Tirumala - Tirupati


Tirumala - Tirupati

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = City
native_name = తిరుపతి Tirupati
type = Major city
locator_position = left
latd = 13.65
longd = 79.42
state_name = Andhra Pradesh
district = Chittoor
leader_title = MLA
leader_name = Venkata Ramana
altitude = 161
population_rank = fourth
population_total = 5,40,000
area_telephone = 0877
postal_codes = 5175xx
vehicle_code_range = AP-03
footnotes =

Tirupati (Telugu: తిరుపతి) is the richest pilgrimage city (of any religious faith) in the world, located in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.

Overview

Tirupati is located at the foothills of Tirumala. The city owes its existence to the sacred temple situated on the Tirumala Hills. Tirumala is the abode of Lord Venkateshwara, one of the Avatars of Lord Vishnu, located atop Seshachala hills often called as "Yaedu Kondalu" (seven hills). The temple of Lord Venkateshwara was build by the Tamil king Thondaimaan, and reform periodically by Cholas and later Telugu Kings. It is the richest and most visited temple (of any faith) in the world. [cite web | url=http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/story.aspx?id=NEWEN20070026005| title=NDTV Report | accessdate=2007-09-13]

Tirupati has been a city for many years though recognised as a major municipal Corporation (MCT) only recently. Although the district headquarters is 60 km from the city, major government establishments and operations take place in Tirupati alone. The Tirupati Urban Development Authority further expanded its horizon to about 400 km² with a total population of about 8 lakhs. Tirupati is a very fast growing city with IT, BPO and Health industries coming. It is a major boom for real estate. Tirupati is also emerging into a major educational, entertainment, tourism and a commercial city. Near the bus stand, stands a statue of the great singer Bharatharatna M.S. Subbulakshmi.

Etymology

The word "Tirupati" means "the Lord of Lakshmi" and the word "Tirumalai" means "Mountain of Highness" in Tamil. Tirumalai is called as Tirumala in Telugu. "Tirumagal" means Lakshmi, "Pathi" means "husband" or "king", and "Malai" means "hill". Another version of etymology goes like this. The word Thiru Venkatachalapathy is formed of few sub-words Thiru Vel Irrukkum Eedum or Thiruvenkadam and Thalapathy. In other words, the place of the lord holding the sacred Vel. Within Vaishnava tradition the temple is considered as one of the 108 most sacred temples throughout India, collectively known as 'Tirupatis'. Since Tirumalai and Tirupathi have been passed from the Tamil-majority Madras State to the majority-Telugu Andhra State, Tirumalai is now officially known as Tirumala.

History

The Tirumala hills are the world's second oldest rock mountains. The Sangam literature of Tamil such as Silapadikaram and Satanar's Manimekalai, dated between 500 BC to 300 AD, mentions Tiruvengadam (now named Tirupati) as the northernmost frontier of the Tamil Kingdoms.

It is believed that it was "Aadi Varaha Kshetra" (the ancient site of Varaha) mentioned in Indian literature dating during the Mauryan and Gupta regimes. Lord Venkateswara is referred in Vedas, Tirupati is considered as Kaliyuga Vaikuntha (Heaven on the earth).

The site was an established center by the 5th century A.D, and the Alvars (Vaishnava saints) belonging to the Bhakti movement in Dravidian land sung in praise of Venketeswara. Its significance in Southern Vaishnava tradition was at the time next only to Srirangam. The temple was richly endowed by the kings of various dynasties thus adding to its current reputation as the richest and most opulent pilgrimage centre in the world. It was supported by Cholas, later by Hoysalas, the Vijayanagaras. Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara led the temple to great popularity by donating gold and other ornaments for the temple and constructing extended shrines. The place of Chandragiri, presently a village near Tirupati, was used as the secondary capital of Vijayanagara kings.

