New Fourth Army Incident


New Fourth Army Incident
New Fourth Army Incident
Part of the Chinese Civil War
Date 7 January 1941 - 13 January 1941
Location Maolin, Jing County, Anhui Province
Result Nationalist victory
Belligerents
Republic of China Army Flag.svg National Revolutionary Army Republic of China Army Flag.svg New Fourth Army
Commanders and leaders
Shangguan Yunxiang Huang Baitao

Gu Zhutong

Ye Ting

Xiang Ying

Strength
80,000 9,000
Casualties and losses
minimal 7,000 dead, captured, or missing

The New Fourth Army Incident (新四軍事件), also known as the Wannan Incident (皖南事变), occurred in China in January 1941 during the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese. It is significant as the end of real cooperation between the Nationalists and Communists.

Today, ROC and PRC historians view the New Fourth Army Incident differently. From the ROC point of view, it was punishment of Communist insubordination; from the PRC view, it was Nationalist treachery.

Contents

Causes

ROC viewpoint

In the fall of 1940, the Communist New Fourth Army attacked Nationalist forces under Han Deqin. However, Benton's book New Fourth Army argues the Communist attack was a counterattack, a response to an initial attack by Han Deqin, and that this initial attack was the result of Chen Yi's goading and harassment of Nationalist forces. Regardless, the conflict led to heavy losses for the Nationalists.

PRC viewpoint

For PRC historians the incident began in December 1940, when Chiang Kai-shek ordered Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army to withdraw from Anhui and Jiangsu in a month. The Communist Party agreed to move the New Fourth Army troops in Southern Anhui (Wannan) to the northern shore of the Yangtze River. On 4 January, the 9000-strong force started to move from Yunling Township in Jing County towards Jiangsu, planning to cross the river along three routes.

Ambush

On January 5, the Communist forces were surrounded in Maolin Township by a Nationalist force of 80,000 led by Shangguan Yunxiang and attacked days later. After days of fighting, heavy losses — including many civilian workers who staffed the army's political headquarters — were inflicted on the New Fourth Army due to the overwhelming numbers of Nationalist troops. On January 13, Ye Ting, wanting to save his men, went to Shangguan Yunxiang's headquarters to negotiate terms. Upon arrival, Ye was detained. The New Fourth Army's political commissar Xiang Ying was killed, and only 2,000 people, led by Huang Huoxing and Fu Qiutao, were able to break out.

Aftermath

Chiang Kai-shek ordered the New Fourth Army disbanded on January 17, and sent Ye Ting to a military tribunal. However, on January 20, the Chinese Communist Party in Yan'an ordered the reorganization of the army. Chen Yi was the new army commander. Liu Shaoqi was the political commissar. The new headquarters was in Jiangsu, which was now the general headquarters for the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army. Together, they comprised seven divisions and one independent brigade, totalling over 90,000 troops.

Because of this incident, according to the Communist Party of China, the Nationalist Party of China was criticized for creating internal strife when the Chinese were supposed to be united against the Japanese; the Communist Party of China, on the other hand, was seen as heroes at the vanguard of the fight against the Japanese and Nationalist treachery. Although as a result of this incident, the Communist Party lost possession of the lands south of Changjiang, it drew the party support from the population, which strengthened their foundations north of Changjiang.

According to the Nationalist Party, this incident was retribution to numerous occasions of treachery and harassment by the New Fourth Army.

The novelist Mao Dun's story Fushi is about this incident.

References

  • New Fourth Army: Communist Resistance along the Yangtze and the Huai, 1938-1941. Benton, Gregor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. 949 pages. ISBN 0-520-21992-9
  • This articles uses the translation of the corresponding Chinese-language article, retrieved on August 24, 2006.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New Fourth Army — The New Fourth Army (simplified Chinese: 新四军; traditional Chinese: 新四軍; pinyin: Xīn 4 Jūn) was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937. In contrast to most of the National Revolutionary Army, it was… …   Wikipedia

  • New Fourth Army Memorial Hall — The New Fourth Army Memorial Hall, full name New Fourth Army National Revolutionary Army military memorial reconstruction , (Chinese:新四军纪念馆)[1] is located in the east of Jianjun Road ,Yancheng ,Jiangsu ,China. It was advanced as a State AAAA… …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand wars — New Zealand Land Wars Memorial in the Auckland War Memorial Museum for those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. Kia mate toa can be translated as fight unto death or be strong in death , and is the motto of the …   Wikipedia

  • New Guangxi clique — After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique. Led by Lu Rongting (陆荣廷) and others, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan… …   Wikipedia

  • New Orleans Police Department — Abbreviation NOPD Patch of the New Orleans Police Department …   Wikipedia

  • New York Islanders — 2011 12 New York Islanders season Conference …   Wikipedia

  • NEW YORK CITY — NEW YORK CITY, foremost city of the Western Hemisphere and largest urban Jewish community in history; pop. 7,771,730 (1970), est. Jewish pop. 1,836,000 (1968); metropolitan area 11,448,480 (1970), metropolitan area Jewish (1968), 2,381,000… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • New York Jets — Current season Established 1960 Play in MetLife Stadium East Rutherford, New Jersey Headquartered in the Atlantic Health Jets Training Center Florham Park, New Jersey …   Wikipedia

  • New Jersey Devils — 2011–12 New Jersey Devils season Conference …   Wikipedia

  • New Jersey Nets — New Jersey Americans redirects here. For the soccer club, see New Jersey Americans (soccer). New Jersey Nets 2011 12 New Jersey Nets season …   Wikipedia