Governor-General


Governor-General

The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. A governor general is a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=governor+general "Governor General" definition on dictionary.com] (retrieved February 14, 2006)]

Current uses

Today, the title governor general is used in the independent Commonwealth realms (those Commonwealth countries which share the British monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, as head of state), with the exception of the United Kingdom, which does not have a Governor-General, being the Sovereign's home realm.

In modern usage, the term "governor general" originated in those British colonies which became self-governing Dominions within the British Empire (examples are Australia, Canada and New Zealand). With the exception of New Zealand, each of the previously constituent colonies of these federated colonies already had a Governor, and the Crown's representative to the federated Dominion was therefore given the superior title of Governor-General. New Zealand was granted Dominion status in 1907, but as it had never been a federal state there was no pressing need to change the gubernatorial title. It was not until 28 June 1917 that Earl of Liverpool was appointed the first Governor-"General" of New Zealand. Another non-federal state, Newfoundland, was a Dominion for 16 years with the Kings's representative retaining the title of Governor throughout this time.

Since the 1950s, the title governor general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered (sometimes for the same incumbent) to become governor general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an entirely independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor general acts as the Monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a Head of State.

The only other nation which uses the governor general designation is the Islamic Republic of Iran, which of course has no connection with either the British (or any other) monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor generalcite web| url=http://www2.irna.com/en/news/view/line-203/0710215516003338.htm| title="Paris for further cultural cooperation with Iran"| first=Online Edition| last=IRNA| accessdate=2007-10-21] (Persian: استاندار "ostāndār"), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior.

British colonialism and the governor general

Until the 1920s, Governors-General were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British Government, who acted as agents of the British Government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch. As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, and also held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The Governor-General could be instructed by the Colonial Secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; history shows many examples of Governors-General using their prerogative and executive powers. The monarch (in fact the government) could overrule any Governor-General, though this could often be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London.

The Governor-General was also the head of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the Governor-General's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one. Indeed, until the late 20th century, the Governor-General's official attire was the court dress, Windsor uniform or other military uniform.

In some colonies, the title of the royal representative was never Governor-General. The King's representative in New Zealand, for instance, was simply titled Governor (earlier even Lieutenant-Governor, as in Canadian provinces, still lower in rank) until after the country became a Dominion.

Modern Commonwealth

Independent Commonwealth realms

Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the Governor-General began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions. As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to said country's national affairs (as opposed to a single British monarch ruling all the Dominions as a conglomerate and advised only by an imperial parliament), so too did the Governor-General become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.

In other words, the political reality of a self governing dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign of Great Britain became clear. British interference in the dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was clearly displayed. Canada, Australia and New Zealand were clearly not controlled by the United Kingdom. The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. The monarch appoints a governor-general as a personal representative only on the advice of the Prime Minister of the realm. The Governor-General of Canada is appointed by the Queen of Canada on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. The Governor-General of Australia is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Australian Prime Minister and the Governor-General of New Zealand is appointed by the Queen of New Zealand on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister. There is no legal relationship between any realm that acknowledges Elizabeth II as their monarch. They are all completely independent from one another.

Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the Governor-General is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state, and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. The Governor-General, however, is still appointed by the monarch, and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is also vested in the monarch, though it can be placed with the Governor-General on behalf of the sovereign of the independent realm. Letters of Credence or Letters of Recall are now sometimes received or issued in the name of the monarch, though in some countries, such as Canada and Australia, the Letters of Credence and Recall are issued in the name of the Governor-General alone.

At diplomatic functions where the Governor-General is present, the visiting diplomat or head of state toasts "The King" or "The Queen" of the relevant realm, not the Governor-General, with any reference to the Governor-General being subsidiary in later toasts if featuring at all, and will involve a toast to them by name, not office. (E.g., "Mr. and Mrs. Smith," not "Her Excellency, the Governor-General." Sometimes a toast might be made using name and office, e.g., "Governor-General Smith.")