Tirupati survived the Muslim invasions of South India, unlike other temples such as the Meenakshi temple in Madurai and Ranganathaswamy temple in Srirangam. It is believed that during the invasions the deity of Sriranganatha from Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping. To commemorate this event, a hall in Tirupati is still known as the Ranganatha mandapa.

In 1843, with the coming of the East India Company, the administration of the Sri Venkateshwara temple and a number of shrines was entrusted to Seva Dossji of the Hathiramji Mutt at Tirumala as Vicaranakarta for nearly a century until 1933, when the temple was under the administrative charge of the mahants. The Madras legislature passed a special act in 1933 whereby the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam (TTD) committee was invested with powers of administration and control through a commissioner appointed by the Government of Madras. A Ryot Advisory Council was formed for the management of the estates of the TTD, and was assisted by a Religious Advisory Council with regard to religious matters.

New City

The first establishment of the city was done near Kotturu, today's K.T.Road area. Later it was shifted near the temple of Govindaraja Swamy with the temple as the center of the city. It is today's railway station area. Now the city is expanded to nearby areas. Tirupati city now includes Srinivasamangapuram, Tiruchanoor, Renigunta, etc.

Geography

Tirupati is located in southern part of Andhra Pradesh. [ cite web | url=http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/2/Tirupati.html | title=Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Tirupati|publisher=fallinggrain.com | accessdate=2007-04-27] It has an average elevation of 162 metres (531 feet).

The Tirumala hill is 3200 ft above sea level, and is about 10.33 sq miles in area. It comprises seven peaks, representing the seven hoods of Adisesha, thus earning the name, Seshachalam. The seven peaks are called Seshadri, Neeladri, Garudadri, Anjanadri, Vrishabhadri, Narayanadri and Venkatadri.

Climate

In summer, temperatures may go up to 42 to 45 degrees Celsius (107.6 F to 113 F), and in winter the minimum temperatures will be between 10 and 18 degrees Celsius ( 50 F to 64.4 F). Usually summer lasts from March to June, with the advent of rainy season in July, followed by winter which lasts till the end of February.It has an extreme type of climate.Rainy Season remains pleasant.

Economy

Being a pilgrimage centre, the floating population appears to be the main source of economy but is not. Of late, Tirupati is becoming the education hub for the nearby areas because of the presence of educational institutions and universities offering almost all fields of studies at all levels. Trade and industry are burgeoning and business is flourishing. Revenues generated by travel sector is also high.

Government

Tirupati is a municipal corporation in Andhra Pradesh state. It contributes a member in central parliament and a member in state legislature in Indian politics. Chinta Mohan is the current MP and Venkatramana is the MLA from the ruling party Congress (INC). Chandragiri is a suburb accounting to one seat for the state assembly. TUDA (Tirupati Urban Development Authority) was established long back to develop the city. It is involved in the construction of second fly-over in the city and extending all two lane roads to four lane. Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam (TTD) also contributes a maximum of funds for the development of the city. Major roads like the traffic-loaded Tirumala bypass and the rail underpass near the railway station was taken up by TTD along with TUDA.

City Life

The city has many places of attraction. In the evening, Municipal music gardens, also known as Centenary Park is filled with the youth. It has many musical fountains to attract children. The second hot spot in the city is the exhibition grounds near the bus-stand. The Central Park shopping mall and Arcades nearby have huge shops to cater the public with their requirements like jewellery, gifts, clothes, cosmetics, super marts, gadget showrooms and many more. Pasuparthy's Super Market, Sarayu Hyper Mart and TMC on the Tirumala bypass road (Near Krishna Dev Raya Junction Signal) are other shopping malls. A shopping mall has recently been inaugurated at NTR Square near Town Club. The multiplex in T.P area and the group theatres near the bus stand are worth visiting. One can also pay a visit to the famous Hastha-kala-ramam, formerly known as Urban Haat, near STPI on Tiruchanur Express road. The major center of attraction for the children and youth is Grand Water World by near Karakambadi, some 13 km from the city centre. Not to mention about the other places like Mahati auditorium, Annamacharya Kalamandapam which host the culture and traditional aspects of the city. The traffic is moderate to very high in peak hours. Traffic is managed by well maintained traffic signals at every important junction. The roads are wide and good parking facility and lane systems have been provided. You find young guys and girls in modern dresses and elder residents in traditional dress. A walk in the evenings near K.T. road and ISCKON is a pleasant surprise for you. Shopping and commercial localities on Prakasham Road, Big Bazaar, Chinna Bazaar Street, T.K Street, Kola Street, M.G Road, G. Car Street, Tilak Road, V.V Mahal Road, K.T Road and also Tirumala Bypass Road and Tiruchanur Express Road, a few parts of Maruthi Nagar in Tirupati-West. The Reliance have started a big hypermarket "Reliance Mart" which is the third Reliance Hypermarket in India and the first Reliance Hypermarket in South India.

