprising a vertical column supporting multiple horizontal arms, with each arm supporting a Ferris wheel. Custom designed for the Marriott Corporation, each ride had three main components: the wheels with their passenger cars; a set of supporting arms; and a single central supporting column. Each wheel rotated about the end of its own supporting arm. The arms in turn would either pivot or rotate together as a single unit about the top of the supporting column. The axis about which the rotating arms turned was offset from vertical, so that as the arms rotated, each arm and its corresponding wheel was raised and lowered. This allowed one wheel to be horizontal at ground level, and brought to a standstill for simultaneous loading and unloading of all its passenger cars, while the other wheel(s) continued to rotate vertically at considerable height.
Similar wheels included Giant Wheel (Hersheypark, Hershey, Pennsylvania), Zodiac (Kings Island, Mason, Ohio), and Galaxy (Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, California). All were Intamin designs; all are now defunct.
Sky Whirl was the world's first triple Ferris wheel, debuting at both Marriott's Great America parks (now Six Flags Great America, Gurnee, Illinois, and California's Great America, Santa Clara) in 1976. Also known as a triple Ferris wheel, Triple Giant Wheel, or Triple Tree Wheel, it was 33 metres (108 ft) in height. The Santa Clara ride, renamed Triple Wheel in post-Marriott years, closed on 1 September 1997. The Gurnee ride closed in 2000.
Eccentric wheels (sometimes called sliding wheels or coaster wheels) differ from conventional Ferris wheels in that some or all of the passenger cars are not fixed directly to the rim of the wheel, but instead slide on rails between the hub and the rim as the wheel rotates.
The two most famous eccentric wheels are Mickey's Fun Wheel (previously Sun Wheel), at Disney's California Adventure Park, USA, and Wonder Wheel, at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, Coney Island. USA.
Mickey's Fun Wheel is 48.8 metres (160 ft) tall and has 24 fully enclosed passenger cars, each able to carry 6 passengers. 16 of the cars slide inward and outward as the wheel rotates, the remainder are fixed to the rim. There are separate boarding queues for sliding and fixed cars, so that passengers may choose between the two. Inspired by Coney Island's 1920 Wonder Wheel, it was designed by Walt Disney Imagineering and Intamin, completed in 2001 as the Sun Wheel, and later refurbished and reopened in 2009 as Mickey's Fun Wheel.
Wonder Wheel was built in 1920, is 45.7 metres (150 ft) tall, and can carry 144 people.
Major designers, manufacturers, & operators
- Seattle Wheel (debuted 1962): 16 cars, 2 passengers per car 
- Sky Wheel (debuted 1939; also manufactured by Chance Morgan): a double wheel, with the wheels rotating about opposite ends of a pair of parallel beams, and the beams rotating about their centres; 8 cars per wheel, 2 passengers per car 
- Chance Morgan 
- Astro Wheel (debuted 1967): 16 cars (8 facing one way, 8 the other), 2 passengers per car 
- Century Wheel: 20 m (66 ft) tall, 15 cars, 4-6 passengers per car 
- Giant Wheel: 27 m (89 ft) tall, 20 cars, 6-8 passengers per car 
- Niagara SkyWheel: 53.3 m (175 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 8 passengers per car 
- Eli Bridge 
- W.E. Sullivan, owner of Eli Bridge Company, a bridge building business in Illinois, rode the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel at the World's Columbian Exposition. Inspired by this, he collaborated with machinist James H. Clements and their first Big Eli wheel debuted in Central Park, Jacksonville, Illinois, on May 23, 1900. Contemporary models include:
- Signature Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
- Eagle Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
- HY-5 Series: 12 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
- Aristocrat Series: 16 cars, fixed site
- Standard Series: 12 cars, fixed site
- Lil' Wheel: 6 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable and fixed site models
- Singapore Flyer: 165 m (541 ft) tall, completed 2008; currently world's tallest Ferris wheel
- Beijing Great Wheel: 208 m (682 ft) tall, under construction since 2007, now in receivership 
- Great Dubai Wheel: 185 m (607 ft) tall, planning permission granted in 2006, was supposed to open in 2009 
- Great Berlin Wheel: 175 m (574 ft) tall, was supposed to open in 2008 
- Great Orlando Wheel: 122 m (400 ft) tall, project halted in 2009 
- Intamin 
- R40: 40-metre (131 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 30 cars, 8 passengers per car
- R50: 50-metre (164 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 36 cars, 8 passengers per car
- R60: 60-metre (197 ft) tall transportable wheel, 42 cars, 8 passengers per car 
- R66: 66-metre (217 ft) tall transportable wheel, 42 cars; world's tallest transportable wheel, operated by World Carnival 
- R80: 80-metre (262 ft) tall fixed wheel, 56 cars, 8 passengers per car
- Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd.
