- Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain
MRI of brain and brain stem Intervention
ICD-10-PCS B030ZZZ ICD-9-CM 88.91 OPS-301 code: 3-800, 3-820
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and brain stem uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high quality two- or three-dimensional images of brain structures without use of ionizing radiation (X-rays) or radioactive tracers.
One advantage of MRI of the brain over computed tomography of the head is better tissue contrast, and it has fewer artifacts than CT when viewing the brainstem. MRI is also superior for pituitary imaging. It may however be less effective at identifying early cerebritis.
A number of different imaging modes can be used with imaging the brain:
- T1: Cerebrospinal fluid is dark. T1 weighting is useful for visualizing normal anatomy.
- T2: CSF is light, but fat (and thus white matter) is darker than with T1. T2 is useful for visualizing pathology.
- PD (proton density): CSF has a relatively high level of protons, making CSF appear bright. Gray matter is brighter than white matter.
- FLAIR: useful for evaluation of white matter plaques near the ventricles. It is useful in identifying demyelination.
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- ^ Bradley, William G.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Cambray-Forker, Jane (2001-01-15). MRI of the brain. Surendra Kumar. ISBN 9780781725682. http://books.google.com/books?id=40f2WPdivA8C. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- ^ Roos, Karen L.; Tunkel, Allan R. (2010). Bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 69–. ISBN 9780444520159. http://books.google.com/books?id=GgQshXzR9scC&pg=PA69. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ^ Garel, Cathérine (2004). MRI of the fetal brain: normal development and cerebral pathologies. Springer. ISBN 9783540407478. http://books.google.com/books?id=Qbd75DzWGh8C. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- ^ Butler, Paul; Mitchell, Adam W. M.; Ellis, Harold (2007-11-19). Applied Radiological Anatomy for Medical Students. Cambridge University Press. pp. 12–. ISBN 9780521819398. http://books.google.com/books?id=COrAyvWUt68C&pg=PA12. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ^ Tofts, Paul (2005-09-01). Quantitative MRI of the Brain: Measuring Changes Caused by Disease. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 86–. ISBN 9780470869499. http://books.google.com/books?id=f5ZPsReoG1IC&pg=PA86. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ^ Chowdhury, Rajat; Wilson, Iain; Rofe, Christopher; Graham Lloyd-Jones (2010-04-19). Radiology at a Glance. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 95–. ISBN 9781405192200. http://books.google.com/books?id=---xH-DNsrwC&pg=PA95. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- ^ Granacher, Robert P. (2007-12-20). Traumatic brain injury: methods for clinical and forensic neuropsychiatric assessment. CRC Press. pp. 247–. ISBN 9780849381386. http://books.google.com/books?id=xt1YFydzXKQC&pg=PT247. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
Surgery, Nervous system: neurosurgical and other procedures (ICD-9-CM V3 01–05+89.1, ICD-10-PCS 00-01) Skull CNS
pituitary: HypophysectomyBrain biopsyCerebral meningesDiagnostic
PNSSympathetic nerves or gangliaNerves (general)Diagnostic
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