- Overtime (ice hockey)
Overtime is a method of determining the winner and loser of an ice hockey match when the scores are tied after regulation. The two main methods are the overtime period (commonly referred to as overtime) and the shootout.
- 1 Overtime periods
- 2 Shootout
- 3 Notable playoff overtime contests
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Overtime periods are extra periods beyond the third regulation period during a game, where normal hockey rules apply. Although in the past, full-length overtime periods were played, overtimes today are sudden death, meaning that the game ends immediately when a player scores a goal.
For the 1983–84 season, the NHL introduced a regular season overtime period of five minutes, compared to the twenty minutes of regulation periods. If the five minute overtime period ended with no scoring, the game was a tie (The World Hockey Association had used a 10-minute regular season overtime period, as had the NHL prior to World War II).
In 1987–88 and since 1995, the American Hockey League has awarded teams one point in the standings for an overtime loss (OTL). In 1998, the AHL introduced a rule where teams will play the five minute overtime period with four skaters and a goaltender, rather than at full strength (five skaters), except in two-man advantage situations. In a two-man advantage situation, the team with the advantage will play with five skaters. The rule was popular and adopted by the NHL and ECHL the next season.
In the Stanley Cup playoffs, the teams are at full strength (five skaters, barring penalties), there isn't a shootout, and the overtime period is 20 minutes. Joe Sakic has the record for most career playoff overtime goals with eight. Interestingly, three of the game's legendary players, Mark Messier (109 playoff goals), Mario Lemieux (77 goals), and Gordie Howe (68 goals) never scored a playoff overtime goal. Overtime periods are played without commercial breaks.
In many leagues (including the NHL for regular-season games since the 2005–06 season) and in international competitions, a failure to reach a decision in a single overtime may lead to a shootout. Some leagues may eschew overtime periods altogether and end games in shootout should teams be tied at the end of regulation. In the three major North American professional hockey leagues (NHL, AHL, ECHL), regular season overtime periods are played four on four for one five minute period. In the Southern Professional Hockey League, regular season overtime periods are played three on three for one five minute period, with penalties resulting in the opponents skating one additional player on ice (up to two additional players) for the penalty for the first three minutes, and a penalty shot in the final two minutes.
In international competition, shootouts (or more formally, game-winning shots GWS, and, in some European countries, bullets, or bullits,), are often used. Each coach selects five skaters from their team to take penalty shots one at a time against the opposing goaltender, with teams alternating shots. After the ten players have all taken their shots, the team with the most goals is declared the winner. If the shootout is still tied after five skaters from each team have shot, the shootout continues one skater at a time until one team has won the advantage (assuring that each team has taken an equal number of shots). The shootout may end earlier, if one team has scored more goals than the opposing team could score with its remaining shooters. This happened during the women's competition at the 2006 Winter Olympics, in Turin, Italy. Sweden won an upset victory over the United States after only eight skaters. Sweden led 2 goals to none after the United States' fourth shot, rendering the remaining round unnecessary. This was one of the most significant results in the history of the women's game in that it was the first time that either the USA or Canada had lost in international competition to a third nation.
In 2008, the IIHF adopted a new procedure for penalty shootouts. Each team selects three different shooters to compete in the GWS. If the score is still tied after the three attempts by each team, the GWS continues with a tie-break shootout. One skater from each team shoots until the shooter of one team misses and the shooter of the other team scores. The same or new players can take the tie-break shots, which is also done in reverse order.
North American shootout
Most lower minor leagues (ECHL, Central, UHL) have featured a shootout where, at the end of regulation, a shootout similar to the international tournament format is used.
However, in 2000, the ECHL adopted the AHL's four-on-four overtime before the shootout.
For the 2004–05 AHL season, the AHL adopted a five-man shootout, which was first used in that league in 1986–87. The standard five-man shootout is used after four-on-four overtime for all minor leagues in North America.
The Central Collegiate Hockey Association is adding the shootout with effect from the 2008–09 season.