- Cosmo Clock 21: 107.5 m (353 ft) tall, completed 1989; world's tallest Ferris wheel 1989 to 1997; 112.5 m (369 ft) tall when re-erected in 1999 
- Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel: 117 m (384 ft) tall, world's second tallest Ferris wheel when completed in 2001 
- Tempozan Ferris Wheel: 112.5 m (369 ft) tall, completed 1997; world's tallest Ferris wheel 1997 to 1999 
Four-car 30 m tall drive-in Ferris wheel at
Harbourfront, Toronto, Canada, in 2004 
Ferris wheel constructed by the Swedish
contingent at the 21st World Scout Jamboree
Passenger-powered 2-seat Cyclecide wheel
at the 2007 Bumbershoot festival in Seattle
- Amusement park
- Traveling carnival
- List of amusement parks
- List of amusement rides
- List of Ferris wheels
- List of Ferris wheels in Moscow
- ^ a b c Still turning – Jacksonville built the world's first portable Ferris Wheel
- ^ a b c Eyes in the sky
- ^ The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667
- ^ Wilfrid Blount, Pietro's pilgrimage: a journey to India and back at the beginning of the seventeenth century, Volume 1
- ^ explorepahistory.com
- ^ a b U.S. Patents for Ferris Wheels
- ^ The Jersey Shore @ National Geographic Magazine
- ^ a b c d e f g Ferris wheels - an illustrated history, Norman D. Anderson
- ^ a b Hyde Park Historical Society: Chicago's Great Ferris Wheel of 1893, Patrick Meehan
- ^ The Kensington Canal, railways and related developments - British History Online
- ^ George Ferris
- ^ Wiener Riesenrad - technical data
- ^ a b c Wiener Riesenrad - history
- ^ a b Great Wheel, Earls Court - English Heritage Images
- ^ The Great Wheel, Earl's Court Exhibition Ground
- ^ The Ferris Wheel's London Rival - The New York Times
- ^ PhotoLondon: National Monuments Record - The Great Wheel, London
- ^ a b c d Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd. - company profile
- ^ a b Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd. - Cosmo Clock 21 (Japanese)
- ^ KIPPO NEWS Tuesday, June 24, 1997 (Japanese)
- ^ a b Palette Town Daikanransha website date page (Japanese)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i World’s top 10 tallest Ferris wheels
- ^ The Ferris Wheel to Revolve Hopefully on May Day
- ^ Century pleasure garden Profile(Chinese)
- ^ Evergreen marinoa official website (Japanese)
- ^ China's Highest Ferris Wheel under Construction
- ^ The wheel deal: Amusement park offers lofty view
- ^ Shanghai Jinjiang Amusement Park Introduction
- ^ Space World attractions information
- ^ Nagashima Resort Guide Book
- ^ Mirabilandia - Vivi il Divertimento! Novità 2009 - ISpeed, il nuovo Roller Coaster!