Except in rare cases, the Governor-General only acts in accordance with constitutional convention and upon the advice of the national Prime Minister. [In particular, see the history of the Governor-General of Australia] The Governor-General is still the local representative of the sovereign, and performs the same duties as they carried out historically, though their role is almost purely ceremonial. Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General Lord Byng refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King's request for a dissolution of parliament; and in 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam. [ [http://whitlamdismissal.com/documents/letter-from-queen.shtml Letter from the Queen's Private Secretary to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia of 17 November 1975] , at "The Whitlam Dismissal", retrieved February 15, 2006.] In principle, the Crown could overrule a Governor-General, but this has not happened in modern times.

The term "de facto head of state", though having no constitutional status, has been used informally in Commonwealth realms to describe the role of a governor-general.

The Governor-General is usually a person with a distinguished record of public service, often a retired politician, judge or military commander; but some countries have also appointed prominent sporting figures, academics, members of the clergy, philanthropists, or figures from the news media to the office. The Governor-General is formally appointed by the Monarch, following the specific request of the Prime Minister of the country concerned; Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands are the only realms that elect their Governors-General, in both cases by a parliamentary vote.

Traditionally, the Governor-General's official attire was military uniform, but this practice been abandoned except on occasions when it is appropriate to be worn. In South Africa, the Governors-General of the Union nominated by the Afrikaner Nationalist government chose not to wear uniform on any occasion. Most Governors-General continue to wear appropriate medals on their clothing when required.

The Governor-General's official residence is usually called Government House. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State resided in the then Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera sought to downgrade the office, and the last Governor-General, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there. The office was abolished there in 1936.

In most Commonwealth realms, the flag of the Governor-General has been the standard pattern of a blue field with the Royal Crest (a lion standing on a crown) above a scroll with the name of the jurisdiction. In Canada, however, this was replaced with a crowned lion clasping a maple leaf. In the Solomon Islands, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji, the former Governor-General's flag featured a whale's tooth.

Governors-General are accorded the style of "His/Her Excellency". This style is also extended to their spouses, whether female or male (for an example of the latter, see Jean-Daniel Lafond).

In former colonies which are now Commonwealth republics, the Governor-General and Monarch have been replaced by an elected or appointed (sometimes non-executive) Head of State.

Appointment

Until the 1920s, the Governors-General were British, and appointed on the advice of the British Government.

Following the changes to the structure of the Commonwealth in the late 1920s, in 1929, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin established the right of a Dominion Prime Minister to advise the Monarch directly on the appointment of a Governor-General, by insisting that his choice (Sir Isaac Isaacs, an Australian) prevail over the recommendation of the British Government. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the Governor-General would be a citizen of the country concerned, and would be appointed on the advice of the government of that country, with no input from the British Government. Since 1931 as each former Dominion has patriated its constitution from the UK, the convention has become law—no government of any realm can advise the Monarch on any matter pertaining to another realm, including the appointment of a Governor-General; today a country's Governor-General is appointed by the Sovereign based solely on the advice of the prime minister of the country concerned.

Commonwealth countries with governors general

"Clicking on the country above will take you the relevant Governor-General article."

Other attributes

Different realms have different constitutional arrangements governing who acts in place of the Governor-General in the event of his or her death, resignation, or incapacity.

*In Australia, the senior state governor is usually delegated as "Administrator of the Commonwealth" to perform the necessary official functions, pending a decision by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia about a permanent replacement as Governor-General. The Administrator has usually been the senior Governor of the Australian states. Each state governor holds what is known as a dormant commission.

*In Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand, it is the Chief Justice.

*In Papua New Guinea, it is the Speaker of the House.

*Many Caribbean countries have a specific office of "Deputy Governor-General".

Former British colonies

The title has been used in many British colonial entities that either no longer exist or are now independent countries.