Following the lead of minor leagues, as of the 2005–06 season, the NHL ends exhibition and regular season games tied after the five minute length, four skaters per side overtime period with a shootout. Three skaters per team take shots on the opposing goalies, as opposed to the five in international and minor-league competition. The team with the most goals during their three shots is declared the winner. However, if the same number of goals are scored by both teams during the shootout, a sudden death shootout is begun, as in international competition. The teams alternate taking penalty shots, until one team scores and the other does not, thus producing a winner. All skaters (except goalies) on a team's roster must shoot before any player can shoot a second time. As of 2008, the NHL is considering a rules change that would outlaw the slapshot in shootouts, citing danger to goalies.
The shootout is not used in the playoffs for any North American league. Instead, 20 minute overtime periods are used until a single goal is scored.
Strategy is considered to be very important during penalty shots and overtime shootouts for both the shooter and the goalie. Both shooters and goalies commonly consult their teammates and coaches for advice on the opposing player's style of play. Shooters often consider the goalie's strengths and weaknesses (such as a fast glove or stick save), preferred goaltending style (such as butterfly or stand-up) and method of challenging the shooter. Goaltenders often consider the shooter's shot preference, expected angle of attack, a patented move a shooter commonly uses and even handedness of the shooter.
Most shooters attempt to out-deke the goalie in order to create a better scoring chance. Minnesota Wild forward Mikko Koivu and Tampa Bay Lightning forward Martin St. Louis are examples of players who commonly use this strategy. However, it is not uncommon for a shooter to simply shoot for an opening without deking. This is commonly referred to as sniping. This is most commonly performed when a goalie challenges a shooter by giving them an open hole (by keeping a glove, pad or stick out of position or being out of sound goaltending position altogether to tempt the shooter to aim for the given opening). Former NHL forwards Markus Näslund and Brett Hull are two players commonly referred to as snipers. Very rarely a shooter may take a slapshot or wrist shot from the point or top of the slot. This is almost exclusively performed when a shooter either has a high level of confidence in their shot or they attempt to catch the goalie by surprise. New Jersey Devils forward Brian Rolston and Philadelphia Flyers defenseman Chris Pronger have both used this strategy with success.
Notable playoff overtime contests
- 24 March 1936 – Detroit's Mud Bruneteau ends the longest Stanley Cup playoff game ever, scoring the game's only goal in a 1–0 victory over the Montreal Maroons. The goal came 16:30 into the sixth overtime period for a total of 116:30 of overtime. The game was a mere 3:30 short of the equivalent of playing three games back-to-back-to-back.
- 2 April 1939 – Boston's Mel Hill scores his third overtime goal of the Bruins' Stanley Cup semi-final series against the New York Rangers, setting an unsurpassed (as of 2011) NHL record for most overtime goals in a single playoff series, earning him the nickname thereafter of "Sudden Death" Hill.
- 23 April 1950 – Pete Babando scores at 8:31 of 2nd overtime to give the Detroit Red Wings a 4–3 win in the seventh game of the Stanley Cup Finals over the New York Rangers. It was the first time that a seventh game of a Final series went to overtime.
- 21 April 1951 – Bill Barilko scores at 2:53 of overtime to give the Toronto Maple Leafs a 3–2 win in the fifth game of the Stanley Cup Finals over the Montreal Canadiens. All five games in the series needed overtime to be decided.
- 16 April 1954 – Tony Leswick's shot hit Montreal defenseman Doug Harvey's glove and went into the net at 4:20 of overtime to give the Detroit Red Wings a 2–1 win in the seventh game of the Stanley Cup Finals over the Montreal Canadiens. No seventh game of a Final series has gone to overtime since.
- 23 April 1964 – Bobby Baun of the Toronto Maple Leafs nets a game winner against Detroit 1:43 into overtime in Game 6 of the Finals to tie the series 3–3. The goal is notable because Baun had broken his ankle earlier in the game. It was frozen and taped, and Baun returned to the ice to score the winning goal.
- 10 May 1970 – One of the most indelible moments in sports history is the sight of Bobby Orr's "in flight" goal that gave the Boston Bruins a 4–3 win and a four game sweep of the St. Louis Blues in the Stanley Cup Finals.
