name = Ginseng
image_width = 270px
image_caption = "Panax quinquefolius" foliage and fruit
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Panax"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = Subgenus "Panax":Section "Panax"::Series "Notoginseng":::"
Panax notoginseng"::Series "Panax":::" Panax bipinnatifidus":::" Panax ginseng":::" Panax japonicus":::" Panax quinquefolius":::" Panax vietnamensis":::" Panax wangianus":::" Panax zingiberensis":Section "Pseudoginseng":::" Panax pseudoginseng":::" Panax stipuleanatus"Subgenus "Trifolius":::" Panax trifolius"
Ginseng refers to species within "Panax", a genus of 11 species of slow-growing
perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. They grow in the Northern Hemispherein eastern Asia(mostly northern China, Korea, and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates; "Panax vietnamensis", discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng found. This article focuses on the Series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally "Panax ginseng" and "P. quinquefolius". Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.
Siberian ginseng ("Eleutherococcus senticosus") is not a true ginseng at all. It is another adaptogen, but a different plant that was renamed as "Siberian ginseng" as a marketing ploy; instead of a fleshy root, it has a woody root; instead of
ginsenosides, eleutherosidesare present, (see below).
The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term "rénshēn" (simplified: ; traditional: ), literally "man root"Fact|date=May 2008 (referring to the root's characteristic forked shape, resembling the legs of a man). The English pronunciation derives from a southern Chinese reading, similar to
Cantonese"jên shên" ( Jyutping: jan1sam1).
The botanical/genus name "Panax" means "all-heal" in Greek, sharing the same origin as "
panacea," and was applied to this genus because Linnaeuswas aware of its wide use in Chinese medicineas a muscle relaxant.
Both American and Panax (Asian) ginseng
roots are taken orally as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants,Fact|date=February 2008 and in the treatment of type II diabetes, including sexual dysfunction in men. The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root it is most often available in dried form.
This ingredient may also be found in some popular
Energy Drinks: usually the "tea" varieties or Functional Foods. Usually ginseng is in subclinical doses and it does not have measurable medicinal effects. It can be found in cosmetic preparations as well, with similar lack of effect.
Ginseng root can be double steamed with chicken meat as a soup. (See
Modern science and ginseng
It has been difficult to verify the medicinal benefits of ginseng using science, as there are contradictory results from different studies, possibly due to the wide variety and quality of ginseng used in studies. High-quality studies of the effects of ginseng are rare.cite journal
author=McElhaney JE "et al"
title=A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults
journal=J Am Geriatr Soc
pmid = 14687309
Ginseng is promoted as an
adaptogen(a product that increases the body's resistance to stress), one which can to a certain extent be supported with reference to its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties,cite journal
author = Davydov M, Krikorian AD.
title = Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look
journal = Journal of Ethnopharmacology
volume = 72
issue = 3
pages = 345–393
month= October | year= 2000
pmid = 6685799
doi = 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00181-1] although animal experiments to determine whether longevity and health were increased in the presence of stress gave negative results.cite journal
author = Lewis WH, Zenger VE, Lynch RG.
title = No adaptogen response of mice to ginseng and Eleutherococcus infusions
journal = Journal of Ethnopharmacology
volume = 8
issue = 2
pages = 209–214
month= August | year= 1983
pmid = 6685799 | doi = 10.1016/0378-8741(83)90054-5]
comparative, randomized and double-blindstudy at the National Autonomous University of Mexico indicates it may be "a promising dietary supplement" when assessed for an increase in quality of life cite journal
author= Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begona Infante C.
title= Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract
journal=Drugs Exp Clin Res.
pmid = 9034759] . It should be noted, however, that exclusion rates in this study were high. 124 participants were excluded from this study "due to lack of compliance with the treatment" whereas 164 participants in the control group and 338 participants in the ginseng group completed the study.