- ^ 劍湖山世界 welcome to janfusun fancyworld
- ^ a b c Las Vegas plans to top London Eye with massive Ferris wheel
- ^ Jeddah Eye
- ^ a b c High stakes for dueling Vegas observation wheels
- ^ Colorado's Leitner-Poma to build cabins for huge observation wheel in Las Vegas
- ^ a b Skyvue Las Vegas to Soar 500 Feet above Strip - For Immediate Release
- ^ Las Vegas developer breaks ground on 500-foot Ferris wheel project
- ^ Dueling mega-Ferris wheels in Vegas
- ^ Manchester 'monster' wheel plans confirmed
- ^ Malacca to get bigger Ferris wheel
- ^ a b AFP: Beijing begins construction of world's biggest wheel
- ^ a b Beijing Ferris wheel company in receivership
- ^ Yacoub, Sameer. "Baghdad plans to build giant Ferris wheel". Associated Press. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26425911. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- ^ Iraq Looking To Build Giant Observation Wheel In Baghdad To Promote Tourism
- ^ Iraq plans giant Ferris wheel, hopes to lure tourists to Baghdad
- ^ Obama ad attacks McCain for Baghdad Ferris wheel project being built on land leased by a Democratic Party donor
- ^ 2nd highest Ferris wheel in Arab region opened in Zawraa Park
- ^ a b Great Dubai Wheel Gets the Green Light
- ^ Voyager Entertainment International, Inc.
- ^ Voyager Las Vegas
- ^ BMA plans to build 'Bangkok Eye' on Chao Phya bank
- ^ a b c d Planned Great Wheel for I-Drive area of Orlando on hold - South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com
- ^ Developer to roll out plans for Great Orlando Wheel attraction
- ^ Big wheel returns to city centre
- ^ Opening delayed for Pepsi Globe Ferris wheel at Meadowlands Xanadu
- ^ Panel will advise Gov. Christie on four potential suitors in Xanadu redevelopment
- ^ Asia Times Online - China Business News - China's ill-conceived image projects
- ^ Developer spurns Alsop’s £100m Shanghai Kiss
- ^ World's Tallest Ferris Wheel Proposed In Moscow - Emporis.com
- ^ Project has Muscovites going 'round and 'round - csmonitor.com
- ^ Moscow Ferris Wheel, Moscow - Emporis.com
- ^ Moscow News - Local - Bringing back the big whee
- ^ Кризис закруглится в ЦПКиО - Мегаполис - GZT.ru
- ^ Lenta.ru - В России - Для Парка Горького выберут новое колесо обозрения
- ^ Чертово колесо - разберут в московском ЦПКиО - BN.ru газет
- ^ FAQs on Private Capsules - Singapore Flyer
- ^ London's Eye in the sky not just a Ferris wheel
- ^ MSN Encarta - Ferris Wheel
- ^ Inventor of the Week - George Ferris
- ^ We don't use the F-word
- ^ Singapore to open world's largest Ferris wheel - Reuters
- ^ Dozens trapped in world's largest ferris wheel as Singapore Flyer judders to a halt - Times Online
- ^ London: 10 Things to Do in 24 Hours - 3. The London Eye - TIME
- ^ Wheel deal: the London Eye turns 10 - Jonathan Glancey - Art and design - guardian.co.uk
- ^ a b Is it a Ferris wheel?
- ^ Home - Singapore Flyer
- ^ Welcome to the Southern Star
- ^ Work to spin Ferris wheel
- ^ Southern Star Observation Wheel profile
- ^ a b Colorado's Leitner-Poma to build cabins for huge observation wheel in Las Vegas
- ^ [www.nbc11news.com/localnews/headlines/Worlds_biggest_observation_wheel_to_lift_Grand_Junctions_economy_134090334.html New Vegas attraction helps Grand Junction's economy]
- ^ a b Deaths shut The Eye
- ^ The History of 'La grande Roue de Paris'
- ^ a b Technical Information
- ^ Anker, Jens (4 Nov 2004). "Schausteller verspricht Riesenrad am Container-Bahnhof [Fairground showman promises Ferris wheel at the Goods Station]" (in German). Welt Online. http://www.welt.de/print-welt/article350407/Schausteller_verspricht_Riesenrad_am_Container_Bahnhof.html.