V Zoological Park and Science Center

Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park is the second of its kind in the Andhra Pradesh. It has many species of animals and plants which are being conserved. Regional Science Center, must visit for school children, is also present nearby which is very famous in Andhra Pradesh. It also has a planitorium which grabs huge amounts of crowd. It takes minimum of a day to see it. Nearly 10 to 15 tigers are present in this zoo. There is a proposed pharma university and medical college at renigunta in an area of 165 acres. An IT SEZ is also coming up in Renigunta in 147 acres. Surappakasam township is also coming which is in between Tiruchanoor and Renigunta. Another multiplex and a recreational centre with a Five star hotel are coming on the 150 Ft. Byepass road.

Transportation

Road

Tirupati has the third largest bus station in Andhra Pradesh. It has nearly 50 platforms. Tirupati has another bus station near Alipiri. For every 2 minutes, there is a bus facility from Tirupati to Tirumala. Tirupati has bus facilities connecting almost each and every important city and town. Tirupati has good infrastructure. The by-pass laid by NTR is a six lane road covering most of the parts in the city. Tirupati is criss-crossed by National Highways. For every 3-4 km, traffic signals are present to control the traffic. Many non air-conditioned and air-conditioned buses are operated by the government-run APSRTC and other private operators connecting Tirupati to other major cities and towns directly.

Rail

Tirupati East railway station has 10 platforms. The station is currently undergoing moderanisation with the construction of 3 escalators. There is another major junction in Tirupati (Renigunta).Tirupati West railway station and Chandragiri stations are also present which have to be developed. There are many trains travelling across the country with Tirupati as the starting point. Tirupati is connected to all the cities in the country with railways. Tirupati railway station is the fourth in India to be recognised as a "World class" with Mumbai, Delhi, Secunderabad in the first three places.

Air

Renigunta Airport is the third airport established in the state. It operates national airlines between Tirupati and Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Delhi and Visakhapatnam. Air India operates flights from Hyderabad and Delhi, while Deccan operates flights from Vishakapatnam(Vizag), Hyderabad and Bengaluru. The airport is located 15 km from the city center. Paramount Airways is planning to launch its service soon. Other services are roping up to join the big league too. The airport is huge and to international standards. The runway is being extended by 1 km and the night landing facility has been installed recently.

Demographics

Tirupati has a population of 540,000 (8 lakhs plus agglomeration - TUDA region). Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Tirupati has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 72%. In Tirupati, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. The local language is Telugu while Tamil and English are widely understood. Tirupati has been upgraded to a Municipal corporation.

Culture

Tirupati is a landmark in the culture and traditions for Hindus. The residents and visitors can be seen in both traditional attire like pancha, lungi and chira and modern attire. Practices of tonsure and using tilaka are commonly seen. Songs and prayers of Lord Venkateswara like Annamacharya kirtanas can be heard all over the city. Every year, "Telugu Bhasha Bramhostavams" are conducted here to delevop the usage of Telugu language.