"P. ginseng" appear to inhibit some characteristics associated with cancer in animal models; nevertheless, this effect is unclear in humans.cite journal
author= Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H
title= The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence
journal= Cancer Causes Control
There are references in literature, including authoritative compendiums, that show interactions with ginseng. Herbalist Jonathan Treasure of the United States
National Institute of Mental Healthtraces the growth of misinformation on an alleged adverse herb-drug interaction between the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzineand Asian ginseng ("P. ginseng" C.A. Meyer). This originally was mentioned in a 1985 editorial by Shader and Greenblatt in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Shader and Greenblatt devoted a couple of lines to the case of 64 year-old woman who took an undisclosed dose for an undisclosed time of a dietary supplement product called “Natrol High” while concurrently taking phenelzine60 mg qd. She experienced symptoms of “insomnia, headache, and tremulousness”. Treasure contacted Natrol by email and discovered within ten minutes that there was no "P. ginseng" in the formula, but instead " Eleutherococcus" which was then called by the popular name "Siberian ginseng" and it was given in a subclinical dosage mixed with a variety of other herbs. The purported interaction effects are well-known side effects of phenelzine alone, which had been given in a high dosage and are not at all suggestive of "Eleutherococcus". However this misinformed article with a misidentified herb has been picked up in literature searches, megastudies and is now documented by conventional medical authorities such as Stockley’s, and is repeated in several botanical monographs e.g. World Health Organization (WHO1999). [ [http://www.herbological.com/images/downloads/HH2.pdf] Treasure, Jonathan. "Medline & The Mainstream Manufacture of Misinformation" 2006] [Stockley, IH (2002), Stockley's Drug Interactions. 6th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press.] [WHO (1999), "Radix Ginseng", in,WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Geneva: World Health Organization, 168-182.]
Ginseng and reproductive activity
A 2002 study by the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) found that in laboratory animals, both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance
libidoand copulatory performance. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng, or its ginsenoside components, on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues. [Hong B; Ji YH; Hong JH; Nam KY; Ahn TYA double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report.J Urol. 2002; 168(5):2070-3 (ISSN: 0022-5347)Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea] In males, ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection. [de Andrade E; de Mesquita AA; Claro Jde A; de Andrade PM; Ortiz V; Paranhos M; Srougi MStudy of the efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.Sector of Sexual Medicine, Division of Urological Clinic of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.] This is consistent with traditional Chinese medicineand Native American medicinal uses of ginseng.
Ginseng is known to contain
phytoestrogens. [cite journal |last=Lee |first=YJ |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title=Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |pmid=12568360 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] [cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title=Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |pmid=12161497 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] [cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title=A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |pmid=12732291 |url= |accessdate= |quote= ]
One of "P. ginseng"'s most common side-effects is the inability to sleep. [ [http://www.umass.edu/cnshp/faq.html http://www.umass.edu/cnshp/faq.html] ] Other side-effects can include
nausea, diarrhea, euphoria, headaches, epistaxis, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and mastalgia. [ [http://www.aafp.org/afp/20031015/1539.html http://www.aafp.org/afp/20031015/1539.html] ]
adaptogenginsengs ("P. ginseng" and "P. quinquefolia") are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts.
"P. ginseng" is not recommended within Chinese Medicine to be administered along with anti-infective herbs unless a person is quite debilitated, because of the fear that the pathogen will be tonified. Herbalists in China believed this and according to Xu Dachun in his brief essay on ginseng (1757 A.D., during the Qing Dynasty):"if one administers Ginseng of a purely supplementing nature, then one will merely supplement the evil influences and help them settle down. In minor cases, the evil influences will, as a result of such mistaken therapy, never leave the body again. In serious cases, death is inevitable." [ [http://www.itmonline.org/arts/ginseng.htm http://www.itmonline.org/arts/ginseng.htm] ]
"P. quinquefolius" American ginseng (root)
:Ginseng that is produced in the
United Statesand Canadais particularly prized in Chinese societies, and many ginseng packages are prominently colored red, white, and blue.:According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, American Ginseng promotes Yinenergy, cleans excess Yangin the body, calms the body. The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes Yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while East Asian ginseng promotes Yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in Yang and vice versa, so that the two are balanced. Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in northeast China and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in traditional times. Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very "Yang". Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed that American ginseng must be good for "Yin", because it came from a hot area. However they did not know that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions. Nonetheless the root is legitimately classified as more "Yin" because it generates fluids. [Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble 2004]
:The two main components of ginseng are in different proportions in the Asian and American varieties, and may well be the cause of the excitatory versus tonic natures. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginsenoside#Mechanism_of_action]
:The ginseng is sliced and a few slices are simmered in hot water to make a
decoction.:Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of Ontarioand British Columbiaand the American state of Wisconsin, according to [http://www.agr.gc.ca/misb/spec/index_e.php?s1=gin&page=intro Agri-food Canada] . "P. quinquefolius" is now also grown in northern China.:A randomized, double-blindstudy shows that an extract of American ginseng reduces influenza cases in the elderly when compared to placebo.
The treasured aromatic root resembles a small parsnip that forks as it matures. The plant grows 6 to 18 inches tall, usually bearing three leaves, each with three to five leaflets 2 to 5 inches long.