In the Americas

*The Federation of the West Indies (Antigua, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Turks and Caicos Islands), less commonly referred to as the British Caribbean Federation, had a single governor-general during its short existence, 3 January 195831 May 1962: Governor-General Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes (b. 1901–d. 1974).

In Asia

*British India (the present India, Pakistan and Bangladesh and till 1937 Burma, the present Myanmar)—see also Viceroy
**Governor-General of India
*The Dominon of Ceylon (present Sri Lanka) (1948-1972)
**The Governor-General of Ceylon

In Africa

*1 August 195331 December 1963 The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland also called the Central African Federation) comprising Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) and Nyasaland (now Malawi).
* Sudan as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1899 and 1 January 1956.
*Nigeria until independence on 1 October 1960.

Former Commonwealth realms

Most Commonwealth countries that are now republics, with the President as head of state, were originally Commonwealth realms, with Governors-General. Some became parliamentary republics, like India, where the presidency is a ceremonial post, similar that of the British monarch, while others, like Ghana, adopted a presidential system like the United States. Australia held a referendum on becoming a parliamentary republic in 1999, but this was rejected.

The current governments of Barbados and Jamaica while having announced plans to hold referendums on becoming republics (in each case with a non-executive President replacing the Queen as head of state, as occurred in Trinidad and Tobago in 1976), have not proceeded any further. There can be no way of knowing whether the necessary referendums to enable appropriate changes would be approved by voters. In Australia, a referendum to change the country into a republic was soundly defeated in 1999.

In Africa

* Gambia, two incumbents:
**18 February 19659 February 1966 Sir John Warburton Paul (b. 1916–d. 2004), formerly the last colonial Governor
**9 February 196624 April 1970 Sir Farimang Mamadi Singateh (b. 1912); the country became a republic with Dawda Jawara, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
* Ghana:
**6 March 195724 June 1957 Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke (b. 1898–d. 1962), formerly the last colonial Governor
**24 June 19571 July 1960 William Francis Hare, Earl of Listowel (b. 1906–d. 1997); the country became the first in Africa to become a republic within the Commonwealth, with Kwame Nkrumah, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
* Kenya: 12 December 196312 December 1964 Malcolm John MacDonald (b. 1901–d. 1981), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Jomo Kenyatta, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
*Malawi: 6 July 19646 July 1966 Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones (b. 1908–d. 1992), formerly the last colonial Governor (until 1963 of "Nyasaland") the country became a republic with Kamuzu Banda, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
* Mauritius: Sir John Shaw Rennie (12 March3 September 1968) formerly the last colonial Governor. The country became a republic on 12 March 1992 with the last Governor General Veerasamy Ringadoo as the first ceremonial President.
*Nigeria:
**1 October 196016 November 1960 Sir James Wilson Robertson (b. 1899–d. 1983) Non-party (previously colonial Governor-General)
**16 November 19601 October 1963 Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (b. 1904–d. 1996) NCNC; became first ceremonial President of the Federal Republic
* Sierra Leone "(See also Governor-General of Sierra Leone):"
**27 April 196127 April 1962 Sir Maurice Henry Dorman (b. 1902–d. 1993), formerly the last colonial Governor
**27 April 1962–April 1967 Sir Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston (b. 1898–d. 1969) (acting to 27 July 1962)
**April 1967–18 April 1968 Andrew Terence Juxon-Smith (acting) (b. 1933–d. 1996)
**18 April 196822 April 1968 John Amadu Bangura (acting) (b. 1930–d. 1971)
**22 April 196831 March 1971 Banja Tejan-Sie (from 1970, Sir Banja Tejan-Sie) (b. 1917–d. 2000)
**31 March 197119 April 1971 Christopher Cole (acting) (b. 1921–d. after 1990); briefly first President, before being succeeded by Prime Minister Siaka Stevens, who became executive President.
* South Africa from 31 May 1910 when Cape, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal united as a dominion (Union of South Africa) until the 31 May 1961 declaration of the Republic of South Africa. The last Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, Charles Robberts Swart, became the first State President of South Africa.
*Tanganyika (now Tanzania): 9 December 19619 December 1962 Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull (b. 1909–d. 1998), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Julius Nyerere, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
*Uganda: 9 October 19629 October 1963 Sir Walter Fleming Coutts (b. 1912–d. 1988), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Frederick Mutesa, Kabaka of Buganda, as ceremonial President.

