Infobox Brain
GraySubject = 187
GrayPage = 785

Caption = Diagram showing the positions of the three principal subarachnoid cisternæ. (Pons visible at center.)

Caption2 = Anteroinferior view of the medulla oblongata and pons.
IsPartOf = Brain stem
Components =
Artery = pontine arteries
Vein = transverse and lateral pontine veins
BrainInfoType = hier
BrainInfoNumber = 538
MeshName = Pons
MeshNumber = A08.

The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a structure located on the brain stem. It is rostral to the medulla oblongata, caudal to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum. In humans and other bipeds this means it is above the medulla, below the midbrain, and anterior to the cerebellum.


The pons relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum; aids in relaying other messages in the brain; controls arousal, and regulates respiration (see respiratory centres). In some theories, the pons has a role in dreaming. [ [http://www.neurontic.com/2006/07/science-of-dreaming.html The "Science of Dreaming" in Neurontic: Psychology for the Modern Mind.] .]

Anatomy of the pons

The "knob-like" process (Basal pons) is 2 centimeters long and located on the anterior (front) of the brainstem. It is formed of nerves that travel from one side (left or right) to the other. Most other fibres in the brainstem travel up and down.

The posterior (back) surface of the pons forms part of the wall of the fourth ventricle of the brain.

Most blood to the pons is supplied by pontine arteries. These are small arteries that branch off the basilar artery of the Circle of Willis. Blood also comes from the anterior inferior, and superior cerebellar arteries.

There are two main domains in the pons for control of respiration: [GeorgiaPhysiology|4/4ch6/s4ch6_10]
* the apneustic center - lower pons
* the pneumotaxic center - upper pons

Cranial nerve nuclei

A number of cranial nerve nuclei are present in the pons:
* mid-pons: The "chief" or "pontine" nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V)
* mid-pons: the motor nucleus for the trigeminal nerve (V)
* lower down in the pons: abducens nucleus (VI)
* lower down in the pons: facial nerve nucleus (VII)
* lower down in the pons: vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII)

Related diseases

* Central pontine myelinosis, a demyelination disease that causes difficulty with sense of balance, walking, sense of touch, swallowing and speaking to mention just a few symptoms. In a clinical setting it is often associated with transplant. Undiagnosed it can lead to death or 'locked in' syndrome.



External links

* [http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-potter/The_Brain/sld017.htm Diagram at UCC]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • PONS — Verlag GmbH Unternehmensform GmbH Gründung 2008 Unternehmenssitz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PONS — an ex pendeo, quod velut in aere pendeat; an ex pontus, an ex pono, quia ad transeundum ponitur? proprie et communiter flumina iungit; atque e ligno, lapide, navibus, cadaveribus quoque nonnumquam, factus legitur. Eum sternendi facilis olim apud… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Pons II — (né en ? mort le 18 février 1073) était un noble provençal de la famille des vicomtes de Marseille, qui fut évêque de Marseille de 1008 (ou 1014) jusqu à sa mort. Biographie Pons II était le fils de Guillaume II le Gros, vicomte de Marseille …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PONS (L.) — PONS LILY (1904 1976) Sinon une révolution, du moins de fut, à coup sûr, une sensation. La petite Française qui mettait à genoux l’immense Metropolitan de New York en 1931 semblait ressusciter le bel canto et ses grâces évanouies. Née à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Pons — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pons País …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pons — Pons, n.; pl. {Pontes}. [L., a bridge.] (Anat.) A bridge; applied to several parts which connect others, but especially to the pons Varolii, a prominent band of nervous tissue situated on the ventral side of the medulla oblongata and connected at …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • PONS — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pons. Le Pons est un dictionnaire allemand édité par Klett qui se reconnaît à sa couleur verte caractéristique. Portail des langues …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pons — und Medulla oblongata …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pons — Pons, Ponce L un des noms de baptême les plus répandus dans le Midi à l époque médiévale. Il vient du latin Pontius. Saint Pons fut martyrisé à Cimiez (colline de Nice) au IIIe siècle, et ses supposées reliques furent quelques siècles plus tard… …   Noms de famille

  • Pons — m French: from Latin Pontius, originally a family name of uncertain origin. It is probably derived from an Italic dialectal word for ‘five’, and so is ultimately a doublet of QUINTUS (SEE Quintus) and POMPEO (SEE Pompeo). In spite of its… …   First names dictionary

  • Pons — Pons, Josep Sebastià Pons, Ventura …   Enciclopedia Universal

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