—  city  —
Location of Kurnool
in Andhra Pradesh and India
Coordinates 15°50′N 78°03′E / 15.83°N 78.05°E / 15.83; 78.05Coordinates: 15°50′N 78°03′E / 15.83°N 78.05°E / 15.83; 78.05
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District(s) Kurnool
Population 329,122 (2009)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)


274 metres (899 ft)

Kurnool (Telugu: కర్నూలు Urdu: کرنول) is a city in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state in southern India, about 212 kilometres (132 mi) south of state capital, Hyderabad. It is the administrative seat of the district. Kurnool is the gateway to Rayalaseema and the largest city in the area, with a population around 329122. From 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956, Kurnool was the capital of Andhra State. It has many educational institutions and is also a major hub for banking and insurance companies.



There are many theories about the origin of the name Kurnool.

According to A Manual of the Kurnool District in the Presidency of Madras, (Narahari Gopalakristnamah Chetty, 1886), the name Kurnool is derived from Kandenavolu or Kandanavolu (a Telugu name by which it is referred to in the inscriptions and literature of the past), pronounced as karnooluu. According to the legend, in the time of the Western Chalukyas of Badami in the 11th century AD, the Vadderas who carted stones for the construction of the temples at Alampur (also known as Dakshina Kasi in Mahaboobnagar District), used the site on which the city now stands as a resting place before crossing the Tungabhadra. Here, they greased their cart-wheels with oil, which was supplied by some of the local oil mongers. They called the place Kandenametta.

The strategic position led to the formation of a small settlement on the spot which subsequently came to be known as Kandenapalli, Kandenolu and Kandenavolu, the city of Kandena or grease. The site which was used as a halting place by the Vadderas in those days is still known as Bandla Metta (Bandla means carts and Metta means headquarters or halting place). Today this is a street in the Old Kurnool city. Now this place name has become to "Bandimetta".

In some of the inscriptions, Kurnool is referred to as Kannadu or Karu Nadu with Karu meaning black and Nadu meaning territory.

Other scholars argue that Kurnool derived its name from Kallu which means stone and Nadu which means territory. Yet others say the name Kurnool has been derived from Skandanavolu, the city of Skanda or Kumaraswamy. The worship of Skanda in Andhra Pradesh dates back to ancient times. The cities were also named after Skanda, the chief God of War of the Devas.


gole gummaj.

Villages have existed at this site for more than 2,000 years.

The Chinese traveller Xuanzang, on his way to Kanchi, came through Kurnool.

Aurangazeb, the last Mogul King to rule India, conquered the Deccan in 1687 and left his governors, the Nizams, to rule the Andhra centres of Hyderabad and Kurnool. Both the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Kurnool declared independence and became sole rulers of their territories. Nawab Alaf Khan Bahadur was the first ruler of Kurnool and his descendants ruled it for over 200 years. In the early 18th century, the Nawabs merged with the sultan of Mysore and fought the British Empire.

Fort Konda Reddy Buruju

There is a bastian named Konda Reddy Buruju, constructed as a strategic watch tower by the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire. There is an underground passage (tunnel) from this buruju to Gadwal which is 52 km away. The speciality of this tunnel is it crosses under the river Tungabhadra. Stories tell that the ruler of Gadwal Kingdom utilised this tunnel to escape from the Muslim conquerors in 17th century. The government of Andhra Pradesh closed the tunnel somewhere around the 1950s.

Political administration

It is the headquarters of the mandal, the revenue division and the district of the same name. From 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956, Kurnool was also the capital of Andhra State (not Andhra Pradesh), which was carved out of Madras State in 1953. Tangutoori Prakasam Pantulu was the chief minister of Andhra State during this time. The present day District court buildings were the premisses of state Assemblym.

Geography and climate


Period - 1951-2000

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1] IMD

Kurnool is located at 15°50′00″N 78°03′00″E / 15.8333°N 78.05°E / 15.8333; 78.05.[1] It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet).

Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Handry and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C. Canal (Kurnool–Kadapa) was built by the Dutch for trasportation, and later sold and converted to irrigational purpose.