* In Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), a unique situation arose following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, unrecognised by the United Kingdom. The Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith recognised Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia", but refused to recognise the authority of her Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, whose duties were performed by an Officer Administering the Government, Clifford Dupont (b. 1905–d. 1978). Dupont served in the post until 2 March 1970, when Rhodesia was declared a republic (an act also unrecognised internationally) and he became President. The country became an independent republic within the Commonwealth as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980.

Zambia and the Seychelles became republics within the Commonwealth on independence.

In the Americas

*Guyana:
**26 May 196616 December 1966 Sir Richard Edmonds Luyt (b. 1915–d. 1994), formerly the last colonial Governor
**16 December 196610 November 1969 Sir David James Gardiner Rose (b. 1923–d. 1969)
**10 November 196922 February 1970 Sir Edward Victor Luckhoo (acting) (b. 1912–d. 1998); succeeded by the first President
*Trinidad and Tobago:
**31 August 196215 September 1972 Sir Solomon Hochoy (b. 1905–d. 1983), formerly the last colonial Governor
**15 September 19721 August 1976 Sir Ellis Clarke (b. 1917)

Dominica became a republic on independence in 1978, with a ceremonial President as head of state.

In Asia

*India
**15 August 194721 June 1948 Louis Francis Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten of Burma (s.a.), formerly the last colonial Viceroy
**21 June 194826 January 1950 Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (b. 1878–d. 1972); became the first republic within the Commonwealth
*Pakistan
**15 August 194711 September 1948 Mohammad Ali Jinnah (b. 1876–d. 1948) ML
**14 September 194817 October 1951 Khwaja Nazimuddin (b. 1894–d. 1964) ML
**17 October 19516 October 1955 Ghulam Mohammad (b. 1895–d. 1956) ML
**6 October 195523 March 1956 Sikandar Ali Mirza (b. 1899–d. 1969) Mil; since then a republic
*Ceylon (now Sri Lanka):
**4 February 19486 July 1949 Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore (b. 1887–d. 1964), previously the last colonial Governor)
**6 July 194917 July 1954 Herwald Ramsbotham, Baron Soulbury (b. 1887–d. 1971)
**17 July 19542 March 1962 Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke (b. 1892–d. 1978)
**2 March 196222 May 1972 William Gopallawa (b. 1897–d. 1981)); became the first President of the republic of Sri Lanka

In Europe

*Ireland Governor-General of the Irish Free State dominion 6 December 1922 until 29 December 1937.
*Malta:
**21 September 19644 July 1971 Sir Maurice Henry Dorman (b. 1902–d. 1993), formerly the last colonial Governor
**4 July 197113 December 1974 Sir Anthony Joseph Mamo (b. 1909-d. 2008); became first President of Malta

Cyprus became a republic on independence.

In Oceania

*Fiji:
**10 October 197013 January 1973 Sir Robert Sidney Foster (b. 1913–d. 2005), formerly the last colonial Governor
**13 January 197312 February 1983 Ratu Sir George Cakobau (b. 1912–d. 1989)
**12 February 19836 October 1987 Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau (b. 1918–d. 1993); it became a republic under a President on 5 December 1987

