- Minneapolis – Saint Paul
:"Twin Cities" redirects here. For other uses, see
Twin city."Minneapolis-Saint Paul is the most populous urban area in the state of Minnesota, United States, and is composed of 186 cities and townships. [cite web| author= Metropolitan Council | title= Snapshot of the Region | url= http://www.metrocouncil.org/about/region.htm | date=2008-05-01 | accessdate= 2007-09-15] Built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers, the area is also nicknamed the Twin Cities for its two largest cities, Minneapolis and Saint Paul, the former the larger and the latter the state capital.
The area is part of a larger U.S. Census division named Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI, the country's 16th-largest
metropolitan areacomposed of eleven counties in Minnesotaand two counties in Wisconsin. This larger area in turn is enveloped in the U.S. Census combined statistical areacalled Minneapolis-St. Paul-St. Cloud, MN-WI with an estimated population of 3.5 million people in 2006, ranked the 13th most populous in the U.S.cite web| author= U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division | title= Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (CBSA-EST2006-02) | url= http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2006-annual.html | date= 2005-07-01| accessdate= 2007-05-09]
To remind everyone there were actually two cities, people started using the phrase Dual Cities around 1872, which evolved into Twin Cities. [ [http://wcco.com/goodquestion/local_story_034144252.html Why Are We Twins?] Accessed 1/15/2007] Despite the "Twin" moniker, the two cities are independent municipalities with defined borders and are quite distinct from each other. Minneapolis, with its broad boulevards, easily navigable grid layout, and modern downtown architecture, has been referred to as the "first" (i.e. furthest east) city of the American West; Saint Paul, which sports narrower streets laid out much more irregularly, clannish neighborhoods, and a vast collection of well preserved late-
Victorian architecture, is considered to be the "last" (i.e. farthest west) of the Eastern cities. [ [http://www.world66.com/northamerica/unitedstates/minnesota/stpaul St. Paul travel guide ] ] Also of some note is the differing cultural backgrounds of the two cities: Minneapolis being affected by its early (and still influential) Scandinavian/ Lutheranheritage, while St. Paul was touched by its early Irish and German Catholicroots. [cite web | title = Saint Paul: History | publisher = city-data.com | year = 2006 | url = http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Midwest/Saint-Paul-History.html | accessdate = 2007-05-10 ]
Often, the area is referred to as simply "The Cities," both within Minnesota, but generally outside the metropolitan region, and even in the bordering states of Iowa, Wisconsin, and the Dakotas. Areas of Minnesota outside of the Twin Cities are collectively referred to as "outstate" by people from the Twin Cities metro area. Today, the two cities directly border each other and their
downtowndistricts are about 9 miles (14 km) apart. The Twin Cities are generally said to be in "east central" Minnesota. The Cities draw commutersfrom as far away as Rochester, St. Cloud, Mankato and Eau Claire.
U.S. Census Bureaudefines the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area as a region of eleven counties in Minnesota and two in neighboring Wisconsin, an area which had a population of nearly three million people (2,968,805) in 2000. The area is growing rapidly; its population is projected to increase to four million in 20 years, and the Minnesota counties in this area were estimated to have a population of 3,090,377 as of April 1, 2005. [ [http://www.demography.state.mn.us/estimates.html Minnesota Demographic Center Population Estimates] Accessed 09/07/06] Bloomington, Minnesota, home of the Mall of America, is the third-largest city in the metro area and is in close contention for third place in the state, coming in at just about the same size as Duluth and Rochester in the 2000 census. Most locals do not consider Bloomington to be a major city but a very large suburb. Since the 2000 Census it has been included as a named city in the MSA.
When speaking of the "Twin Cities" many locals are referring to an older seven-county area entirely within Minnesota, which is under the jurisdiction of the
Metropolitan Council. The seven-county metro area contains a continguous urbanized area stretching from each core city with the exception of a few satellite cities. It is common for outstate Minnesotans to refer to the area as "The Cities" since the metro area is subdivided into distinct municipalities. The multiple "rings" of suburbs extending from the core area results from limited annexation powers in the early 20th century which halted the expansion of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. [http://www.gda.state.mn.us/resource.html?Id=2025 MN Annexation criteria] ] Under current state legislation, an incorporated city status is more protected from annexation than townships (or towns). Presently, there are 188 municipalities in the seven-county region and 334 in the total eleven-county region ("Greater Twin Cities"). This differs from other major cities and associated metropolitan areas where the central city is the primary landholder.