Kurnool is the largest of the 4 districts of Rayalaseema the backward region of Andhra Pradesh. The other 3 are Anantapur, Kadapa and Chittore. This region flourished in the past under the Hindu King Sri Krishnadevaraya. Hence the name Rayalaseema.

These 4 districts, when under Nizams rule, were ceded to British by Nizam as a tribute. Therefore they are also known as ceded districts.

Kurnool was the erstwhile capital of Andhra When the Nizams princely state was merged to form Andhra Pradesh State the capital was shifted to Hyderabad.

The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26°C to 45°C in the summer and 12°C to 31°C in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 30 inches (762 mm).


Kurnool town is a very good educational center. It has :
Medical College (Kurnool Medical College)
Thirteen Engg. Colleges
Two Polytechnics
One Dental College
One Physiotherapy College
Six B.Ed Colleges
One Law College
Four Colleges of Nursing
Rayalaseema University
Ten Degree Colleges for Men and Women
Twenty Junior Colleges
One College of Physical Education
Three schools for blind and physically challenged
Many Computer Coaching Centers

When Andhra State was formed in October 1953, the Government of Andhra decided to start a medical college in the Rayalaseema region of the state. In Government Order Ms. No. 1835, Health, dated 29 November 1955, the government of Andhra passed orders to establish a medical college, the third one in the state at Kurnool. As the building was not ready for the college the government decided to admit 50 students intended for Kurnool Medical College at Kurnool City in July 1956. When Andhra Pradesh was formed and the capital was shifted to Hyderabad from Kurnool the erstwhile secretariat building were handed over to the medical college.

The college was opened on 21 July 1956 by Sri T.T. Krishnamachari, the then Finance Minister of India. Fifty students were admitted to the M.B.B.S. Course.

Laboratories for subjects of the non-clinical course were established in due course. The construction of a "clinical lecture h[2] all-cum-clinical pathology laboratory" in the hospital and the construction of an air-conditioned mortuary for 24 dead bodies were undertaken latter and these buildings were ready by the summer of 1958.

New out-patient block of the Government General Hospital, Kurnool which is the associated teaching hospital was constructed at a cost of Rs 900/-,000 and the inauguration of this and the clinical courses was performed on 28 January 1958 by Sri. D. K. Karmankar, the Health Minister of India. The first batch of second M.B.B.S. students from the batch of 50 students originally admitted to Guntur Medical college in July 1956 now joined this college for their clinical course. The first units in the major subjects of Medicine, Surgery and Midwifery were created in July 1957.

The Kurnool Medical College was first affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University, from January 1957 and permanently affiliated from January 1959.

The NCC unit attached to the college was started in January, 1958. Laboratory technician's courses and laboratory attender's courses were started in October 1959. In the same year, the Government also established at this college, a Regional Laboratory to serve the needs of Raayalaseema districts.

A well-planned Animal House with separate units for different laboratory animals was built and commissioned for use in 1961. A Central Work Shop started functioning from 1964.

The legislators' hostel, which was very close to, the college was given for locating the men's hostel during 1958 and it accommodated 175 students. Further expansion of this hostel was made to accommodate 350 students in all.

The then state guest house was also handed over by the government during 1958, and it is used as women's hostel. Additional accommodation is shown in the hospital premises in improved sheds as sub hostel for women. A new extension at a cost of 2 crores is nearly completed which will provide accommodation to 150 more women students and 56 women postgraduate students. So that it will be possible to accommodate women students at a single place. After the sub hostel for women students was vacated, it was proposed to give it to P.G. Students. Afterwards new P.G. Quarters were constructed with 75 single rooms.

The government of Andhra Pradesh passed orders sanctioning the transfer of government site adjoining the college compound to the Medical college to be used as a playground.

An Assembly-cum-library hall was constructed at a cost of Rs. 1,500,000 in the year 1959. Expansion of the Anatomy Department was taken up and completed. A clinical research block at a cost of Rs 600/-,000 was taken up and completed and commissioned for use. Rural health center for the teaching of social and preventive medicine was opened at Parla village in 1960.

