- Energy drink
Energy drinks are beverages whose producers advertise that they "boost energy." These advertisements usually do not emphasize energy derived from the sugar and caffeine they contain but rather increased energy release due to a variety of stimulants and vitamins.
In Japan, the energy drink dates at least as far back as the early 1960s, with the release of the Lipovitan. Most such products in Japan bear little resemblance to soft drinks, and are sold instead in small brown glass medicine bottles or cans styled to resemble such containers. These "genki drinks", which are also produced in Japan, are marketed primarily to the salaryman set.
In the UK, Lucozade Energy was originally introduced in 1929 as a hospital drink for "aiding the recovery;" in the early 1980s, it was promoted as an energy drink for "replenishing lost energy."
In 1985, Jolt Cola was introduced in the United States. Its marketing strategy centered on the drink's caffeine content, billing it as a means to promote wakefulness. The initial slogan was, "All the sugar and twice the caffeine."
In 1995, PepsiCo launched Josta, the first energy drink introduced by a major US beverage company (one that had interests outside just energy drinks), but Pepsi discontinued the product in 1999.
In Europe, energy drinks were pioneered by the S. Spitz Company and a product named Power Horse, before the business savvy of Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur, ensured his Red Bull product became far better known, and a worldwide best seller. Mateschitz developed Red Bull based on the Thai drink Krating Daeng, itself based on Lipovitan. Red Bull is the dominant brand in the US after its introduction in 1997, with a market share of approximately 47%.
By 2001, the US energy drink market had grown to nearly 8 million per year in retail sales. Over the next 5 years, it grew an average of over 50% per year, totaling over $3 billion in 2005. Diet energy drinks are growing at nearly twice that rate within the category, as are 16-ounce sized energy drinks. The energy drink market became a $5.4 billion dollar market in 2007, and both Goldman Sachs and Mintel predicted that it would hit $10 billion by 2010. Major companies such as Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Molson, and Labatt have tried to match smaller companies' innovative and different approach, with marginal success.
Energy drinks are typically attractive to young people. Approximately 65% percent of its drinkers are between the ages of 13 and 35 years old, with males being approximately 65% of the market. A 2008 statewide Patient Poll conducted by the Pennsylvania Medical Society's Institute for Good Medicine found that: 20% of respondents ages 21–30 had used energy drinks in high school or college to stay awake longer to study or write a paper; 70% of respondents knew someone who had used an energy drink to stay awake longer to study or work. Energy drinks are also popular as drink mixers.
In 2001, Coca-Cola marketed two Powerade brand energy drinks in bullet-shaped, screw-top aluminum bottle cans produced by Exal Corporation of Youngstown, Ohio. Powerade,[dubious ] similar to Gatorade, is better known as a sports drink. In 2002, CCL Container and Mistic Brands, Inc., part of the Snapple Beverage Group, worked together on the national launch of Mistic RĒ, which used a recyclable aluminum bottle. Since its introduction, many energy drinks are now packaged in the aluminum bottles or bottle cans.
Capri Sun targeted 16-25 year-olds with its Island Refreshers line, graduating from a foil pouch design to a bottlecan or aluminum bottle. In the UK, Coca-Cola has marketed a direct Red Bull competitor, 'Sprite 3G', in a similar 250 mL can and has also launched 'Relentless', a juice-based energy drink in 500 mL cans.
UK supermarkets have launched their own brands of energy drinks at lower prices than the major soft drink manufacturers. These are mostly produced by Canadian beverage maker Cott. Tesco supermarkets sell 'Kx"'(used to be known as 'Kick') in 250 mL cans and 1 L bottles, Sainsbury's sell 'Blue Bolt' in similar packaging, Asda sell 'Blue Charge' in similar packaging and Morrison's sell 'Source' in 250 mL cans. Cott sells a variety of other branded energy drinks to independent retailers in various containers.
Since 2002 there has been a growing trend for packaging energy drink in bigger cans. Since in many countries, including the US and Canada, there is a limitation on the maximum caffeine per serving in energy drinks, this allows manufacturers to include a greater amount of caffeine by including multiple servings per container. Popular brands such as Redbull, Hype Energy Drinks and Monster have increased the amount of ounces per can. Conversely, the emergence of energy shots has gone the opposite way with much smaller packaging.
In 2007, energy drink powders and effervescent tablets were introduced, in the form of a tablet or powder that can be added to water to create an energy drink. These can offer a more portable option to cans and shots.