The majority of Minnesota residents live in the Twin Cities region. However fewer than one in four people in the metro area lives in the two core cities--even though most metro area residents will indicate they are from Minneapolis (and to a lesser extent Saint Paul) on a national level. The Twin Cities share a common cultural lore through facets of arts, media, food, celebration, and history. [cite book|author= John S. Adams|year= 1993|title= Minneapolis-St. Paul: People, Place, and Public Life|publisher=University of Minnesota Press] [cite web|url=http://www.giarts.org/library_additional/library_additional_show.htm?doc_id=484274| title=a new angle,Arts Development in the Suburbs|publisher=McKnight Foundation|date=Carolyn Bye, author Sylvia Paine Lindman, editor|date=Fall 2002] Twin Citians also still primarily work in the two core cities. [ [http://www.deed.state.mn.us/lmi/publications/review/0603supp.htm Where Do the Workers Come From?] ] The metropolitan area is one of several distinct
regions of Minnesota.
Minneapolis and Saint Paul have competed since they were founded, resulting in duplication of efforts such as building bigger or more extravagantly.cite web|url=http://www.oah.org/pubs/nl/2007feb/wingerd.html|title=Separated at Birth: The Sibling Rivalry of Minneapolis and St. Paul|author=Mary Lethert Wingerd|date=OAH Newsletter 35 (February 2007)|publisher=Organization of American Historians.] Both cities have campuses of the
University of Minnesota, and after Saint Paul completed its elaborate Cathedral in 1915, Minneapolis quickly followed up with the equally ostentatious Basilica of St. Maryin 1926. In the late 19th and early 20th-centuries the rivalries became so intense that an architect practicing in one city was often refused business in the other. The 1890 United States Censuseven led to the two cities arresting and/or kidnapping each other's census takers, in an attempt to keep either city from outgrowing the other.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B0DEED7123BE533A25752C2A9609C94619ED7CF|title=CENSUS-BRED BITTERNESS; ST. PAUL AND MINNEAPOLIS HAVE LOCKED HORNS.|author=New York Times|date=June 21, 1890|publisher=New York Times.] cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9900E6D6123BE533A25751C2A9609C94619ED7CF|title=THEY WANT HAY'S SCALP.; ST. PAUL RESIDENTS ARE GOING TO DESCEND UPON WASHINGTON.|author=New York Times|date=June 22, 1890|publisher=New York Times.] cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A05EFDC133BE533A25750C2A9619C94619ED7CF|title=FIGHTING OVER THE CENSUS.; ST. PAUL JEALOUS OF MINNEAPOLIS AND CHARGES FRAUD.|author=New York Times|date=July 23, 1890|publisher=New York Times.]
The rivalry could occasionally erupt into inter-city violence, as happened at a 1923 game between the
Minneapolis Millersand the St. Paul Saints, both baseballteams of the American Association. In the 1950s, both cities competed for a major league baseballfranchise (which resulted in two rival stadiums being built), and there was a brief period in the mid-1960s where the two cities could not agree on a common calendar for daylight saving time, resulting in a period of a few weeks where people in Minneapolis were one hour "ahead" of anyone living or traveling in Saint Paul.
The cities' mutual antagonism was largely healed by the end of the 1960s, aided by the simultaneous arrival in 1961 of the
Minnesota Twinsof the American Leagueand the Minnesota Vikingsof the National Football League, both of which identified themselves with the state as a whole (the former explicitly named for both Twin Cities) and not with either of the major cities (unlike the earlier Minneapolis Lakers). Since 1961, it has been common practice for any major sports team based in the Twin Cities to be named for Minnesota as a whole, with the Twins and Vikings followed by the Minnesota North Stars(1967–93), Minnesota Muskies(1967–68), Minnesota Moose(1994–1996), Minnesota Pipers(1968–69), Minnesota Fighting Saints(1972–77), Minnesota Kicks(1976–81), Minnesota Strikers(1984–88), Minnesota Timberwolves(1989–present), Minnesota Thunder(1990–present), Minnesota Lynx(1999–present), Minnesota Wild(2000–present) and Minnesota Swarm(2005–present). In terms of development, the two cities remain distinct in their progress, with Minneapolis absorbing new and avant-garde architecture while Saint Paul continues to carefully integrate new buildings into the context of classical and Victorian styles.