The college provides facilities for the following postgraduate degree/diploma courses. MS (Anatomy), MD (Physiology), MD (Biochemistry), MD (Pharmacology), MD (Microbiology), MD (Pathology), DCP, MD (Forensic Medicine), MD (SPM/Community Medicine), DPH, MS ENT, DLO, MS (Ophthalmology), DO., MD (Geneal Medicine), MS (General Surgery), MD (Gynecology), MD (TBCD), MD (STD), MD (Pediatrics), DCH, MD (Anesthesia), MD (Radiology), DMRD, MS (Orthopedics), and recently the Medical Council of India, New Delhi has inspected this college for recognition and starting of some superspeciality course i.e. DM (Neurology), DM (Gastroenterology), DM (Nephrology), M.Ch (Pediatrics Surgery), M.Ch (Neuro surgery), M.Ch (Plastic surgery), M.Ch (Cardio thoracic surgery), DM (Cardiology), M.Ch (Urology) etc. in this College. During the year 2003, Acute Medical Care (AMC) unit and ICCU unit are started in the Government General Hospital, Kurnool.

During the year 2001-02 and 2002-03 an examination hall of capacity 400 and an examination hall/lecture gallery of capacity 400 members was also constructed in the college for the increased seats. Renovation of the Physiology and Anatomy departments was done. Extra accommodation is also provided to the students in the hostels both for men and women. Construction work for the new mortuary building is also in progress and a new pathology laboratory is also provided.

During December 2006 and January 2007 students and faculty of this college were celebrating their Golden jubilee function. It marked the completion of 50 successful years after establishment. They invited Dr. Abdul Kalam, President of India to this program Permission to setup Rayalaseema University was granted by the University Grants Commission (UGC). G Pulla Reddy College of Engineering & Technology established in 1985 is one of the oldest private engineering colleges in the region.[citation needed] In addition, Kurnool has a dental College, two Polytechnics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University Post Graduate Center, Govt. Pharmacy College,CES College of Pharmacy(CESCOP), degree colleges for men and women, M.B.A. college, M.C.A. colleges, four colleges of Education (B.Ed) and a law college. Government of Andhra Pradesh established the first residential degree college "Silver Jubilee College" in 1972 at Kurnool In addition to 'G Pulla Reddy Engineering College and 'Brindavan Institute of Technology and Science'(BITS),'


Kurnool is considered as the Gateway of Rayalaseema as one must pass through Kurnool to reach Kadapa or Chittor or Anantapur districts while travelling from Hyderabad. Kurnool is connected to most cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh as well as to Bengaluru and Chennai by the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and the Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC). National Highway 7 connects Kurnool to Hyderabad (210 km, 4.5 hours), Anantapur (140 km, three hours), Hindupur {245 km, 5.5 hours} and Bengaluru (360 km. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukona, Guntur, Vijayawada.The National Highway 18 Kurnool-Chittore connects the city to Panyam, Nandyal,Allagadda Allagadda,Ahobilam(nearest to the highway),Mahanandi(nearest to the highway),Maidukuru, Kadapa, Rayachoty and Pileru,Chittore.

Kurnool lies on the Hyderabad – Guntakal/ Gooty railway line. There are also frequent passenger trains to Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Tirupati, Guntur, Jaipur, Madurai, Shirdi and Bengaluru. The four railway stations in Kurnool District are Kurnool Town, Adoni, Nandyala and Dhone junction. Adoni is on the Chennai-Mumbai Railway Line and several trains run daily to these cities and New Delhi. Nandyal is on the Guntakal -Vijayawada Line and has daily trains to Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Bengaluru, Vishakhapatnam and Howrah. Dhone junction is situated on the Gooty -Secunderabad Line as well as the Hubli-Vijayawada Line. All the trains which pass through Nandyal and Kurnool pass through this junction.

The nearest airport is Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, at Hyderabad, three and half hours drive from Kurnool City.



External links

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