Guberniya ( _ru. губе́рния, IPA-ru|guˈbʲɛrnʲɪjə) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of
Imperial Russia, usually translated as "government", " governorate", or " province". A guberniya was ruled by a governoror ( _ru. губернатор, "gubernator"), a word borrowed from Latin "gubernator", in turn from Greek "kybernates". Sometimes the term "guberniya" was informally used to refer to the office of a governor.
This subdivision type was created by the edict (
ukase) of Peter the Great on December 18, 1708, which divided Russia into eight guberniyas. In 1719, guberniyas were further subdivided into "provinces" (провинции). Later the number of guberniyas was increased to 23.
By the reform of 1775, subdivision into guberniyas and further into "
uyezds" (уезды) was based on the amount of population, and the term "guberniya" was replaced by the synonym of Russian origin: namestnichestvo ( _ru. наместничество), sometimes translated as "viceroyalty". The term "guberniya", however, still remained in use. These viceroyalties were governed by " namestniks" (наместник) (literal translation: "deputy") or Governors General (генерал-губернатор). Correspondingly, the term Governorate General (генерал-губернаторство) was in use to refer to the actual territory being governed . The office of Governor General had more administrative power and was in a higher position than the previous office of Governor. Sometimes a Governor General ruled several guberniyas.
By the ukase of Russian
Senateby December 31, 1796, the office of Governorate General was demoted to the previous level of Governorate, and Russia was again divided into guberniyas, which were subdivided in "uyezds", further subdivided into " volosts" (волость), nevertheless several Governorates General made from several guberniyas existed until 1917.
The latter subdivision existed until after the
Russian Revolution of 1917.
For the guberniya (Polish "gubernia") as a subdivision of the Congress Kingdom of Poland ("Russian Poland"), see
Administrative division of Congress Poland.
February Revolution, the Russian Provisional Governmentrenamed governors into "guberniya commissars". The October Revolutionleft the subdivision in place, but the governing apparatus was replaced by "guberniya soviets" (губернский совет).
Actual subdivisions of the
Soviet Unioninto particular territorial units was subject to numerous changes, especially during the 1918–1929 period. Eventually, in 1929, the subdivision was replaced by the notions of oblast, okrug, and raion.
In modern Russia, although the term "Guberniya" is obsolete, the word "gubernator" is used when referring to a governor of an
oblastor a krai.
History of the administrative division of Russia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Gubérniya — … Wikipedia Español
guberniya — /gooh ber nee euh/; Russ. /gooh byerdd nyi yeuh/, n. 1. (in the Soviet Union) an administrative division of the volosts, smaller than a district. 2. (in Russia before 1917) an administrative division equivalent to the province. [ < Russ gubérniya … Universalium
Guberniya — Goubernia Goubernia, ou gouvernement (en russe : губерния), est une entité territoriale de la Russie impériale. Le chef de la goubernia  fut un gouverneur (en russe : губернатор, goubernator). Cette subdivision fut créée par l oukaze … Wikipédia en Français
guberniya — gu·ber·ni·ya … English syllables
guberniya — … Useful english dictionary
Pale of Settlement — Map showing the Pale of Settlement and Congress Poland with the percentages of Jewish population (circa 1905). The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости, chertá osédlosti, Yiddish … Wikipedia
Zona de Asentamiento — La Zona de Residencia (En ruso Черта оседлости, cherta osedlosti) fue la región fronteriza occidental del Imperio ruso en la que el asentamiento de judíos estaba permitida, extendiéndose la jurisdicción de la zona a lo largo de la frontera con… … Wikipedia Español
Kherson Governorate — Херсонская губерния Херсонська губернія A historic map by cartographer Yuly Shokalsky. Capital city Nikolayev (1802 1803) Kherson (1803 1922) Area 70,600 km² (1920) … Wikipedia
Kiev Governorate — (pre reform Russian: ru. Кіевская губернія), or Government of Kiev, was an administrative unit ( guberniya ) of the Russian Empire.Kiev Governorate was established in 1708 and renamed a namestnichestvo (viceroyalty) in 1781. The Governorate was… … Wikipedia
Sevsk — ( ru. Севск) is a town in Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Sev River (Dnieper s basin), 142 km away from Bryansk. Population: 7,660 (2002 Census).HistoryOne of the original Severian towns, Sevsk is known to have been a part of the… … Wikipedia