Arts and entertainment
The Twin Cities area is considered the capital for the arts in the
Upper Midwest, the lead region among others such as the Twin Ports( Duluth, Minnesota- Superior, Wisconsin), Madison, Wisconsinand Milwaukee, Wisconsin(though it is fair to say that Madison and Milwaukee are more easily grouped and identified with the Chicago-dominated region). There is a very high per-capita attendance of theatrical, musical, and comedyevents across the area, which some believe may be boosted by the cold winters but can be more realistically attributed to the large number of colleges, universities, and a generally strong economy, providing strong supply and demand for arts. In 2000, 2.3 million theater tickets were sold in the region. There are more theatre seats per capita than in any other American city, besides New York City. [cite web| title=Gopher Express|work=Coffman Info Desk|publisher=Regents of the University of Minnesota|date=2006-10-12| url=http://www.skyway.umn.edu/gopherexpresswest/explore.php?PHPSESSID=f65d1b639e4cae622e89d4f98605c590| accessdate=2007-04-08]
Minnesotan musicians from all genres have gained notoriety over the years, with the singing Andrews Sisters gaining worldwide prominence during
World War II, followed most notably by Hibbing, MN native Bob Dylan(who launched his career playing free shows on the West Bank of the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus), to the rise of punk rockers the Suburbs, Hüsker Dü, Soul Asylum, the Replacements, and the rhythm and bluesstylings of Morris Day and the Time and Prince in the 1980s. R&B mega-producing team Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewishave origins in the Twin Cities, and musicians Lester Youngand Jonny Langgrew up in the Twin Cities.
These later sources brought the Minneapolis music scene to national attention; the period from about 1977 to 1987 was a period of incredible dynamism in the Minneapolis music scene, with offshoots in the punk scene including
Soul Asylum, Babes in Toyland, the Clamsand many other seminal favorites, while Prince's immense power in the industry (which peaked during this period) created a Rhythm and Bluesmini-empire at his Paisley Park Studios, based in suburban Chanhassen.
While contemporary local artists continue to enjoy critical acclaim — examples include hip-hop duo Atmosphere and frontman Slug's label
Rhymesayers Entertainment; Saint Paul's independent record label Kamorra Entertainment; South Minneapolis born hip hop artist Young Sonand his hip hop/rap and soul based indie label Influential Melodiez; alternative metal band American Head Charge; and commercially successful pop-rockers Semisonic— things have slowed considerably, but the Twin Cities are still the region's musical hotbed. The area has also shown an unusual affinity for certain artists. For instance, while largely unnoticed on their home turf in New York City, the Twin Cities accounted for the majority of national sales for Soul Coughing's second album " Irresistible Bliss" during its first eight weeks of release; this followed from the fledgling fan that Soul Coughing found here while touring for their first effort, " Ruby Vroom". The legendary First Avenuealso is noted as the first venue to let the now worldwide famous Nickelbackperform when they were turned down elsewhere.
There are a number of record labels located in the Twin Cities, including the hip-hop label
Rhymesayers Entertainment(whose staff also operate a record store beneath their Uptown office) [cite web| title=Twin Cities Business| date=2008-06-01| url=http://www.tcbmag.com/peoplecompanies/businessleaders/99750p1.aspx| accessdate=2008-06-13] and 50 Entertainment(the best-staffed label in the Twin Cities, with 8 staff and 12 interns managing their two signed bands) [cite web| title=Twin Cities Business| date=2008-06-01| url=http://www.tcbmag.com/peoplecompanies/businessleaders/99750p4.aspx| accessdate=2008-06-13] .
Minnesota and Wisconsin have also contributed significantly to comedy in its many different forms.
Garrison Keilloris known around the country for resurrecting the old-style radio comedywith " A Prairie Home Companion". Local televisionhad the satirical show " The Bedtime Nooz" in the 1960s, while area natives Lizz Winsteadand Craig Kilbornhelped create the increasingly influential "Daily Show" decades later. The standup scene of Minneapolis-St. Paul during the 1980s and 1990s was a major force in national comedy. Joel and Ethan Coenhave produced many films featuring dark comedy, and numerous others brought the offbeat cult shows " Mystery Science Theater 3000" and " Let's Bowl" to the national cable-waves from the Twin Cities.
There are a number of
lakes in the region, and cities in the area have some very extensive parksystems for recreation. Organized recreation includes the Great River Energy bicycle festival, the Twin Cities Marathon, and the U.S. pond hockeychampionships. Some studies have shown that area residents take advantage of this, and are among the most physically fit in the country, though others have disputed that. Nonetheless, medicineis a major industry in the region and the southeasterly city of Rochester, as the University of Minnesotahas joined other colleges and hospitals in doing significant research, and major medical devicemanufacturers started in the region (the most prominent is Medtronic). Technical innovators have brought important advances in computing, including the Crayline of supercomputers.
It is common for residents of the Twin Cities area to own or share cabins and other properties along lakes and
forested areas in the central and northern regions of the state, and weekend trips "up North" happen through the warmer months. Ice fishingis also a major pastime in the winter, although each year some overambitious fishermen find themselves in dangerous situations when they venture out onto the icetoo early or too late. Hunting, snowmobiling, ATV riding and numerous other outdoor activities are also popular. This connectedness with the outdoors also brings a strong sense of environmentalismto many Minnesotans.