- 24 May 1980 – Bob Nystrom of the New York Islanders scores the Stanley Cup clinching goal at 7:11 of overtime, eliminating the Philadelphia Flyers in six games.
- 10 April 1982 – "Miracle on Manchester" – Rookie Daryl Evans gives the Los Angeles Kings a 6–5 win over the Edmonton Oilers at 2:35 of overtime. The Kings trailed the Oilers 5–0 after the second period of Game 3 of the Smythe Division Semifinals. This still remains the largest single game playoff comeback in NHL history.
- 12 May 1986 – Doug Wickenheiser's overtime goal gives the St. Louis Blues a 6–5 win over the Calgary Flames in Game 6 of the Campbell Conference Finals. The goal, known as the "Monday Night Miracle", capped a 5–2 comeback, made all the more impressive that the three goals needed to tie the game were scored in the last ten minutes of the third period.
- 18 May 1986 – A Brian Skrudland goal ends the shortest overtime in NHL history at just 9 seconds. The winning goal gave the Montreal Canadiens a 3–2 victory over the Calgary Flames in Game 2 of the Stanley Cup Finals.
- 18 April 1987 – "Easter Epic" – Pat LaFontaine of New York Islanders scores a goal against Washington Capitals at 8:47 of the 4th overtime which ends longest game seven in NHL playoff history. Islanders goaltender Kelly Hrudey makes a record 73 saves.
- 15 May 1990 – After hardly playing in overtime, Petr Klima came off the bench late in triple overtime and scored almost immediately to end the longest overtime in NHL Finals history. The goal gave the Edmonton Oilers a 3–2 victory over the Boston Bruins in Game 1 of the Stanley Cup Finals, setting the stage for the Oilers' fifth cup in seven years.
- 24 April 1993 – In Game 4 of the Stanley Cup division semifinals between the Buffalo Sabres and the Boston Bruins, Sabres forward Brad May scores in overtime to give Buffalo a 6–5 win and sweep the Bruins in the series, 4 games to 0. Due to Buffalo commentator Rick Jeanneret's colorful play call when May scored, this game has been forever referred to in Buffalo as "May Day."
- 1993 – After losing in overtime of game 1 of the Adams division semi-final to the Quebec Nordiques, the Montreal Canadiens go on to win 10 consecutive overtime games on route to winning the Stanley Cup. They would score another OT winner the following year against the Boston Bruins, making it 11 straight playoff overtime wins.
- 27 April 1994 – Dominik Hasek of the Buffalo Sabres stops all 70 shots produced by the New Jersey Devils as Dave Hannan scores the lone goal over a sprawling Martin Brodeur at 5:43 of the 4th OT in game 6 of the 1st round matchup. At 125:43, the 1–0 shutout is the longest played outcome in the modern era.
- 30 April 1994 – Pavel Bure scores 2:20 into double overtime of the seventh game of the opening round of Vancouver's playoff series with Calgary. The win gave the Vancouver Canucks three consecutive overtime wins over the favored Calgary Flames, who squandered a 3–1 series lead.
- 24 April 1996 – Petr Nedved scores with 44.6 seconds remaining in the 4th overtime to give the Pittsburgh Penguins a 3–2 win over the Washington Capitals to tie their Eastern Conference quarterfinals series at 2 games apiece.
- 10 June 1996 – Uwe Krupp became the 12th player in NHL history to end the Stanley Cup Finals in overtime, scoring a goal at 4:31 of triple overtime, giving the Colorado Avalanche a 1–0 win and a sweep of the Florida Panthers.
- 19 June 1999 – Brett Hull scores with 5:09 left in triple OT in game six to win the Stanley Cup for the Dallas Stars over the Buffalo Sabres. The goal was especially controversial, see No Goal.
- 4 May 2000 – Keith Primeau of the Philadelphia Flyers put a shot over the left shoulder of Pittsburgh Penguins goaltender Ron Tugnutt with 7:59 remaining in the 5th OT ending the longest game since 1936.
- 10 June 2000 – Jason Arnott scores on Dallas Stars goalie Ed Belfour in the second overtime period of game 6 to give the New Jersey Devils their second Stanley Cup.