Other colonial and similar usages

Belgian

* Belgian Congo;
* Ruanda-Urundi

French

The equivalent word in French is "gouverneur général", used in the following colonies:
* From 1887 to 1945 the French appointed a Governor-General to govern French Indo-China (now Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia); the function of High commissioner in the Pacific Ocean, from 22 March 1907 held by the Governors of New Caledonia, was used to coordinate that colony, the other French Settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina and the Resident commissioners of the New Hebrides and the Residents of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him.
* From 1699–1947, the French appointed a Governor-General to administer French India (including Pondichéry).
*Governors-general of the Mascarene Islands (under control of the chartered Compagnie des Indes to 14 July 1767) from 4 June 1735 (succeeding to governors), and after its split-up of Mauritius (Réunion and the Seychelles got lower-styled Commandants or Governors) , till 25 September 1803
* Haiti January 1714 - 31 December 1803; last incumbent Jean-Jacques Dessalines shortly maintained the title after the January I, 1804 independence before proclaiming himself 'emperor' Jacques I
* Since its creation on 16 June 1895 in French West Africa (AOF), until 4 April 1957; the last stayed on as first of two High commissioners
* Madagascar
* From 28 June 1908 (previously it had a Commissaire général, i.e. Commissioner general) to 4 April 1957 (the last stayed on as first of three High commissioners) in French Equatorial Africa (AEF); during several periods he also acted as Governor of the constitutive colony Congo Brazzaville.

Furthermore, in Napoleonic Europe successive French Governors-general were appointed by Napoleon I in:
* the German states of Brandenburg (various other got 'mere' Governors), two incumbents during the 27 October 1806 - 10 December 1808 French occupation
* Province of Courland under the French occupation (from 1 August 1812, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and District of Pilten nominally re-established under joint French-Saxon protectorate 8 October 1812 - 20 December 1812) : Jacques David Martin, baron de Campredon (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
* Parma and Piacenza under occupation, (after a Commissioner) 15 February 1804 - 23 July 1808, later annexed as "département" under a Prefect of Taro
* principality of Piombino May 1806 - 1811 : Adolphe Beauvais (d. 1811)
* annexed Tuscany, two incumbents, over prefects for Arno, Méditerranée [Mediterranean] and Ombrone:
** May 1808 - 3 March 1809 Jacques François de Boussay, baron de Menou (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
** 3 March 1809 - 1 February 1814 Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany) (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
* the Illyrian provinces (comprising present Croatia, Slovenia and even adjacent parts of Austria and Italy), annexed as part of the French Empire proper, 14 October 1809 - August 1813

Netherlands

From 1691 to 1948 the Dutch appointed a Gouverneur-generaal ("Governor-General") to govern the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia.

While in the Caribbean, various other titles were used, Curaçao had three Governors-General between 1816 and 1820:
*1816–1819 Albert Kikkert
*1819–1820 Petrus Bernardus van Starkenborgh
*1820 Isaäk Johannes Rammelman Elsevier

panish

* From 21 November 1564 the Spanish colony "Islas Filipinas" had a Governor-general, subordinated to the Viceroy of New Spain in Mexico until the latter's independence in 1821. Thereafter, the Governor-general reported directly to Spain.

Portuguese

The equivalent word in Portuguese is "Governador-Geral", but this style was only used in a few major colonies, other colonies lower titles, mainly "Governador" (Governor) or Captain-major, prevailed
*In the overseas province of Portuguese India ("Estado da Índia", capital Goa) the style was changed repeatedly for another, mostly Viceroy, or a commission
*In Brazil, after a few Governors, from 1578 till its promotion on 13 Jul 1714 to Viceroyalty
*in Africa, from 1837 Portugal appointed a Governor-general to govern the colony of Portuguese West Africa (later Angola), and another in Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa); both offices were restyled in full High Commissioner and Governor-general in 1921, and both existed until their 1975 decolonisation.

U.S.

* From 1905 to 1935 the Philippines (since 13 August 1898 a U.S territory; first under three Military and two ordinary Governors) was administered by a series of Governors General appointed by the United States.