Panax ginseng" Asian ginseng (root)
:According to Traditional Chinese Medicine Panax Ginseng promotes
Yangenergy, improves circulation, increases blood supply, revitalizes and aids recovery from weakness after illness, stimulates the body. Panax Ginseng is available in two forms:
:The form called white ginseng is grown for four to six years, and then peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. White Ginseng is air dried in the sun and may contain less of the therapeutic constituents. It is thought by some that enzymes contained in the root break down these constituents in the process of drying. Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.
:The form called red ginseng is harvested after six years, is not peeled and is steam-cured, thereby giving them a glossy reddish-brown coloring. Steaming the root is thought to change its biochemical composition and also to prevent the breakdown of the active ingredients. The roots are then dried.
Red ginseng (Korean=홍삼, zh-st|s=|t=), is "P. ginseng" that has been heated, either through steaming or sun-drying. It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle. This version of ginseng is traditionally associated with stimulating sexual function and increasing energy. Red ginseng is always produced from cultivated roots, usually from either China or South Korea.
2002, a preliminary double-blind, crossover study of Korean red ginseng's effects on impotencereported that it can be an effective alternative for treating male erectile dysfunction.cite journal
author=Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY.
title=A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report
journal= Journal of Urology
A study shows that Red ginseng reduces the relapse of gastric cancer versus control.cite journal
author= Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, Joh YG, Cho MY.
title= Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer
journal=American Journal of Chinese Medicine.
A study of ginseng's effects on rats shows that while both "White ginseng" and "Red ginseng" reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with "Red ginseng".cite journal
author= Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, Yun HY
title=Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds
journal=Journal of Korean Medical Science
Falcarinol, a seventeen-carbon diyne fatty alcoholwas isolated from carrotand red ginseng, shown to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial(breast cancer) cells. [ [http://www.cyberlipid.org/simple/simp0003.htm#10 fatty alcohols and aldehydes ] ] Other acetylenicfatty alcohols in ginseng ( panaxacol, panaxydol, panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties. [ [http://www.cyberlipid.org/simple/simp0003.htm#12 fatty alcohols and aldehydes ] ]
Wild ginseng is ginseng that has not been planted and cultivated domestically, rather it is that which grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found to be growing. It is considered to be superior to field farmed ginseng by various authorities, and it has been shown to contain higher levels of
ginsenoside. Wild ginseng is relatively rare and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a ginseng root to reach maturity). Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American and can be processed to be red ginseng.
woods grownAmerican ginseng programs in Maine, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and West Virginia. [ [http://www.state.tn.us/environment/na/ginseng.shtml TDEC: DNH: Ginseng Program ] ] [ [http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-127.html Care and Planting of Ginseng Seed and Roots ] ] and United Plant Savershas been encouraging the woods planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets. Woods grown plants have comparable value to wild grown ginseng of similar age.
adaptogenic plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different familyor genus. Only Jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng. Since each of these plants have different uses, one should research their properties before using. Descriptions and differentiation can be found in David Winston and Steven Maimes book "Adaptogens" [cite book |title=Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief |last= Winston |first= David |authorlink=David Winston |coauthors=Maimes, Steven |year = 2007 |publisher= Healing Arts Press|location= |isbn= |pages= ]
Gynostemma pentaphyllum" (Southern ginseng, aka Jiaogulan)
Eleutherococcus senticosus" (Siberian ginseng)
Pseudostellaria heterophylla" (Prince ginseng)
Withania somnifera" (Indian ginseng, aka Ashwagandha)
Pfaffia paniculata" (Brazilian ginseng, aka Suma)
Lepidium meyenii" (Peruvian ginseng, aka Maca)
Oplopanax horridus" (Alaskan ginseng)
Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the Panax Series):
Angelica sinensis" (Female ginseng, aka Dong Quai)
Panax notoginseng" (Known as san qi, tian qi or tien chi, hemostatic ingredient in Yunnan Bai Yao)
Salvia miltiorrhiza" "Poor man's ginseng"
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-ginseng.html MedlinePlus-Ginseng]
* [http://www.drugs.com/MTM/ginseng.html Overdose and Safety information]
* [http://tangcenter.uchicago.edu/herbal_resources/ginseng.shtml Ginseng Abuse Syndrome disputed]
* [http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ginseng/NS_patient-ginseng Drugs & Supplements - Mayo Clinic]
* [http://www.aafp.org/afp/20031015/1539.html Panax ginseng - American Family Physician]
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