- 24 April 2003 - Petr Sykora scored at 48 seconds of quintuple OT to give Anaheim a 4–3 win over Dallas.
- 11 April 2007 – Roberto Luongo, goaltender for the Vancouver Canucks, plays and wins his first career playoff game while making 72 saves, one shy of Kelly Hrudey's record; the game would be the 6th longest ever, going into quadruple overtime. Henrik Sedin scored the winning goal.
- 22 March 2008 – Philip Gogulla of the Cologne Sharks ends the longest German hockey game ever and the second longest worldwide, scoring the ninth overall goal in a 5:4 victory over the Mannheim Eagles. The goal came 8:16 into the sixth overtime period for a total of 108:16 of overtime. It was the third quarterfinal game (best of seven) in the KölnArena in Cologne in front of an audience of 17.000. The game began at 5:30pm and ended at 12:15am.
- 4 May 2008 – Brenden Morrow scores on San Jose Sharks goalie Evgeni Nabokov at 9:03 of the 4th overtime period in Game 6 of the Western Conference Semifinals series between the Sharks and Stars. The game saw an incredible goaltending duel as Nabokov made 53 saves in the loss while Marty Turco of Dallas made 61 saves for the win.
- 9 June 2010 – Patrick Kane of the Chicago Blackhawks shoots a goal past Philadelphia Flyers goalie Michael Leighton 4:10 into overtime of game 6 of the Stanley Cup finals to give the Blackhawks a 4–3 win over the Flyers for their first Stanley Cup Championship since 1961.
Longest NHL overtime games
This is a list of all National Hockey League (NHL) overtime games that went at least three overtimes.
- *Stanley Cup Finals game
- **Stanley Cup winning goal
- ***Total goals series
Notable minor league, college and junior overtimes
This is a list of the longest American Hockey League (AHL) overtime games.
The longest game in AHL history was Game 5 of the 2008 East Division Semifinals on 24 April 2008. The Philadelphia Phantoms beat the Albany River Rats, 3–2, at Times Union Center on a goal by Ryan Potulny at 2:58 of the fifth 20-minute overtime period. Scott Munroe was the winning goaltender for the Phantoms, making 65 saves. Michael Leighton was the losing goaltender for the River Rats despite making 98 saves.
- *Overtime format was one five-minute period followed by 20-minute periods
- **Calder Cup Finals game
The University of New Brunswick V-Reds needed 61:53 of overtime (four extra periods) to defeat the Acadia Axemen 3–1 on 27 Feb. 2011 in Game 2 of a best-of-five AUS semifinal series at Fredericton, N.B. Nick MacNeil scored the game-winner at 11:53 of the seventh period overall.
York Lions and Lakehead Thunderwolves went to a fourth overtime (50:13 minutes of overtime) on 14 February 2007 in Thunder Bay, Ont., to decide a winner in OUA men's playoff hockey action. Lakehead won the game at the 13-second mark of the fourth overtime period.
Morgan McHaffie scored at 17:14 of the sixth overtime period to lead the Queen's Gaels to a 2–1 win over the host Guelph Gryphons in Game 1 of the best-of-three OUA women's hockey final, 2 March 2011. The game, which lasted 167 minutes and 14 seconds, including 107:14 of extra time, is the longest on record in CIS or NCAA hockey – women's or men's. Winning goaltender Mel Dodd-Moher made 66 saves, while Danielle Skoufranis made 44 saves in a losing cause. It is the longest game ever played sanctioned by Hockey Canada.
An 10 April 2009 game between the Elmira Jackals and Trenton Devils lasted 66:10 of overtime, with the Jackals winning, 5–4.
