Shriners


Shriners
Logo of the Shriners of North America

The Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, also commonly known as Shriners and abbreviated A.A.O.N.M.S., established in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry, based in the United States. In 2010, the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, as well as Shriners North America, changed its name to Shriners International, now covering nearly 200 temples (chapters) across the North America, South America, Europe, and Southeast Asia [1]. The organization is best known for the Shriners Hospitals for Children they administer and the red fezzes that members wear. The organization is headquartered in Tampa, Florida.[2] Shriners International describes itself as a fraternity based on fun, fellowship and the Masonic principles of brotherly love, relief, and truth. There are approximately 340,000 members from 194 temples (chapters) in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Republic of Panama, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Europe and Australia. On July 6, 2011, Shriners International commissioned Emirat Shriners of Heidelberg, Germany, as its 194th temple, and passed the first steps toward forming a new temple in Mindanao, The Philippines. [3]

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History

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Walter Millard Fleming
Shrine Peace Memorial at CNE grounds in Toronto
Shrine Peace Memorial Plaque at CNE grounds in Toronto

In 1870, there were several thousand Masons in Manhattan, many of whom lunched at the Knickerbocker Cottage at a special table on the second floor. There, the idea of a new fraternity for Masons stressing fun and fellowship was discussed. Walter M. Fleming, M.D., and William J. Florence took the idea seriously enough to act upon it.

Florence, a world-renowned actor, while on tour in Marseilles, was invited to a party given by an Arabian diplomat. The entertainment was something in the nature of an elaborately staged musical comedy. At its conclusion, the guests became members of a secret society. Florence took copious notes and drawings at his initial viewing and on two other occasions, once in Algiers and once in Cairo. When he returned to New York in 1870, he showed his material to Fleming.[4]

Fleming took the ideas supplied by Florence and converted them into what would become the "Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (A.A.O.N.M.S.)". Fleming created the ritual, emblem and costumes. Florence and Fleming were initiated August 13, 1870, and initiated 11 other men on June 16, 1871.[5]

The group adopted a Middle Eastern theme and soon established Temples meeting in Mosques (though the term Temple has now generally been replaced by Shrine Auditorium or Shrine Center). The first Temple established was Mecca Temple (now known as Mecca Shriners), established at the New York City Masonic Hall on September 26, 1872. Fleming was the first Potentate.[6]

In 1875, there were only 43 Shriners in the organization. In an effort to spur membership, at the June 6, 1876 meeting of Mecca Temple, the Imperial Grand Council of the Ancient Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine for North America was created. Fleming was elected the first Imperial Potentate. After some other reworking, by 1878 there were 425 members in 13 temples in eight states, and by 1888, there were 7,210 members in 48 temples in the United States and Canada. By the Imperial Session held in Washington, D.C. in 1900, there were 55,000 members and 82 Temples.[7]

Shriners often participate in local parades, sometimes as rather elaborate units: miniature vehicles in themes (all sports cars; all miniature 18-wheeler trucks; all fire engines, and so on), an "Oriental Band" dressed in cartoonish versions of Middle Eastern dress; pipe bands, drummers, motorcycle units, Drum and Bugle Corps, and even traditional brass bands.

Membership

Despite its theme, the Shrine is not connected to Islam. It is a men's fraternity rather than a religion or religious group. Its only religious requirement is indirect: all Shriners must be Masons, and petitioners to Freemasonry must profess a belief in a Supreme Being. To further minimize confusion with religion, the use of the word "Temple" to describe Shriners' buildings has been replaced by "Shrine Center," although individual local chapters are still called "Temples."