Other Western usages

* Governor-General in the Swedish Realm
* From 1636 to 1815, the Governors-General of Sweden typically were appointed for the Swedish Dominions on the eastern side of the Baltic and in northern Germany, but occasionally also for Scania.
* From 1809 to 1918 there were Russian Governor-General of Finland in the Grand Duchy of Finland; Governor-Generals of Poland in Congress Poland and in various other Governorates-General.
* From 1939 to 1944, during the German occupation of Poland, part of the country was designated the General Government and the Nazi official Hans Frank had the title Governor-General ("Generalgouverneur für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete").
* the kingdom of Saxony had a Governor general twice, under Allied control after French emperor Napoleon I's defeat:
**28 October 1813 - 8 November 1814 Prince Nikolay Grigorievich Repnin-Volkonsky (Russia) (b. 1778 - d. 1845)
**8 November 1814 - 8 June 1815 Eberhard Friedrich Christoph Ludwig, Freiherr von der Recke (Prussia) (b. 1744 - d. 1826)
* during the occupation of Serbia by Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, the former (Habsburg empire) appointed three consecutive governors-general:
**1 January 1916 - July 1916 Johan Ulrich Graf von Salis-Seewis (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
**July 1916 - October 1918 Adolf Freiherr von Rhemen zu Barensfeld (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
**October 1918 - 1 November 1918 Herman Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza (b. 1854 - d. 1924; a former military commander in northern Serbia)

Asian counterparts

* From 1644 to 1911, in Qing Dynasty China, a "Governor General" or "zongdu" (Chinese: 总督) was the highest official of joint military and civil affairs in one or several provinces (alternately translated as Viceroy)
* Imperial Japan:
**From 1895 to 1945, Taiwan was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan.
** From 1910 to 1945, Korea was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Korea.
* Islamic Republic of Iran
**The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-Generalcite web| url=http://www2.irna.com/en/news/view/line-203/0710215516003338.htm| title="Paris for further cultural cooperation with Iran"| first=Online Edition| last=IRNA| accessdate=2007-10-21] (Persian: استاندار "ostāndār").

Note

In Canada the title "Governor General" is always used unhyphenated. In Australia and New Zealand, the term is always hyphenated. [ [http://www.gg.gov.au Governor General of Australia ~ Welcome Message - Main Home Page ] ] [ www.gov-gen.govt.nz]

See also

*Administrator of the Government
*Governor-in-chief
*Governor
*Lieutenant-Governor
*High Commissioner
*Governor-General of the Philippines
*Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles; territories of the Dutch Monarchy
*Guberniya; an administrative sub-division of Imperial Russia headed by the equivalent of a governor-general
*Each current Commonwealth realm's Governor-General has his/her own article:
**List of Governors-General of Antigua and Barbuda
**Governor-General of Australia
**List of Governors-General of the Bahamas
**List of Governors-General of Barbados
**List of Governors-General of Belize
**Governor General of Canada
**List of Governors-General of Grenada
**List of Governors-General of Jamaica
**Governor-General of New Zealand
**Governor-General of Papua New Guinea
**List of Governors-General of Saint Lucia
**List of Governors-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
**List of Governors-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis
**Governor-General of the Solomon Islands
**Governor-General of Tuvalu
*Some defunct political entities: Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Governor-General of the Federation of the West Indies, Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Governor-General of French Indochina
*Some former Commonwealth realms in the Americas Governor-General of Guyana, Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago
*Some former Commonwealth realms in Africa: Governor-General of Nigeria, Governor-General of Sierra Leone, Governor-General of Tanzania, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, Governor-General of Uganda, Governor-General of Gambia, Governor-General of Kenya, Governor-General of Ghana, Governor-General of Malawi
*Some former Commonwealth realms in Asia Governor-General of India, Governor-General of Pakistan, Governor-General of Sri Lanka
* Some former Commonwealth realms in Europe Governor-General of Malta
*Some former Commonwealth realms in Oceania Governor-General of Fiji

ources and references

(incomplete)
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/COLONIES.html#British WorldStatesmen]


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