Infobox PRC province
ChineseName = 黑龙江省
Pinyin = Hēilóngjiāng Shěng
EnglishName = Heilongjiang Province
Name = Heilongjiang
Abbreviation = 黑
AbbrevPinyin = Hēi
ISOAbbrev = 23
MapSize = 275px
MapLabel = Heilongjiang is highlighted on this map. The striped area is nominally part of neighbouring Inner Mongolia, but is in fact administered by Heilongjiang.
OriginOfName = 黑 hēi - black
龙 lóng - dragon
江 jiāng - river
AdministrationType = Province
Area_km2 = 460000
AreaRank = 6th
PopYear = 2004
Pop = 38,170,000
PopRank = 16th
PopDensity_km2 = 83
PopDensityRank = 26th
GDPYear = 2007
GDP = 707.7 billion
GDPRank = 14th
GDPperCapita = 18,510
GDPperCapitaRank = 12th
HDIYear = 2005
HDI = 0.786
HDIRank = 8th
HDICat = medium
Nationalities = Han - 95%
Korean - 1%
Hui - 0.3%
Prefectures = 13
Counties = 128
Townships = 1284
Website = http://www.hlj.gov.cn (
Audio|zh-Heilongjiang.ogg|Heilongjiang (zh-stp |s=黑龙江省 |t=黑龍江省 |p=Hēilóngjiāng Shěng; Postal map spelling: Heilungkiang; Manchu: Sahaliyan ula) is a province of the
People's Republic of Chinalocated in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means BlackDragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑 ( pinyin: Hēi). The Manchu name of the region is "Sahaliyan ula" (literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin island is derived.
Jilinin the south and Inner Mongoliato the west; it also borders Russiato the north.
AmurRiver marks the border between the People's Republic of Chinaand Russiato the north. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe Countyalong the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amurand Ussuri Rivers).
In ancient times Heilongjiang was far from any literate civilization, and information was sparse. Chinese and other sources state that Heilongjiang was inhabited by people such as the
Xianbei, the Malgal, and the Khitan. The eastern portion of Heilongjiang was ruled by the kingdom of Balhaebetween the 7th century and 10th century. The Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)that subsequently ruled much of north China arose within the borders of modern Heilongjiang.
Manchu Qing Dynasty, the western part of Heilongjiang was under the supervision of the General of Heilongjiang, whose power extended, according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk, as far north as the Stanovoy Mountains; eastern Heilongjiang was under the supervision of the General of Jilin, whose power reached the Sea of Japan. These areas deep in Manchuriawere closed off to Han Chinesemigration.
However, in 1858 and 1860 the Qing government gave up all land beyond the
Amurand Ussuri Rivers to Russia, cutting China off from the Sea of Japanand giving Heilongjiang its present northern borders. At the same time, Manchuriawas opened to Han Chinesemigration by the Qing government. By the early twentieth century, the Han Chinesehad become the dominant ethnic group in the region. In 1932, present-day Heilongjiang became part of the Japanese puppet stateof Manchukuo.
Japanese defeat in 1945, Soviet forces entered Manchuria and gave the Chinese communists control over most of the area. Heilongjiang became the first province to be completely controlled by the Chinese communists and Harbinthe first major city to be controlled by them. From Manchuria, the communists were able to conduct the initial phases of the Chinese Civil War.
At the beginning of communist rule, Heilongjiang province included only the western portion of the present-day province, and had its capital at
Qiqihar. The remaining area was the province of Songjiang; its capital was Harbin. In 1954, these two provinces were merged into present-day Heilongjiang. During the Cultural RevolutionHeilongjiang was also expanded to include Hulunbuir Leagueand some other areas previously in Inner Mongolia; this has since mostly been reversed.
Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the
Greater KhinganRange and Lesser KhinganRange, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingziat 1690 m (5545 ft), located on the border with Jilinprovince). The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.