Away Team Score Home Team Date 1. 66:10 Elmira Jackals 5–4 Trenton Devils 10 April 2009 2. 61:24 Louisiana IceGators 2–3 Greenville Grrrowl 5 May 2000 3. 55:19 Jackson Bandits 5–4 Louisiana IceGators 5 April 2002 4. 53:30 Las Vegas Wranglers 3–4 Alaska Aces 2 May 2006 5. 50:37 South Carolina Stingrays 3–4 Mississippi Sea Wolves 13 April 1999 6. 48:13 Idaho Steelheads 3–2 Las Vegas Wranglers 6 April 2011 7. 46:30 Mississippi Sea Wolves 3–4 Pee Dee Pride 2 May 1999 8. 46:23 Utah Grizzlies 4–3 Fresno Falcons 14 April 2008 9. 45:47 Hampton Roads Admirals 2–1 Greensboro Monarchs 9 April 1991* 10. 43:39 Hampton Roads Admirals 4–3 Wheeling Nailers 2 April 1997
* Championship Series game.
On 12 May 2008, one of the longest games in IHL history, if not THE longest, took place in Fort Wayne, Indiana. It was Game 7 of the Turner Cup Finals between the hometown Fort Wayne Komets and Port Huron Icehawks. The game was tied 2–2 through regulation. The first two extra periods solved nothing, but 23 seconds into the third overtime period, at some point after midnight ET, Justin Hodgman scored the winning goal to give the Komets their fifth Turner Cup title, which was their first since 1993, and their sixth overall, with their last championship being the Colonial Cup in 2003. The Komets would win again the following year with an easy Game 5 victory at home, which was the first time in franchise history they won back-to-back championships. They would follow up with a third straight Turner Cup in 2010, again clinching on home ice, securing a dynasty.
The longest game in NCAA hockey history was played on 12/13 March 2010. Quinnipiac University defeated Union College, 3–2, in the ECAC Hockey League quarter-final playoff game after 90:22 of overtime. Greg Holt scored the winning goal for Quinnipiac. Longest game list <<http://www.collegehockeynews.com/almanac/longestGames.php>>
Overall Game length Length
Overtime length Number of Overtimes Winning team Score Losing Team Where it occurred Date 150:22 90:22 5 Quinnipiac University 3–2 Union College ECACH Quarter-Finals (Game 1, Best of 3) 3/12/2010 141:35 81:35 5 Yale University 3–2 Union College ECACHL First Round (Game 2, Best of 3) 3/4/2006 129:30 69:30 4 Colorado College 1–0 Wisconsin Badgers WCHA First Round (Game 2, Best of 3) 3/8/1997 123:53 63:53 4 St. Lawrence 3–2 Boston University NCAA East Regional (Second Round) 26 March 2000 121:05 61:05 4 Colgate University 4–3 Dartmouth College ECAC Quarterfinal (Game 1, Best of 3) 14 March 2003
The two longest games in NCAA hockey history were both played at Union College in Schenectady, NY.
The longest game in NCAA hockey history was played on 12 March 2010. Quinnipiac University defeated Union College, 3–2, in the ECAC Hockey League Quarter-Finals after 90:22 of overtime. Greg Holt scored the winning goal just after 1:00 AM local time.
The 2nd longest game in NCAA hockey history was played on 5 March 2006. Yale University defeated Union College, 3–2, in the ECAC Hockey League first-round playoff game after 81:35 of overtime. David Meckler scored the winning goal with Yale shorthanded.
The longest game in NCAA Division III hockey history, and the third longest in NCAA history overall, began at 7:05pm on 27 February 2010 and ended at 12:35am of the following day. Gustavus Adolphus College defeated Augsburg College, 6–5, to advance to the MIAC championship game after 78:38 of overtime. Eric Bigham scored the winning goal.
A 2000 NCAA regional final in men's ice hockey between St. Lawrence University and Boston University ended with 63:53 of overtime. Manitoba native and minor hockey buddy of Craig McAulay, Robin Carruthers scored the gwg after four periods of overtime play
A 30 March 1991 game between Northern Michigan University and Boston University ended with Northern Michigan earning an 8–7 victory over Boston University. Unlikely hero Darryl Plandowski scores in the third overtime and fifth hour of play to give the Wildcats the title.
A 8 March 1997 game between Colorado College and the University of Wisconsin–Madison ended with Colorado College winning, 1–0, after 69:30.
A 14 March 2003 ECAC Quarterfinal game between Colgate University and Dartmouth ended, 4–3 for Colgate, after 61:05 in overtime.