Minneapolis-Saint Paul is also a major center for religion in the state, especially
Christianity. The state headquarters of the missionary efforts of four churches are found here: The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, the Episcopal Diocese of Minnesotathe Presbyterian Synod of Lakes and Prairiesand The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) Minnesota Mission find themselves in, respectively, Saint Paul and Minneapolis; Minneapolis; and Bloomington (for both the Presbyterian and LDS(Mormon) Churches).
The headquarters of the former
American Lutheran Church(TALC), Evangelical Lutheran Church, Lutheran Free Churchand the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Churchwere located in Minneapolis; the headquarters of Augsburg Fortresspublishing house still is. The Minneapolis Area Synodand the Saint Paul Area Synodare the first and third largest synods of the ELCA, respectively.
Evangelical Free Church of Americahas its headquarters in Bloomington.
The Twin Cities have always had a Jewish population and are home to several Jewish
synagogues. There is also a strong Indian community and in 2006, the first Hindutemple opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Maple Grove. A recent influx of immigrants from Laos and Northern Africa has brought many more religions to the area. There are several Islamic Masjids in the area; however, the Twin Cities do not have a Mosque. There is a temple for the religion of Eckankarin the suburb of Chanhassenknown as the Temple of Eck. In addition, Hmong and Tibetan Buddhistcommunities exist in Saint Paul; a Hmong Buddhist temple opened in suburban Roseville in 1995. The area's first Mormon temple opened in Oakdale, a suburb east of Saint Paul, in 2000. There are several very strong Unitarian Universalistcommunities such as the First Unitarian Society of Minneapolis, as well as several Paganand Buddhistgroups.
Some other sports teams gained their names from being in Minnesota. The
Los Angeles Lakersget their name from once being based in Minneapolis, the "City of Lakes" (Minne-"lake" or "water" in Dakota, -polis-"city" in Greek). Minnesota is also known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes". The Dallas Starsgot their name from being a Minnesota team, the Minnesota North Stars, as Minnesota is also known as "The North StarState". To avoid favoring either of the Twin Cities, most teams based in the area use only the word Minnesota in their name, rather than Minneapolis or St. Paul.
Twin Cities Marathonis held in the fall with a course running through Minneapolis and St. Paul. Minneapolis was the birthplace of Rollerbladeand is a center for inline skatingas well as home to the most golfers per capita of any city in the U.S.
The Republican National Committee has announced that they will hold their national nominating convention at the
Xcel Energy Centerin St. Paul. Prior, both cities combined to submit bids to host both the 2008 Democratic National Conventionand the 2008 Republican National Convention. They competed against Denverand New York to host the Democratic Convention, and against New York, Clevelandand Tampato host the Republican Convention.
The first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of
Stillwater, Minnesota. The city is approximately convert|20|mi|km|-1 from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River, which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling, which was constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota Riverand the Mississippi River.
Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of
Saint Anthony Falls, thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens, who operated a ferryservice across the river. As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew quickly, and Minneapolis and Saint Anthony eventually merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul.
Natural geography played a role in the settlement and development of the two cities. The Mississippi River valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an easily accessible point, some seven miles (11 km) downstream from Saint Anthony Falls, the geographic feature that defined the location of Minneapolis and its prominence as the Mill City.
The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota side of the metropolitan area. Lake Elmo, just southwest of Stillwater, began with one farm in 1852 on the southwest corner of the intersection of what is now Manning Avenue and 30th Street, just east of downtown Lake Elmo. The barn, built in 1875, was restored in 1998 and still stands today, renovated as a house. The 1852 farmhouse was intentionally burned down in March 2007.
Grand Excursion, a trip into the Upper Midwestsponsored by the Rock Island Railroad, brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboatin 1854. The next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellowpublished " The Song of Hiawatha", an epic poembased on the Ojibwelegends of Hiawatha. A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake Minnetonkaand Minnehaha Falls. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades.
At one time, the region also had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban
streetcarsystems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis-Saint Paul area was briefly one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad. A great amount of commercial rail traffic also ran through the area, often carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigationon the river, prior to new lock and damfacilities being added upriver in Minneapolis.
Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the
Saint Paul Union Depot. This amounted to approximately 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile, some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicagoto Minneapolis/Saint Paul and eventually served distant points in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak's " Empire Builder" service, running once daily in each direction. That train is named after James J. Hill, a railroad tycoonwho settled on Summit Avenuein Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill House.