The interior of the province, which is relatively flat and low in altitude, contains the
Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur, while the northern border forms part of the Amurvalley. Xingkai Lake(or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.
Heilongjiang is subarctic in
climate. Winters are long and frigid, with an average of −31 to −15°C in January, and summers are short and cool with an average of 18 to 23°C in July. The annual average rainfall is 500 to 600 mm, concentrated mostly in summer.
Heilongjiang is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions, consisting of twelve
prefecture-level citiesand one prefecture:
The sub-province-level city:
Harbin( Simplified Chinese: 哈尔滨市, Hanyu Pinyin: Hā'ěrbīn Shì)The prefecture-level cities:
Daqing(大庆市 Dàqìng Shì)
Hegang(鹤岗市 Hègǎng Shì)
Heihe(黑河市 Hēihé Shì)
Jiamusi(佳木斯市 Jiāmùsī Shì)
Jixi(鸡西市 Jīxī Shì)
Mudanjiang(牡丹江市 Mǔdānjiāng Shì)
Qiqihar(齐齐哈尔市 Qíqíhā'ěr Shì)
Qitaihe(七台河市 Qītáihé Shì)
Shuangyashan(双鸭山市 Shuāngyāshān Shì)
Suihua(绥化市 Suíhuà Shì)
* Yichun (伊春市 Yīchūn Shì)The prefecture:
* Daxing'anling Prefecture (大兴安岭地区 Dàxīng'ānlǐng Dìqū)
(About this last prefecture there is information to find at the section
The thirteen prefecture-level divisions of Heilongjiang are subdivided into 130 county-level divisions (65 districts, nineteen
county-level cities, forty-five counties, and one autonomous county). Those are in turn divided into 1284 township-level divisions (473 towns, 400 townships, 58 ethnic townships, and 353 subdistricts).
List of administrative divisions of Heilongjiangfor a complete list of county-level divisions.
List of Secretaries of the CPC Heilongjiang Committee:
Zhao Dezun赵德尊 (1950-1953)
Feng Jixin冯纪新 (1953-1954)
Ou Yangqin欧阳钦 (1954-1965)
Pan Fusheng潘复生 (1965-1967)
Wang Jiadao汪家道 (1971-1974)
Liu Guangtao刘光涛 (1977)
#Yang Yichen 杨易辰 (1977-1983)
Li Li'an李力安 (1983-1985)
Sun Weiben孙维本 (1985-1994)
Yue Qifeng岳岐峰 (1994-1997)
Xu Youfang徐有芳 (1997-2003)
Song Fatang宋法棠 (2003-2005)
Qian Yunlu钱运录 (2005-2008)
Ji Bingxuan吉炳轩 (2008-incumbent)
List of Governors:
Yu Yifu于毅夫 (1949-1952)
Zhao Dezun赵德尊 (1952-1953)
Chen Lei陈雷 (1953-1954)
Han Guang韩光 (1954-1956)
Ouyang Qin欧阳钦 (1956-1958)
Li Fanwu李范五 (1958-1966)
Pan Fusheng潘复生 (1967-1971)
Wang Jiadao汪家道 (1971-1974)
Liu Guangtao刘光涛 (February 1977-December 1977)
#Yang Yichen 杨易辰(December 1977-1979)
Chen Lei陈雷 (1979-1985)
Hou Jie侯捷 (1985-1989)
Shao Qihui邵奇惠 (1989-1994)
Song Fatang宋法棠 (2000-2003)
Zhang Zuoji张左己 (2003-December 2007)
Li Zhanshu栗战书 (December 2007-incumbent)
agricultureof Heilongjiang, heavily defined by its cold climate, is based upon crops such as soybeans, maize, and wheat. Commercial crops grown include beets, flax, and sunflowers.
Heilongjiang is also an important source of
lumberfor China. Pine, especially the Korean pineand larchare the most important forms of lumber produced in Heilongjiang. Forests are mostly to be found in the Daxingan Mountainsand Xiaoxingan Mountains, which are also home to protected animal species such as the Siberian Tiger, the red-crowned crane, and the lynx.