Festivals

The town celebrates most Vaishnava festivals including Vaikunta Ekadasi, Rama Navami and Janmashtami with great splendor, while the Brahmotsavam celebrated every year during September is the most important festival in Tirumala when it receives millions of devotees over a short span of a week. Rathasapthami (Magha Shuddha Saptami) is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's idol is taken in a procession around the temple chariots. [cite web
url=http://www.geocities.com/suman_malepati/rathasaptami.html
title=Rathasapthami photos
]

Another local festival Gangamma Jathra is also celebrated as a major festival. The Goddess Gangamma is offered animal sacrifices and also pongal and other offerings by the devotees. She is considered as the sister of The Lord Almighty, Govinda.

Religious Attractions

There are many temples in Tirupati and Tirumala. Some of them are:
* Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu as 'Venkateswara' (or Srinivasa) and attracts followers from a wide range of Hindu traditions.
*Alamelu Mangamma Shrine in Alamelumangapuram also called Thiruchanoor
*Padmavati Temple
*Govindaraja Swamy Temple
*Kodanda Rama Swamy Temple: The temple is so beautiful in architecture. Lord Rama, Seetha and Lakshmana are present in a beautiful form in the temple. Lord Anjaneya Swamy is seen near the foot of Lord Rama. The temple is in the heart of the city. There is also another temple dedicated to Lord Anjaneya Swamy opposite to Kodhanda Rama Swamy Temple. Prasadams are offered daily to pilgrims.
*Srinivasa Mangapuram
*Kapila Theertham (Lord Shiva shrine, the only Shiva shrine in Tirupati): This temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and Parvati. There is a beautiful waterfall near the temple.
*ISKCON Lord Krishna Temple - The temple has its own style of architecture with the towers coloured in gold and white. The carvings of Lord Narasimha Swamy, Lord Varaha Swamy and Krishna Leela are marvelous. Glass painting works on the windows depicting Lord Krishna's playful acts and the ceilings decorated like Tanjore art reveals the colourful masterpiece in art work. Each pillar is decorated with ten "avatars" of Lord Vishnu. The temple inside the sanctum has Lord Krishna with beautifully dressed Gopikas. There is a beautiful park surrounded with lot of flowers, ponds, fountains and with Krishna Leela idols. The temple is on the way to Tirumala Hills.
*Temple of Lord Shiva at Yogimallavaram, near to Tirupati is very old and is very famous.
*Hanuman temple at Tirumala is where Hanuman's mother Anjana did penance.
*Other small waterfalls and sight seeing is present.
*Museum at Tirumala is one of the tourist attractions.
*Avanakshamma temple - 42 km from Tirupati
*Sri Venugopala Swamy Temple, Karvetinagaram, 40 km from Tirupati
*Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy Temple - Narayanavanam, 48 km from Tirupati
*Sri Prasanna Venkateswara Swamy Temple - Appalayagunta, 20 km from Tirupati

There is also another small temple for Lord Vishnu. The place is on the foothills of Tirumala. Giant Nandikeshwara statue is seen at the entrance of the temple. There is a rock garden in Tirumala called as Shilatoranam.

Healthcare centers and Hospitals

SVRR government general hospital (known as Ruiya hospital) with attached SV medical college is one of the well known hospitals besides SVIMS, a super speciality Center with modern facilities and S.V.Ayurveda college hospital run by TTD to providing health services to the poor and needy patients even at free of costFact|date=March 2007, BIRRD an orthopedic center catering for physically handicapped where surgeries are done free of cost treating polio, cerebral palsy and many other congenital anamolies. Numerous small to mid-sized hospitals exist in private sector, in addition to RUSSH Hospitals pvt limited which is the second largest Privately owned hospital in Tirupati. SVRR government hospital has minimal infrastructure and lacks an institution policy.

Education

Tirupati is not only a pilgrimage center but an educational hub. It is home to several universities, including

* Sri Venkateswara University
* Sri Padmavati Mahila Viswavidyalayam (SPMVV) (one among two women universities in India)
* Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth
* Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth - Directorate of Distance Education
* Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences
* Sri Venkateswara Vedic University
* Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU)

Apart from these universities, it has state government sponsored medical, agricultural colleges and also an engineering college. It has nearly 50 UG & PG (MBA, MCA) degree colleges.