Geography and geology
Along with much of Minnesota, the Twin Cities area was shaped by water and ice over the course of millions of years. The land of the area sits on top of thick layers of
sandstoneand limestonelaid down as seas encroached upon and receded from the region. Erosion caused natural caves to develop, which were expanded into mines when white settlers came to the area. In the time of Prohibition, at least one speakeasywas built into these hidden spaces—eventually refurbished as the Wabasha Street Cavesin Saint Paul.
While a few of the caverns have been cleaned up and are safe places, most are not. Over the decades, many people have been injured and killed while exploring them. A number of these incidents involved
asphyxiation, sometimes caused by smoldering fires which used up much of the oxygenin the caves and left deadly levels of noxious gases behind.
Because it is comparatively easy to dig through limestone and there are many natural and man-made open spaces, it has often been proposed that the area should examine the idea of building subways for public transportation. In theory, it could be less expensive in the Twin Cities than in many other places, but the cost would still be much greater than surface projects.
Lakes across the area were formed and altered by the movement of
glaciers. This left many bodies of water in the region, and unusual shapes may appear. For example, Lake Minnetonkaout toward the western side of the Twin Cities consists of a complex arrangement of channels and large bays. Elevations in the metropolitan area range from convert|1376|ft|m|0 above sea level in the northwest metro to convert|666|ft|m|0 at the edge of the Mississippi Riverin the southeast.
Owing to its northerly latitude and inland location, the Twin Cities experiences the coldest climate of any major metropolitan area in the United States. [cite web | title = Minneapolis Minnesota | publisher = TrekkerTime.com | url = http://trekkertime.com/index.php/Site/MinneapolisMinnesota | accessdate = 2007-05-07 ] However due to its southern location in the state and aided further by the
urban heat island, the Twin Cities is one of the warmest locations in Minnesota. [cite web | title = History of the NWS in the Twin Cities | publisher = National Weather Service| date = November 9, 2005| url = http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mpx/history/chanhassen.php | accessdate = 2007-05-07 ] The average annual temperature at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airportis 45.4 °F (7.4 °C); 3.5 °F colder than Winona, Minnesota, and 8.8 °F warmer than Roseau, Minnesota. cite book | last = Seeley | middle = W. | first = Mark | title = Minnesota Weather Almanac | publisher = Minnesota Historical Societypress | year = 2006 | id = ISBN 0-87351-554-4] Monthly average daily high temperatures range from 21.9 °F (-5.6 °C) in January to 83.3 °F (28.5 °C) in July; the average daily minimum temperatures for the two months are 4.3 °F (-15.4 °C) and 63.0 °F (17 °C) respectively. [cite web | title = Climatography of MSP | publisher = National Climatic Data Center| date = (1971 - 2000) | url = http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/climatenormals/climatenormals.pl | accessdate = 2 ]
Minimum temperatures of 0 °F (-18 °C) or lower are seen on an average of 29.7 days per year, and 76.2 days do not have a maximum temperature exceeding the freezing point. Temperatures above 90 °F (32 °C) occur an average of 15 times per year. High temperatures above 100 °F have been rare in recent years; the last occurring in July, 2006, during an unusually hot period in which the high temperature exceeded 90 °F on 17 of July's 31 days. The lowest temperature ever reported at the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport was -34 °F (-36.6 °C) on
January 22, 1936; the highest, 108 °F (42 °C), was reported on July 14of the same year. [cite web|url=http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/historical/temp/mn/215435_tsum.html|title=Temperature Summary - 215435 MINNEAPOLIS WSFO AP, MN]
Precipitation averages 29.41 in (74.7 cm) per year, and is most plentiful in June (4.34 in, 11 cm) and February (0.79 in, 2 cm) the least so. The greatest one-day rainfall amount was 9.15 in (23.2 cm), reported on
July 23, 1987. The city's record for lowest annual precipitation was set in 1910, when 11.54 in (29.3 cm) fell throughout the year; coincidentally, the opposite record was set the following year, which observed a total 40.15 in (102 cm). [cite web|url=http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/historical/precip/mn/215435_psum.html|title=Precipitation Summary - 215435 MINNEAPOLIS WSFO AP, MN] At an average of 56.3 in (143 cm) per year, snowfallis generally abundant (though some recent years have proved an exception). [cite web|url=http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/historical/snow/mn/215435_ssum.html|title=Snowfall Summary - 215435 MINNEAPOLIS WSFO AP, MN]
The Twin Cities area takes the brunt of many types of extreme weather, including high-speed straight-line winds, tornadoes, flash floods, drought, heat, bitter cold, and blizzards. The costliest weather disaster in Twin Cities history was a
derechoevent on May 15, 1998. Hailand Winddamage exceeded $950 million, much of it in the Twin Cities. [cite web | last = Scott | first = Woelm | title = Top 10 Minnesota Severe Weather Events 1990-1999 | publisher = Metro Skywarn | date = June 30, 2006| url = http://www.skywarn.ampr.org/mn_top10.html | accessdate = 2007-05-07 ] Other memorable Twin Cities weather related events include the tornado outbreak on May 6, 1965, the Armistice Day Blizzardon November 11, 1940, and the Halloween Blizzardof 1991.