In March 2006, the Wisconsin Badgers beat the Cornell Big Red 1–0 at 11:13 into the third overtime at the Midwest Regional Final in the NCAA Tournament at the Resch Center in Green Bay. It was the second-longest NCAA Tournament game in its history and the longest 1–0 game in tournament history. It is currently the seventh-longest game all-time in NCAA Division I history.
A 11 March 2007 game between St. Cloud State University and University of Minnesota-Duluth during the first round of the WCHA playoffs ended with SCSU winning, 3–2, after 51:33 of overtime. It is the sixth-longest NCAA Division I game in history.
In the first round of the 2008 WCHA hockey tournament featuring the 4th seeded Minnesota State University, Mankato Mavericks hosting the 7th seeded University of Minnesota Golden Gophers, the Friday and Sunday games both went into double overtime, and the Saturday night game went into one overtime. The Gophers prevailed 2 games to 1 in the series, winning Saturday and Sunday.
On 10 March 1996, New Hampshire defeated Providence, 3–2, in an ECAC Women's Championship game after 85:35 of overtime.
2007 RBC Cup – Canadian Jr A Championship
The semi final game for the 2007 RBC Cup, saw the host Prince George Spruce Kings taking on the Camrose Kodiaks. The game ended up being the longest game in Royal Bank Cup history at 146 minutes and 1 second as the Spruce Kings broke a 2–2 tie just over six minutes into the fifth overtime period to win 3–2 and clinch a berth in the RBC Cup Final against the Aurora Tigers. Jason Yuel of the Spruce Kings scored the winner while goaltender Jordan White stopped 91 of 93 shots for the victory.
On 10 February 2007, the Toronto Jr. Canadiens defeated the Pickering Panthers, 4–3, to take a 2–0 series lead in the first round of the OPJHL playoffs, after 104:32 of overtime. It is the second longest game ever played sanctioned by Hockey Canada.
Marquette vs Orchard Lake St Marys went eight overtimes during the Michigan State Ice Hockey Division 1 Championship game before Tournament officials stopped the game in consideration of the health and welfare of the players on 8 March 2008. The 1–1 tie resulted in the two teams being declared co-champions. The game lasted 109 minutes. Ryan Morley Stockton of St. Mary's had a MHSAA-record 58 saves.
The longest game in high school history was in a 1998 FCIAC quarterfinal matchup in Darien, CT between archrivals Wilton and Ridgefield that went to 10 8-minute overtime periods after 45 minutes of regulation (125:00 of hockey). Chris Ludwig of Wilton scored the game-winner while being hauled down in front of the Ridgefield net in the 10th extra frame.
The previous record belong to the Aurora High School-Solon High School game in which Aurora won in the 8th overtime of the Ohio state playoffs. The winning goal was scored with 3:52 left in the 8th overtime (105th minute), setting an American record.
- National Hockey League
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- Breakaway (hockey)
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- Easter Epic
- ^ Jeff Z. Klein, “Hockey Night in Europe: Goodbye, Columbus,” New York Times, 25 Oct. 2008.
- ^ V. Lychyk, “English borrowings in recent Soviet Russian,” Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 29 (1994), p. 153.
- ^ http://www.iihf.com/channels/iihf-world-championship/home/format-rules.html
- ^ http://www.collegehockeynews.com/almanac/longestGames.php
- ^ http://www.ecachockeyleague.com/recaps/muniyal1.m04
- ^ Men’s Hockey Defeats Augsburg 6–5 in Four Overtimes, Sets NCAA Record For Longest Game In Division III History
- ^ USCHO.com :: U.S. College Hockey Online :: NCAA Longest_games
- ^ http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=buckheit/080314
- ^ MHSAA: Games-2008 Ice Hockey Tournament
- ^ 2007 State Ice Hockey Tournament Results
- ^ The Remaining Top 24 High School Sports Stories of 2007 – cleveland.com
- The National Hockey League Official Guide and Record Book
- Diamond, Dan; (1992), The Official National Hockey League Stanley Cup Centennial Book
- The American Hockey League Guide & Record Book
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