Also present is a state-of-art Dental college and Research Center, providing free dental health care to the people of Tirupati and surrounding villages. This institute also provides PG programme in 4 different dental branches.

Around 5 engineering Colleges exist in and around Tirupathi.
* Chadalawada Ramanamma Engg College
* Sree Vidyaniketan Engineering College

Entertainment

There are nearly 25 cinema halls present in the city. Many of them are A-class theaters. There is a multiplex cine hall present in the city and another one is being constructed near RC Road. The group theater complex present in the city grabs the highest collections for the Telugu films.

Hotels

Bans The Hotel (3 Star Hotel) with Accommodation,Dining & Water Park. website:www.basnc.in

Assembly Constituency

Tirupati is an assembly constituency in Andhra Pradesh.

* 1955 - R. Nadamunireddy (Indian National Congress)
* 1962 - R. Nadamunireddy (Indian National Congress)
* 1967 - A. Eswar Reddy (Independent)
* 1972 - V. Sikamani (Indian National Congress)
* 1978 - A. Eswar Reddy (Indian National Congress I)
* 1983 - N. T. Rama Rao (Telugu Desam Party)
* 1983 - K. Symala (Telugu Desam Party)
* 1985 - M. Ramireddy (Indian National Congress)
* 1989 - M. Ramireddy (Indian National Congress)
* 1994 - A. Mohan (Telugu Desam Party)
* 1999 - Chadalavada Krishna Murthy (Telugu Desam Party)
* 2004 - M. Venkata Ramana (Indian National Congress)

Parliamentary Constituency

List of Elected Members: [ [http://www.eci.gov.in/electionanalysis/GE/PartyCompWinner/S01/partycomp20.htm Election Commission of India.APAssembly results.1977-2004] ]
* 1977 - Balakrishnaiah Tambura (Indian National Congress)
* 1980 - Pasala Penchalaiah (Indian National Congress I)
* 1984 - Chinta Mohan (Telugu Desam Party)
* 1989 - Chinta Mohan (Indian National Congress)
* 1991 - Chinta Mohan (Indian National Congress)
* 1996 - Nelavala Subrahmanyam (Indian National Congress)
* 1998 - Chinta Mohan (Indian National Congress)
* 1999 - DR. N. VENKATA SWAMY (BJP)
* 2004 - Chinta Mohan (Indian National Congress)

Media

The main Telugu newspapers like the Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Bhoomi and Saakshi are major sources of daily news. English newspapers The Hindu, Deccan Chronicle, Indian Express are also available in Tirumala - Tirupati. State-wide Telugu cable TV channels include ETV, Maa TV, Gemini TV, Teja TV, and the local city cable.

ports

Cricket is the most watched and played sport in Tirupati. Fact|date=October 2007 Tennis, Volley Ball, and Badminton are played in colleges.

Darshan booking

The TTD has changed the "Sudarshan Booking" counters from Tirumala to Tirupati. If you have not booked the tickets (Rs.50/-paid or free) for Darshan from your city outside Tirupati, now the Sudarshan tickets can only be booked from Tirupati near railway station, bus stand also at Srinivasa Complex.

Also there is e-darshan booking facility available at Hyderabad and well known towns of AP like Guntur, Warangal etc. where we can make the way of darshan of Balaji easier.

ee also

* Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams
* Srikalahasti
* Chandragiri
* Kanipakam
* Tiruchanur

References

External links

* [http://www.bharathtalk.com/forums/temples/tirumala-tirupati-devasthanams-unseen-photos.html Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams - Unseen Photos]
*
*
* [http://www.gloriousindia.com/places/temples/tirupati.html Tirupati at GloriousIndia]
* [http://www.tirupati.ws Tirupati city and Tirumala online guide and community resources]


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