A normal growing season in the metro extends from late April or early May through the month of October. [cite web|url=http://mcc.sws.uiuc.edu/climate_midwest/historical/grow/mn/215435_gsum.html|title=Growing Season Summary - 215435 MINNEAPOLIS WSFO AP, MN] The USDA places the area in the 4a
plant hardiness zone. [cite web|url=http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/hzm-nm1.html] |title=USNA - USDA Plant Hardiness Zone
Buildings and structures
The four tallest buildings in the area are located in downtown Minneapolis. The first skyscraper built west of the Mississippi in 1929 was the
Foshay Tower. Today there is some contention over exactly which building is the tallest—most Minnesotans would immediately think of the IDS Centerif queried on the point, although most sources seem to agree that 225 South Sixthis slightly taller. But in early 2005, it was found that the IDS Centeris taller by a convert|16|ft|m|0|sing=on washroom garage on top, which brings its total height to 792 feet (241 m). 225 South Sixthand the Wells Fargo Center only differ in height by a foot or two, a rather negligible amount when considering all of the factors that can throw off the measurement of large structures. The IDS has communications towers that definitely are the highest points in Minneapolis, though some suburban broadcast towers in the region reach a much greater height.
Buildings have gone up and been torn down rapidly across the region. Some city blocks have been demolished six or seven times since the mid-19th century, and will undoubtedly reach an eighth or ninth cycle in short order.cite book|last=Millett|first=Larry|title=Lost Twin Cities|year=1992|publisher=
Minnesota Historical Society|location= St. Paul, Minnesota] No single architectural style dominates the region. Instead, the cities have a mish-mash of different designs, although structures from a few eras stand out. There were once a great many stone buildings constructed in the Richardsonian Romanesquestyle (or at least Romanesque-inspired variants). Minneapolis City Hallis one big example of this, though buildings of all types—including personal residences such as the James J. Hill House—were similarly designed. [cite book|first=Paul Clifford|last=Larson|coauthors=Martin, Judith|editor=Larson, Paul Clifford (ed.)|title=The Spirit of H.H. Richardson on the Midland Prairies|year=1988|publisher=Iowa State University Press|location=Ames, Iowa] A few decades later, Art Decobrought several structures that survive today, including St. Paul City Hall, the Foshay Tower, and the Minneapolis Post Office. The style of buildings in the two cities varies greatly. In Minneapolis, the trend has been buildings with sleek lines and modern glass facades while St. Paul tends to follow a more traditional style of buildings so as to better accompany its older structures.
St. Paul and Minneapolis in particular went through some massive
urban renewalprojects in the post- World War IIera, so a vast number of buildings are now lost to history. Some of the larger and harder to demolish structures have survived. In fact, the area might be signified more by bridges than buildings. A series of reinforced concrete archspans crossing the Mississippi River were built in the 1920s and 1930s. They still carry daily traffic, but remain pleasing to the eye despite their age (a number have undergone major repair work, but retain the original design). Several of the bridges are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. They include the 10th Avenue Bridge, Intercity Bridge(Ford Parkway), Robert Street Bridge, and the longest, the 4119 ft (1255 m) Mendota Bridgenext to Fort Snelling. The area is also noted for having the first known permanent crossing of the Mississippi. That structure is long gone, but a series of Hennepin Avenue Bridges have been built since then at the site. Both downtowns have extensive networks of enclosed pedestrian bridges known as skyways. Individually, the cities appear to have the largest such networks outside of Canada. However, the combination of the two cities' networks is believed to make the largest system in the world. Skyways have their drawbacks however. Most prominently, they reduce the amount of foot traffic at street level, so the cities appear to have little activity. An additional problem is that the skyways tend to be closed fairly early—especially in Minneapolis—but they are hives of activity on weekdays.
Several prominent buildings in Minneapolis have helped modernize the city. These include the
Walker Art Center, Central Public Library, and the Guthrie Theater. Opened in April 2005, the new Walker Art Center, nearly double in size, includes increased indoor and outdoor facilities. The Walker is recognized internationally as a singular model of a multidisciplinary arts organization and as a national leader for its innovative approaches to audience engagement. The Guthrie received a large amount of media coverage for its opening in June, 2006. The design is the work of architect Jean Nouvel and is a 285,000 square foot (26,500 m²) facility that houses three theaters: (1) the theater's signature thrust stage, seating 1,100, (2) a 700-seat proscenium stage, and (3) a black-box studio with flexible seating. In 2002 the National Trust for Historic Preservationput the old Guthrie building on its list of the most endangered historic properties in the United States in response to plans announced by the Walker Art Center to expand on the land occupied by the theater. However, officials at the Walker Art Center say that the original Guthrie building will be torn down late in the summer of 2006. These building projects have rejuvenated the downtown area.