Until 2000, before being eligible for membership in the Shrine, a person had to complete either the Scottish Rite or York Rite degrees of Masonry,[8] but now any Master Mason can join.[9]

Shriners count among their ranks presidents, senators, local business leaders, professional golfers, country music stars, astronauts and racecar drivers. [10]

Women's Auxiliaries

While there are plenty of activities for Shriners and their wives, there are two organizations tied to the Shrine that are for women only: The Ladies' Oriental Shrine and Daughters of the Nile. They both support the Shriners Hospitals and promote sociability, and membership in either organization is open to women 18 years of age and older who is related to a Shriner or Master Mason by birth, marriage or adoption. The Ladies Oriental Shrine of North America was founded in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1903,[11] and Daughters of the Nile was founded in 1913 in Seattle, Washington.[12]

Architecture

Some of the earliest Shrine Centers often chose a Moorish Revival style for their Temples. Architecturally notable Shriners Temples include the New York City Center, now used as a concert hall, Newark Symphony Hall, The Landmark Theater (formerly The Mosque) in Richmond, Virginia, the Tripoli Shrine Temple in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the Helena Civic Center (Montana) (formerly the Algeria Shrine Temple), and the Fox Theatre (Atlanta, Georgia) which was jointly built between the Atlanta Shriners and William Fox.

Shriners Hospitals for Children

The Shrine's charitable arm is the Shriners Hospitals for Children, a network of twenty-two hospitals in the United States, Mexico and Canada. It was originally formed to treat young victims of polio, but as that disease was controlled, they broadened their scope. They now deal with orthopedic care, burn treatment, cleft lip and palate care and spinal cord injury rehabilitation. All treatment offered at Shriner's Hospitals for Children is offered without any financial obligation to patients and their families, and there is no requirement for religion, race, or relationship to a Shriner. Patients must be under the age of eighteen and treatable.[13]

In 2008, Shriners Hospitals had a total budget of $826 million and in 2007 they approved 39,454 new patient applications, attended to the needs of 125,125 patients.[13]

Other events

The Shriners are committed to community service and have been instrumental in countless public projects throughout their domain.

Shriners host the annual East-West Shrine Game, a college football all-star game.

Shriners hold the Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open, a PGA Golf Tour golf tournament held in Las Vegas, NV. [14]

Once a year, the fraternity meets for the Imperial Council Session in a major North American city. It is not uncommon for these conventions to have 20,000 participants or more, which generates significant revenue for the local economy.

Many Shrine Centers also hold a yearly Shrine Circus as a fundraiser.

See also

A Shriner in an iconic miniature car participating in a Memorial Day parade
Statue at Shriners Hospital in Portland, Oregon

References

  1. ^ "Fun With Purpose" Shriners International. Retrieved on August 7, 2011.
  2. ^ Home page." Shriners International. Retrieved on March 12, 2010.
  3. ^ "News - Shriners International Approves Addition of New Temple". Shriners International. Retrieved on August 7, 2011.
  4. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. pp. 3–4.
  5. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p.5.
  6. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p. 6.
  7. ^ Shriners of North America. A Short History: Shriners of North America and Shriners Hospitals. September 2004 edition. p. 8.
  8. ^ "Abd El Kader's Masonic Friends" (PDF). The New York Times: p. 8. 1883-06-07. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9401E6D71431E433A25754C0A9609C94629FD7CF&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-02-25. 
  9. ^ "Be A Shriner Now". Shriners International. Accessed March 12, 2010.
  10. ^ "Values - Leadership". Shriners International. Accessed August 7, 2011.
  11. ^ Ladies Oriental Shrine of North America. Accessed 6 November 2011.
  12. ^ "About Us". Accessed 6 November 2011.
  13. ^ a b "Shriners Hospitals for Children About Us". Shriners Hospitals. http://www.shrinershq.org/Hospitals/Main/About. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  14. ^ "Justin Timberlake Shriners Hospitals for Children Open" | Sunday, September 25, 2011 - Sunday, October 2, 2011 | Las Vegas, NV 89134."] Shriners International. Retrieved August 7, 2011.

External links


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  • Shriners — Shrine Shrine (shr[imac]n), n. [OE. schrin, AS. scr[=i]n, from L. scrinium a case, chest, box.] 1. A case, box, or receptacle, especially one in which are deposited sacred relics, as the bones of a saint. [1913 Webster] 2. Any sacred place, as an …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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