- ^ "Steiger Build-Up - Technical data". http://www.riesenrad.de/page.php?rubrik=2&page=0&lang=en. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
- ^ Klessmann, Michael (30 August 2010). "Riesenrad in der Hafencity [Ferris Wheel Harbour Town's City Centre]" (in German). HafenCity News. http://www.hafencitynews.de/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1210&Itemid=57. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- ^ "Riesenrad-Unfall: Freimarkt bekommt Europa-Rad als Ersatz [Ferris wheel accident: Freimarkt gets Europe Wheel instead]" (in German). Kreiszeitung. 12 October 2010. http://www.kreiszeitung.de/freimarkt-bremen/2010/freimarkt-aktuell/unfall-steiger-riesenrad-abbau-oldenburg-957650.html.
- ^ Ocean County NJ History, Seaside
- ^ Wonder Wheel History
- ^ a b Mickey's Fun Wheel - Disney's California Adventure
- ^ Yokohama Accommodation
- ^ SixFlagsHouston.com - Rides - Astrowheel
- ^ Need Six Flags Great America Tickets?
- ^ Theme Park Timelines
- ^ Zoning Board Minutes - 10-25-00
- ^ Sky Whirl at Marriott's Great America parks
- ^ a b c Mickey's Fun Wheel
- ^ Coaster wheel
- ^ The Wonder Wheel
- ^ Chance, Harold (2004). The Book of Chance. Wichita, Kansas: Wichita Press. pp. 31. ISBN 0-9649065-0-3.
- ^ Allan Herschell Seattle Wheel
- ^ Skywheel (Manufactured by both Allan Herschell and Chance Rides)
- ^ a b c Chance Morgan
- ^ Chance Astro Wheel
- ^ One of a Kind ‘Giant Wheel’ Debuts in Niagara Falls, Canada
- ^ Eli Bridge Company :: Jacksonville, IL :: Ferris Wheels
- ^ The Great Wheel Corporation | Singapore Flyer | Great Wheel Beijing Orlando Berlin Dubai
- ^ World Tourist Attractions, Great Wheel Merge Ahead Of IPO
- ^ Intamin - Ride Trade - The Art of Thrill - Giant Wheels
- ^ Ronald Bussink Professional Rides
- ^ Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd. - Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel (Japanese)
- ^ canadianarchitect.com - Reinventing the Wheel
Ferris wheels Fixed Ferris wheels Americas Asia Europe Southern Hemisphere
- Australia: Southern Star
Variations Transportable Ferris wheels
- Individual wheels: Roue de Paris
- Steiger Ferris Wheel
- Installations in Australia: Wheel of Brisbane
- Installations in Malaysia: Eye on Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur & Malacca)
- USA: Giant Wheel
- USA: Sky Whirl
- USA: Mickey's Fun Wheel
- Wonder Wheel
Venues hosting other major Ferris wheels Asia
- China: Jinjiang Action Park (Shanghai Ferris Wheel)
- Lake Tai (Star of Lake Tai)
- Iran: Mellat Park (Mashhad Ferris Wheel)
- South Korea: Kumdori Land (Polaris Tower)
Europe & Eurasia Proposed Ferris wheels
cancelled proposals, and those for which no completion date has been announced or whose original completion date has already passed, are shown in italics
Americas Asia Europe Related topics Designers, manufacturers, and operators Lists
- List of amusement parks
- List of amusement rides
- List of Ferris wheels
- List of Ferris wheels in Moscow
- Categories: Amusement rides
- Ferris wheels
- Proposed Ferris wheels
- Ferris wheels @ Wikimedia Commons
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