Roads and highways
In the 20th century, the Twin Cities area expanded outward significantly. Automobiles made it possible for
suburbs to grow greatly. The area now has a number of freeways to transport people by car. The area incorporates a large number of traffic cameras and ramp meters to monitor and manage traffic congestion. There is some use of high-occupancy vehicle(carpool) lanes, though it is not as pervasive as in other regions. When the roads do become congested, buses are allowed to drive on road shoulders to bypass traffic jams. Interstate 94comes into the area from the east and heads northwest from Minneapolis. Two spur routes form the I-494/I-694 loop, and I-394 continues west when I-94 turns north. Additionally, Interstate 35splits in Burnsville in the southern part of the Twin Cities region, bringing I-35E into St. Paul and I-35W into Minneapolis. On Wednesday, August 1, 2007, a large portion of the I-35W Mississippi River bridgenear University Avenue in the city of Minneapolis collapsed into the Mississippi Riveraround 6:05pm CDT. [cite news | url=http://www.twincities.com/allheadlines/ci_6518669 | title=35W bridge collapses over Mississippi River, cars in the water | publisher= Pioneer Press| date=2007-08-01 | accessdate=2007-08-01] [cite news | url=http://kstp.com/article/stories/S156329.shtml?cat=1 | title= 35W bridge over Mississippi collapsed | publisher=5 EYEWITNESS NEWS | date=2007-08-01 | accessdate=2007-08-01] [cite news | url=http://www.kare11.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=261140 | title= 35W Bridge Collapses| publisher=KARE11 | date=2007-08-01 | accessdate=2007-08-01] A replacement bridge opened on Thursday, September 18, 2008. This is one of only two examples of an Interstate highway splitting off into branches and then rejoining into one again; the other split occurs in Dallas-Fort Worth, where I-35 splits into I-35E for motorists who want to go into Dallas, and I-35W for traffic heading into Fort Worth.) They join together again to the north in Forest Lake and continue to the highway's terminus in Duluth.
airportin the region is Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport(MSP), which is a major hub for Northwest Airlines. A number of other smaller airports are also in the area, a number of which are owned and operated by the Metropolitan Airports Commission(the same organization operates the main MSP airport). Some people even commute by air to the Twin Cities from the northern part of the state.
Metro Transit, by far the biggest bus service provider in the area, owes its existence to the old streetcar lines that ran in the area. Metro Transit provides about 95% of the
public transitrides in the region, although some suburbs have other bus services. The University of Minnesota-Twin Cities operates a free bus system on its campus. This system includes the Campus Connector Bus Rapid Transitline which travels between the Minneapolis and St. Paul Campuses by a dedicated bus line, and throughout the two campuses on normal access roads. The Hiawatha Line light railcorridor began regular operations in June 2004, and is run by Metro Transit. In many ways a return to what existed in the past, it is being used as a stepping-stone to other projects.
A variety of rail services are currently being pondered by state and local governments, including neighborhood streetcar systems, intercity light rail service, and
commuter railoptions out to exurban communities. In addition, Minnesota is one of several states in the Midwest examining the idea of setting up high-speed railservice using Chicago as a regional hub. [http://www.dot.state.mn.us/passengerrail/highspeed.html Midwest Regional Rail Initiative] , accessed June 24, 2008]
The Minneapolis-St. Paul area has been criticized for inadequate public transportation. [http://www.metrocouncil.org/Directions/transit/transit2005/congestionJun05.htm Metropolitan Council Release on Traffic Congestion] , accessed October 16, 2006] Compared to many other cities its size, the public transportation system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area is less robust. As the metropolitan area has grown, the roads and highways have been updated and widened, but traffic volume is growing faster than the projects needed to widen them, and public transportation has not expanded commensurate with the population. The Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area is ranked as the fifth worst for congestion growth of similarly-sized U.S. metropolitan areas. Although a
light railsystem, the Hiawatha Line, was added in 2004, additional lines and spurs are needed to upgrade public transportation in the Twin Cities. Plans have been proposed for a light rail line connecting Minneapolis and St. Paul along University Avenue; a light rail line connecting downtown Minneapolis to the suburb Eden Prairie. A commuter line connecting Minneapolis with St. Cloud along the Northstar Corridoris currently under construction (2008).
