Simultaneum


Simultaneum

A shared church, or Simultankirche, Simultaneum or, more fully, simultaneum mixtum, a term first coined in 16th century Germany, is a church in which public worship is conducted by adherents of two or more religious groups. Such churches became common in Europe in the wake of the Reformation.[1] The different Christian denominations (such as Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, or United, etc.), share the same church building, although they worship at different times and with different clergy. It is thus a form of religious toleration.[1]

Simultaneum as a policy was particularly attractive to rulers who ruled over populations which contained considerable numbers of both Catholics and Protestants. It was often the opposite of cuius regio, eius religio and used in situations where a ruler was of a different religion than the majority of the people, and not strong enough to impose his religion on the population.[1]

Examples

Following the compromise between the Reformed Aniconism and Lutheran Adiaphora in Ringstedt's Reformed-Lutheran simultaneum of St. Fabian there is a Lutheran altar, but it shows no crucifix, but only candles.
Map of all simultaneum churches in Germany
Lutheran and Catholic altars in St. M. Kozal church in Gniezno, Poland
Triple in New York
  • Altenberg im Bergischen Land, Altenberg Collegiate Church, since 1857 Catholic-United simultaneum
  • Althaldensleben, Double Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Bautzen, St. Peter's Cathedral, oldest Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum since 1524
  • Béarn, there was a simultaneum, 1561–1569
  • Bechtolsheim, Ss. Mary and Christopher, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Berlin, French Church of Friedrichstadt, Calvinist-United simultaneum since 1981
  • St. Martin's Church, Biberach, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Biebelsheim, St. Martin's Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Boos upon Nahe, Simultaneum[2][3], Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Brauneberg, St. Remigius Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Braunfels, Castle Church, since 2005 a Catholic-United simultaneum
  • Wildenreuth, St. James' Church, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Fröndenberg, Collegiate Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Gau-Odernheim, St. Rufus Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Gniezno, St. Michał Kozal Church, Roman Catholic and Evangelical (of the Augsburg confession) simultaneum (the church with two presbiteries)
  • Goldenstedt, in Vechta, Lower Saxony was a simultaneum between 1650 and 1850.
  • Groß Ammensleben, former Cloister Church, from 1614 until 1817 a Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum, since then a Catholic-United simultaneum
  • Hahn im Hunsrück, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Hildesheim, St. Michael's Church, since 1542 a Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum
  • Frankenhof, St. Margareth Church, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Götzendorf, St. Magdalena Church, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Illschwang, St. Vitus Church, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Kulmbach, the castle chapel on the Plassenburg, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Mosbach, St. Juliana Collegiate Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Neuried-Schutterzell, St. Michael's Church, a Catholic-United since 1804
  • Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Collegiate Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Olne, a simultaneum was introduced, Liège in 1649
  • Rheinberg-Ossenberg, Castle Chapel, a Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Otterberg, Otterberg Abbey, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Palatinate, Louis XIV of France occupied the Electoral Palatinate, a Protestant region, during the Nine Years' War (1688–1697), during which time he introduced the Simultaneum. At the end of the war, the region returned to Protestant control, but a last-minute addition to the Treaty of Ryswick provided for a continuation of the Simultaneum. Although intended to apply only to the Palatinate, the simultaneum was subsequently also applied in portions of Protestant Alsace (a region ruled by France, but where the Edict of Fontainebleau was not enforced).
  • Ringstedt, St. Fabian Church, since 1706 a Reformed-Lutheran simultaneum
  • Rohrdorf in the Black Forest, John's Church, a Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Saarbrücken, Church of Peace (German: Friedenskirche), an Old Catholic-Russian Orthodox simultaneum until the present day
  • Siebeldingen, St. Quintinus Church, a Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Thuine, St. George's Church, Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum until the present day
  • Vechta, Cloister Church (German: Klosterkirche), since 1818 a Catholic-Lutheran simultaneum
  • Wachenheim an der Weinstraße, St. George's Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Wetzlar, former collegiate church, colloquially Wetzlar Cathedral, since 1544-1817 a Catholic-Lutheran, from then on a Catholic-United simultaneum
  • Wilnsdorf-Rödgen, St. John the Baptist Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Wissembourg, there was a so-called trimultaneum, with a Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed congregation sharing one church.
  • Worms-Pfeddersheim, Simultaneum, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day
  • Worms-Rheindürkheim, St. Peter Church, Catholic-United simultaneum until the present day

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe, Harvard University Press, 2007, Chapter 8, pp. 198. ff..
  2. ^ Simultaneum in Boos (Nahe)
  3. ^ Boos (Nahe), photos of the simultaneum

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  • Simultaneum — nennt man das Recht, nach welchem in demselben Staat der evangelische und katholische Glaube freie Ausübung hat. Ehemals machte man in Deutschland einen Unterschied zwischen notwendigem und willkürlichem Simultaneum (lat. simultaneum necessarium… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Simultaneum — (lat.), 1) etwas gleichzeitig u. zugleich von zwei Personen Besessenes; bes. 2) der Mibesitz u. Mitgebrauch der Kirchen an Orten, wo verschiedene Religionsparteien, z.B. Katholiken u. Protestanten, zusammen leben; daher Simultankirchen, 3) Das… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Simultanĕum — (lat.), etwas von zwei Personen zugleich Besessenes; auch ein gleichberechtigtes Nebeneinanderbestehen, namentlich das der katholischen und evangelischen Kirche hinsichtlich der Religionsübung im Staat; endlich und insbes. das durch Herkommen,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Simultaneum — Église simultanée Une église simultanée est une église qui accueille les cultes de deux confessions chrétiennes différentes, en général catholique et luthérienne, mais parfois luthérienne et réformée. Il s’agit en France d’une spécificité… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Simultaneum — Si|mul|ta|ne|um das; s <aus gleichbed. nlat. simultaneum, substantiviertes Neutr. von mlat. simultaneus, vgl. ↑simultan> staatlich od. durch Vertrag geregeltes gemeinsames Nutzungsrecht verschiedener Konfessionen an kirchlichen… …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • simultaneum — noun a) A simultaneous occurrence of unrelated events. b) The shared use of a church for both Protestant and Catholic services …   Wiktionary

  • Simultaneum — Si|mul|ta|ne|um 〈n.; s; unz.〉 gleichzeitige Nutzung kirchl. Einrichtungen durch Angehörige verschiedener Bekenntnisse * * * Simultane|um   das, s, gemeinsame Benutzung von Kirchen, Friedhöfen oder Kultgegenständen durch mehrere christliche… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Simultaneum — Si|mul|ta|ne|um 〈n.; Gen.: s; Pl.: unz.〉 gleichzeitige Nutzung kirchlicher Einrichtungen durch Angehörige verschiedener Bekenntnisse [Etym.: <mlat. simultaneus; → simultan] …   Lexikalische Deutsches Wörterbuch

  • Simultaneum mixtum — Ökumenischer Gottesdienst in Deutschland Das Simultaneum mixtum bezeichnet das gleichzeitige Feiern eines Gottesdienstes von Katholiken und Evangelischen in einer Kirche. Es entstand historisch einmalig in der Gemeinde Goldenstedt (Kreis Vechta)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eglise simultanee — Église simultanée Une église simultanée est une église qui accueille les cultes de deux confessions chrétiennes différentes, en général catholique et luthérienne, mais parfois luthérienne et réformée. Il s’agit en France d’une spécificité… …   Wikipédia en Français


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