Herding in Heilongjiang is centered upon
horseand cattle. Heilongjiang has the greatest number of milk cows and the highest production of milkamong all the province-level divisions of China. Petroleumis of great importance in Heilongjiang, and the Daqing oilfieldsare an important source of petroleum for China. Coal, gold, and graphiteare other important minerals to be found in Heilongjiang. Heilongjiang also has great potential for wind power, with an average wind energy density of 200 watts per square metre.
Heilongjiang is part of
northeast China(Manchuria), the traditional base of industryfor the People's Republic of China. Industry is focused upon coal, petroleum, lumber, machinery, and food. Due to its location, Heilongjiang is also an important gateway for tradewith Russia. In recent years, however, Manchuria has suffered from stagnation. As a result, the government has started the Revitalize Northeast Chinacampaign to deal with this problem, using privatizationas the preferred method of economic reform.
At least five miners were killed after a coal mine fire in Heilongjiang it was reported
September 21 2008. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/09/21/china.mine.ap/index.html 50 dead in Chinese mining accidents] ]
In 2007, Heilongjiang's nominal GDP was 707.72 billion yuan (US$93 billion), an annual growth rate of 12.1%. Its per capita GDP was 18,510 yuan (US$2,434). In 2007, Heilongjiang's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 89.25 billion yuan, 377.95 billion yuan, and 240.52 billion yuan respectively. [ [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200601/31/eng20060131_239452.html NE China province reports record GDP growth] ] The per capita
disposable incomeof urban residents in Heilongjiang reached 10,245 yuan (about US$1,350), a rise of 11.6% from the previous year. The per capita net income of rural residents in the province reached 4,132 yuan (about US$540), a rise of 16.3 from 2006. [ [http://heilongjiang.northeast.cn/system/2007/01/18/050676151.shtml 2006年黑龙江省农民人均收入达3552元 增长10.3%] ]
The majority of Heilongjiang's population is
Han Chinese, while other ethnic minorities include the Manchus, Koreans, Mongols, Hui, Daur, Xibe, Oroqin, Hezhenand Russians.
Excludes members of the
People's Liberation Armyin active service. Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. "Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China" (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
Heilongjiang's culture is part of a culture of
Northeast Chinathat is relatively homogeneous across this region, known in Mandarin Chinese as "Dongbei" (the northeast). (See Culture of Manchuria.)
Heilongjiang Televisionand Harbin Economy Radioserve as broadcasters.
Harbin, the provincial capital, is a city of contrasts, with Chinese, Russian, and eclectic worldwide influences clearly apparent. Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestantchurches dot the city.
The long, cold winter is the backdrop for its famed
ice sculptureexhibitions. In 2007 already the 8th Ice and Snow World opened to visitors in Harbin. More than 2000 ice sculptures were on display at the annual event. [ [http://www.china.org.cn/english/travel/198585.htm Ice and Snow Festival in Harbin] ] Wudalianchi Lakesare a series of five lakes formed between 1719 and 1721 when volcanic eruption shaped one section of a tributary of the Amurinto five interconnected lakes. The second lake in particular is renowned for its irregular geological sights. Jingbo Lake, found in Ning'anCounty, is a section of the Mudan riverthat has been narrowed and shaped by volcanic eruption into a series of sights, including the Diaoshuilou Falls.
Colleges and universities
Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin University of Science and Technology
Heilongjiang Institute of Technology
Northeast Agricultural University
Northeast Forest University
Harbin University of Civil Engineering & Architecture
Harbin Medical University
Daqing Staff and Workers University
Daging Petroleun Institute
Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Heilongjiang Commercial University
Harbin Normal University
Heilongjiang August First Land Reclamation University
Asia League Ice Hockey
* [http://www.hlj.gov.cn/ Heilongjiang Government website]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.