The Twin Cities have two major daily newspapers: the "
Star Tribune" and the " Saint Paul Pioneer Press". Additionally, the " Minnesota Daily" serves the University of Minnesota's Twin Cities campus and surrounding neighborhoods. There is one general-interest neighborhood weekly newspaper still in the cities: The " East Side Review", devoted to the 90,000 residents in the eastern third of St. Paul. Other weekly papers are devoted to specific audiences/demographics including City Pages.
The region is currently ranked as the 13th or 14th largest
televisionmarket, depending on the source. Twin Cities Public Televisionoperates both KTCAand KTCI. Hubbard Broadcasting Corporationbuilt by Stanley E. Hubbard owns KSTP and has a second TV station, KSTC, which is not affiliated with any network. Diversified from radio, KSTP-TVbecame the first television channel to air in the region with a show reaching 3,000 television sets in 1948, and the 17th station to broadcast in the U.S. [cite web | author= Minneapolis Public Library | title= A History of Minneapolis: Radio and Television | url= http://www.mpls.lib.mn.us/history/nm2.asp | year= 2001 | accessdate= 2007-05-10]
WFTChave now merged as well, and KAREcurrently has a marketing agreement with KPXM. The only station with its main studios in Minneapolis is WCCO, while St. Paul is host to KSTP/KSTC, KTCA/KTCI, and KMWB. KAREhas a sprawling broadcasting complex in west suburban Golden Valley.Other stations are located in the suburbs. For much of the last two decades, WCCO has had the most popular evening newscasts of the area channels. On the other end, KSTP has struggled to maintain ratings on its news programs. KMSP has had a 9 o'clock newscast since at least the early 1990s when it was an independent channel.
Communities in the region have their own public/educational/government-access
cable televisionchannels. One channel, the Metro Cable Network, is available on channel 6 on cable systems across the seven-county region.
Several television programs originating in the Twin Cities have been aired nationally on terrestrial and cable TV networks. KTCA created the science program "
Newton's Apple" and distributes a children's program today. A few unusual comedic shows also originated in the area. In the 1980s, KTMA (predecessor to KMWB) created a number of low-budget shows, including cult classic " Mystery Science Theater 3000". The shortlived " Let's Bowl" started on KARE, and PBS series " Mental Engineering" originated on the St. Paul cable access network.
radiomarket in the Twin Cities is considered to be somewhat smaller than for TV, ranked 16th. For decades, WCCO radio was the most well-known and most popular broadcaster in the region, with an all-day talk format. WCCO was eventually pushed out of the top spot by KQRS-FM, a classic rockstation with a popular morning show.
KSTP also has some fairly popular radio stations, with
pop musicformat on FM and a talk format on AM. KSTP-AM and FM are owned by Hubbard Broadcasting. In 1985, Hubbard - valued at $400 million - was one of the larger corporate media companies in the United States; in 2005, valued at US $1.2 billion, Hubbard is a fairly small major-market media operation.
Minneapolis has a peculiar mix of commercial and non-commercial radio. The city's market is dominated by
Clear Channel Communicationswhich operates seven stations but two small independent stations are award winners— KUOMoperated by the University of Minnesotaand KFAIpublic access radio in Cedar Riverside. [cite web| author= iBiquity Digital Corporation| title= HD Radio - Minnesota| year= 2007| url= http://www.ibiquity.com/hd_radio/hdradio_find_a_station/MN/StnMarket#stationlist and cite web | author= | title= Independent Public Radio | url= http://www.ampers.org/station-awards.shtml | year= 2006 | accessdate= 2007-05-10] Minnesota Public Radio(MPR) is also a major force in the state and across the country, best known across the U.S. for the variety show " A Prairie Home Companion". Doing business under the name American Public Media, the company is the second largest producer of national public radio content, behind National Public Radio(of which MPR is an affiliate).
The Twin Cities is also home to several independent media organizations, including [http://tc.indymedia.org Twin Cities Indymedia] and the [http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/ Daily Planet] .
United States Navycurrently has one ship named for the region, the USS "Minneapolis-Saint Paul", a "Los Angeles"-class submarinelaunched in 1983. Previously, two sets of two ships each had carried the names USS "Minneapolis" and USS "Saint Paul".
Saint Paul, Minnesota
* [http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000800/a000858/a000858.mpg Flyby video] courtesy NASA/Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio
* [http://www.mnplan.state.mn.us/demography/FactSheets/MSACompare/ Fact sheet about Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area Comparison]
* [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/mpx/history/ History of the National Weather Service in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota]
* [http://www.twincitiesdailyphoto.com/ Twin Cities Daily Photograph — One photograph a day of the Twin Cities Metro Area]
* [http://www.metromsp.org/ GIS-based Demographic Guide to Twin Cities Region]
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