As of 2009, the industry has moved towards the use of natural stimulants and reduced sugar.
Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine), B vitamins, and herbs. Other commonly used ingredients are carbonated water, guarana, yerba mate, açaí, and taurine, plus various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, glucuronolactone, and ginkgo biloba. Some contain high levels of sugar, and many brands offer artificially sweetened 'diet' versions. A common ingredient in most energy drinks is caffeine (often in the form of guarana or yerba mate). Caffeine is the stimulant that is found in coffee and tea. Energy drinks contain about three times the amount of caffeine as cola.
A variety of physiological and psychological effects have been attributed to energy drinks and their ingredients. Two studies reported significant improvements in mental and cognitive performances as well as increased subjective alertness. Excess consumption of energy drinks may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia. During repeated cycling tests in young healthy adults an energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance. It has been suggested that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance.
Restorative properties were shown by a combination of caffeine and the sugar glucose in an energy drink, and some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine was also suggested. In one experiment, a glucose-based energy drink (containing caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone) was given to eleven tired participants being tested in a driving simulator. Lane drifting and reaction times were measured for two hours post-treatment and showed significant improvement.
Two articles concluded that the improved information processing and other effects could not be explained in terms of the restoration of plasma caffeine levels to normal following caffeine withdrawal.
Caution is warranted even for healthy adults who choose to consume energy drinks. Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake; however, consumption of two or more drinks in a single day, can. Other stimulants such as ginseng are often added to energy drinks and may enhance the effects of caffeine, and ingredients such as guarana themselves contain caffeine. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs. Most mainstream energy drinks do not provide electrolytes, and have a higher likelihood of an energy "crash-and-burn" effect. Caffeine in energy drinks can excrete water from the body to dilute high concentrations of sugar entering the blood stream, leading to dehydration. If the body is dehydrated by 1%, performance is decreased by up to 10%.
In the US, energy drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits. The drinks may cause seizures due to the "crash" following the energy high that occurs after consumption. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.
Dr. Marcie Schneider, an adolescent medicine specialist in Greenwich, Connecticut, has said, "These drinks have no benefit, no place in the diet of kids."
Attempts to ban
The popular energy drink Red Bull was banned in France after the death of an 18-year-old Irish athlete, Ross Cooney, who died within hours after playing a basketball game and consuming four cans of it. This ban was challenged in the European Court of Justice in 2004. The French Scientific Committee (J.D. Birkel) concluded that Red Bull had an excessive amount of caffeine. Norway also banned Red Bull for a while, although the ban has recently been revoked. The United Kingdom investigated the drink, but only issued a warning against its use by children and pregnant women.
In 2009, a school in Hove, England requested that local shops do not sell energy drinks to students. Headteacher Malvina Sanders added that "This was a preventative measure, as all research shows that consuming high-energy drinks can have a detrimental impact on the ability of young people to concentrate in class." The school has negotiated for their local branch of Tesco to display posters asking students not to ask for the products.
Similar measures were taken by a school in Oxted, also in England which banned students from consuming drinks and sent letters to parents. This was featured on the regional news programme BBC South East Today.
New Mexico Military Institute, a military high school and junior college located in Roswell, New Mexico, does not allow sales of energy drinks at the campus "Cadet Store" after an incident of a young Cadet drinking too many drinks in one period and having to be hospitalized.
Caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks
Energy drinks such as Red Bull are often used as mixers with alcoholic beverages producing mixed drinks such as Vodka Red Bull which are similar to but stronger than rum and coke with respect to the amount of caffeine they contain. They are also sold in a wide variety of formulations such as Four Loko and Joose which combine caffeine and alcohol. Fruit flavored caffeinated energy drinks in flavors such as watermelon, lemonade and cranberry-lemonade are cheap with a fruity taste. Packaged in 24 ounce cans, they are wildly popular with young people. Four Loko, a product of Phusion Projects, was originally promoted through young employees who were hired to introduce the product to their peer group.
