Mesencephalon


Mesencephalon

Infobox Brain
Name = Mesencephalon
Latin = mesencephalon
GraySubject = 188
GrayPage = 800


Caption = Inferior view mesencephalon (2), above (3)


Caption2 = Human brainstem mesencephalon (B)
IsPartOf =
Components =
Artery =
Vein =
BrainInfoType = hier
BrainInfoNumber = 445
MeshName = Mesencephalon
MeshNumber = A08.186.211.132.659
In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) comprises the tectum (or corpora quadrigemini), tegmentum, the ventricular mesocoelia (or "iter"), and the cerebral peduncles, as well as several nuclei and fasciculi. Caudally the mesencephalon adjoins the pons (metencephalon) and rostrally it adjoins the diencephalon (Thalamus, hypothalamus, et al).

During development, the mesencephalon forms from the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube to generate the brain. In mature human brains, the mesencephalon becomes the least differentiated, from both its developmental form and within its own structure, among the three vesicles. The mesencephalon is considered part of the brain stem. Its substantia nigra is closely associated with motor system pathways of the basal ganglia.

The human mesencephalon is archipallian in origin, meaning its general architecture is shared with the most ancient of vertebrates. Dopamine produced in the substantia nigra plays a role in motivation and habituation of species from humans to the most elementary animals such as insects.

Corpora Quadrigemina

The corpora quadrigemina ("quadruplet bodies") are four solid optic lobes on the dorsal side of cerebral aqueduct, where the superior anterior pair are called the superior colliculi and the inferior posterior pair are called the inferior colliculi.The four solid optic lobes help to decussate several fibres of the optic nerve. However some fibers also show ipsilateral arrangement (i.e. they run parallel on the same side without decussating.)The superior colliculus is involved with saccadic eye movements; while the inferior is a synapsing point for sound information. The trochlear nerve comes out of the posterior surface of the midbrain, below the inferior colliculus.

Cerebral Peduncle

The cerebral peduncles are paired structures, present on the ventral side of cerebral aqueduct, and they further carry tegmentum on the dorsal side and cresta or pes on the ventral side, and both of them accommodate the corticospinal tract fibres, from the internal capsule (i.e ascending + descending tracts = longitudinal tract.)the middle part of cerebral peduncles carry substantia nigra (also called "Black Matter") which is a type of basal nucleus. It is the only part of the brain that carries melanin pigment.

Between the peduncles is the interpeduncular fossa, which is a cistern filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The occulomotor nerve comes out between the peduncles, and the trochlear nerve is visible wrapping around the outside of the peduncles.

Cross-Section Through the Midbrain

The midbrain is usually sectioned at the level of the superior and inferior colliculi.

A cross-section at the level of the superior colliculus shows the red nucleus, the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (and associated Edinger-Westphal nucleus), as well as the substantia nigra.

The substantia nigra is still present at inferior colliculus level. Also apparent are the trochlear nerve nucleus, and the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles.

The cerebral aqueduct runs through the midbrain, and is the communication between the third and fourth ventricle.

As a mnemonic the mesencephalic cross-section resembles a bear (or teddybear) upside down with the two red nuclei as the eyes and the crus cerebri as the ears.

Organization

*mesencephalon
**tectum
***inferior colliculi
***superior colliculi
**cerebral peduncle
***midbrain tegmentum
***crus cerebri
***substantia nigra


=Additional

ee also

*list of regions in the human brain


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mesencephalon — Mes en*ceph a*lon, n. [NL. See {Meso } and {Encephalon}.] (Anat.) The middle segment of the brain; the midbrain. Sometimes abbreviated to {mesen}. See {Brain}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mesencephălon — (griech.), das Mittelgehirn …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mesencephalon — ⇒ Mittelhirn …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • MESENCEPHALON — MESENCEPHALON, средний мозг, один из отделов (третий) головного мозга; в состав его входит мозговая ножка и четверохолмие; лежит между dienccphalon и isthmus cerebri. Развивается из среднего мозгового пузыря, полость к рого, сужаясь, превращается …   Большая медицинская энциклопедия

  • mesencephalon — [mes΄en sef′ə län΄, mez΄en sef′ə län΄] n. pl. mesencephala [mes΄en sef΄ələ] [ModL: see MESO & ENCEPHALON] MIDBRAIN mesencephalic [mes΄ensə fal′ik, mez΄ensə fal′ik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • Mesencephalon — Lage des Mittelhirns (3), frontaler Schnitt Das Mittelhirn (lat. Mesencephalon) ist ein Teil des Hirnstamms und liegt zwischen Brücke (Pons) und Zwischenhirn (Diencephalon). Das Mittelhirn steuert die meisten Augenmuskeln und ist ein wichtiger… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • mesencephalon — the midbrain, one of three regions that develop in the fish brain. Unlike the forebrain and the hindbrain, the mesencephalon remains undivided. Details of the brain structure of a fish (Danio rero) may be found in Wullimann et al. (1996). See… …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • Mesencephalon — vidurinės smegenys statusas T sritis centrinė nervų sistema atitikmenys: lot. Mesencephalon ryšiai: platesnis terminas – centrinė nervų sistema siauresnis terminas – dangtinė jungtis siauresnis terminas – dangtinė vidurinių smegenų plokštelė… …   Paukščių anatomijos terminai

  • Mesencephalon — vidurinės smegenys statusas T sritis gyvūnų anatomija, gyvūnų morfologija atitikmenys: lot. Mesencephalon ryšiai: platesnis terminas – ventralinė tilto dalis …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

  • Mesencephalon — vidurinės smegenys statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Mesencephalon ryšiai: platesnis terminas – nervų sistema siauresnis terminas – galvinis linkis siauresnis terminas – vidurinių smegenų ertmė …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai


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