Andhra State

Andhra State

1859. Created by the British, Madras was mainly composed of Telugus (North) and Tamils (South).]

Andhra State was a state in India created on October 1 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras Presidency. On November 1 1956 it was merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the united Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh.

Madras Manade movement

In 1953, Telugu speakers of Madras Presidency wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra state including the famous slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours) before Tirupati was included in AP. Madras at that time was an indivisible mixture of Tamil and Telugu cultures. It was difficult to determine who should possess it. Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of the Madras Presidency in the early 1920s said that the Cooum River should be kept as a boundary, giving the northern portion to the Andhras and the southern portion to the Tamils. In 1928, Sir C. Sankaran Nair sent a report to the Central Council discussing why Madras does not belong to the Tamils. Although historically and geographically it is a part of the Andhra region, the greater political dominance of the Tamils in 1953 at both Central and State level politics caused Madras to remain in the Tamil region. According to the JPC report (Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bhogaraju Pattabhi Sitaramayya, C. Rajagopalachari) "Telugu people should leave Madras for Tamils if they want a new state".

Creation of Andhra State

In an effort to protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras state, Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu attempted to force the Madras state government to listen to public demands for the separation of Telugu speaking districts(Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra) from Madras state to form the Andhra state. He went on a lengthy fast, and only stopped when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promised to form Andhra state. However, there was no movement on the issue for a long time. He started fasting again for attaining statehood for Andhra in Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy's house in Madras on 19 October, 1952. It started off without fanfare but steadily caught people's attention despite the disavowal of the fast by the Andhra Congress committee.

The government of the day however did not make a clear statement about the formation of a new state despite several strikes and demonstrations by Telugu people. On the midnight of 15 December (i.e. early 16 December, 1952), Potti Sreeramulu died and laid down his life trying to achieve his objective.

In his death procession, people shouted slogans praising his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined and raised slogans hailing Sriramulu. Later, they went into a frenzy and resorted to destruction of public property. The news spread like wildfire and created an uproar among the people in far off places like Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Eluru, Guntur, Tenali, Ongole and Nellore. Seven people were killed in police firing in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The popular agitation continued for three to four days disrupting normal life in Madras and Andhra regions. On 19 December 1952, the Prime Minister of the country Jawaharlal Nehru made an announcement about formation of a separate state for Telugu speaking people of Madras state.

House no. 126, Royapettah high road, Mylapore, Madras is the address of the house where Potti Sriramulu died and it has been preserved as a monument of importance by the state government of Andhra Pradesh.

On the basis of an agitation, on November 1, 1953, 11 districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State voted to become the new state of Andhra State with Kurnool as the capital. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu became first Chief Minister of thus formed Telugu State. Thus, Andhra State was a state created in India on October 1 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras Presidency. It comprised Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema Regions.

The formation of linguistic states is the single most important event in the history of South Indian languages, as it provided an opportunity for these languages to develop independently, each of them having a state to support.

Telugu Speaking Districts of Madras Presidency

*Coastal Andhra Region
**Srikakulam District
**Vijaya Nagaram District
**Visakhapatnam District
**East Godavari District
**West Godavari District
**Krishna District
**Nellore District
**Prakasam District
**Guntur District
*Rayalaseema Region
**Kurnool District
**Kadapa District
**Anantapur District
**Chittoor District

Merger with Telangana

On November 1 1956 Andhra State was merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad Stateto form a united Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh.

ee also

* Madras Presidency
* Andhra Pradesh

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