Through separate mechanisms, energy drinks act as stimulants, and alcohol as depressants. Energy drinks can lessen some of the subjective effects of alcohol while making the drinker feel more stimulated and less fatigued. However, they may be unable to counteract some of the psychomotor impairments of alcohol intoxication. Consequently, the mix can be particularly hazardous as energy drinks can mask the influence of alcohol and a person may misinterpret their actual level of intoxication. In fact, people who drink mixers are more likely than non-mixers to drink more alcohol, and are also more likely to suffer alcohol-related consequences such as assault, injury or being an intoxicated driver, even after adjusting for the number of drinks. Although people decide to drink energy drinks with alcohol with the intent of counteracting alcohol intoxication, another large majority do so to hide the taste of alcohol. Researchers at the Human Performance Laboratory have suggested people refrain from mixing such powerful stimulants with alcohol, they believe it might cause cardiopulmonary or cardiovascular failures. As of November 10, 2010 caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks had been banned in Washington and Michigan in the United States. The bans followed a widely publicized incident which resulted in hospitalization in the Fall of 2010 of college students who had consumed several cans of Four Loko caffeinated alcoholic beverage. Utah, which has state controlled liquor retail outlets, after studying them, never permitted the sale of caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks. The products will no longer be delivered to Oklahoma after December 3, 2010 and delivery to retailers has been suspended in New York.
On November 17, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration warned four companies, Charge Beverages Corp., New Century Brewing Co., Phusion Projects, and United Brands Company Inc, that the caffeine added to their malt alcoholic beverages is an "unsafe food additive" and said that further action, including seizure of their products, may occur under federal law. In a press release, the FDA states "there is evidence that the combinations of caffeine and alcohol in these products pose a public health concern." They also state that concerns have been raised that caffeine can mask some of the sensory cues individuals might normally rely on to determine their level of intoxication. Warning letters were issued to each of the four companies requiring them to provide to the FDA in writing within 15 days of the specific steps the firms will be taking.
Manufacturers have argued that drinking a caffeinated alcoholic energy drink is indistinguishable from drinking a couple of glasses of wine followed by a couple of cups of coffee, a typical dinner behavior.
Several beverages have been marketed in the 2000s as "anti-energy", "chill out", or "relaxation" drinks, including Slow Cow, Drank, iChill, Marley's Mellow Mood, Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda, Chill,Calm, Malava Kava, V.i.B. (meaning "vacation in a bottle"), and Jones Gaba. They are growing in popularity, with sales doubling from 2008 to 2010, and expected to more than double again by 2014. They contain ingredients such as theanine and melatonin.
In November 2010, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston reported that energy drinks contain more caffeine than a strong cup of coffee, and that the caffeine combined with other ingredients (sometimes not reported correctly on labels) such as guarana, amino acid taurine, other herbs, vitamins and minerals may interact. Energy drinks consumed with alcohol may affect heart rates, blood pressure and even mental states. The caffeine content of energy drinks range from 70–200 mg per 16-oz serving whereas a 16-oz cup of coffee can contain 80–300 mg.
Water or lower-octane sports drinks which contain electrolytes, some minerals and carbohydrate are better choice to reduce the possibility of dehydration and increase in blood pressure.
Health experts say caffeine prevents sleepiness and delays the feeling of drunkenness normally experienced when drinking alcohol, causing some people to continue drinking after they normally would have stopped. Both caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, so mixing energy drinks with alcohol can cause severe dehydration, possibly leading to vomiting, nausea, and other health problems in the long term.
In 2008, Anheuser-Busch agreed to take caffeine out of energy drinks that contain alcohol, after 11 state attorneys general charged the brewer was marketing them to underage drinkers. This action is also followed by MillerCoors in the same year.
In 2001, the National Agency for Drug and Food Control in Indonesia (a.k.a. Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan - BPOM) ordered the producer of Kratingdaeng and Kratingdaeng S (brand affiliates of Red Bull) and Galin Bugar and the importer of M 150 energy drinks to withdraw their products because bottles were found to contain 80 milligrams of caffeine, far exceeding the acceptable 50 mg per bottle/can stated on the label. Producer of Kratingdaeng insisted that their over-the-counter products met regulations and refused to apologize, arguing that their products met acceptable standards. But several days later, the company apologized to consumers and promised to intensify the company's quality control system to avoid a similar incident from happening again. Finally, two million bottles of Kratingdaeng and Kratingdaeng S were recalled. Many people believe that it is due to competition among energy drink manufacturers to boost the reputations of their own products. One of former vice chairman of the Indonesian Consumer Foundation (YLKI), urged BPOM to establish a firmer policy to prevent companies from deceiving consumers.hhfhfh
- List of energy drinks
- Sport drink
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