List of extinct states

This page attempts to list the many extinct states, countries, nations, empires or territories that have ceased to exist as political entities, grouped geographically and by constitutional nature.

Ancient and medieval states

States and realms that disappeared in ancient history.

Europe, North Africa and the Near East

Ancient

*Adiabene
*Akkad
*Aksu
*Ammon
*Assyria
*Axumite Kingdom
*Babylonia
*Carthage
*Chaldea
*Dacia
*Edom
*Elam
*Ancient Epirus
*Etruria
*Fatimid Caliphate
*Finnveden
*Kingdom of Fez or Wattasid
*Egyptian Empire
*Hellenic city-states (such as Athens, Sparta, Syracuse) and their allied cities/colonies/territories.
*Hellenistic Empires (Ptolemaic, Seleucid, Antigonid,etc.)
*Hittites
*Hurrians
*Illyria
*Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and later kingdom of Judaea
*Kommagene
*Kush
*Macedon
*Media
*Moab
*Nabataean kingdom
*Nekor
*Njudung
*Petty kingdoms of present-day Norway
*Nubia
*Odrysian kingdom of Thrace
*Parthia
*Pontus
*Rome
**Roman Kingdom
**Roman Republic
**Roman Empire
*Scythia
*Sumer
*Tartessos
*Urartu
*Värend
*Yamkhad
*Troy

Medieval

England

Following the collapse of the Roman Empire there followed a period where the Romano-British political entity fragmented caused mainly by the Celtic system of dividing a realm between the sons of a king on his death. This situation was made worse after c.449 when Jutes and later Anglo-Saxons began colonising the eastern and southern seaboards and driving inland. Eventually the Romano-Britons (now known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Welsh") were assimilated or driven into the highlands of Cambria (Wales) or Caledonia (Scotland). Wales and Scotland will be considered separate from what once existed in England.

Sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms in England
*Dumnonia, a realm named after the Dumnonii in the southwest.
*Bryneich, a kingdom in the modern day northeast of England.
*Ebrauc, a small kingdom centred on York.
*Calchfynedd, a kingdom in the Chiltern or Cheviot Hills.
*Elmet, a substantial kingdom near Leeds extinguished in 616.
*Rheged, another substantial kingdom, divided into north and south, in the northwest of modern England.
*Pengwern, a significant kingdom in what is now Shropshire.

Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England
*Northumbria, formed out of the kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira.
*Mercia, which absorbed the smaller kingdoms of Lindsey and Hwicce.
*East Anglia.
*Kent.
*Sussex, kingdom of the South Saxons.
*Wessex, kingdom of the West Saxons.
*Essex, kingdom of the East Saxons.
*Haestingas, a Saxon tribe in part of Sussex.
*Magonsaete, an Anglian tribe in the hills of Shropshire.
*Hwicce, an Anglian tribe in modern Gloucestershire and Worcestershire.
*Middle Saxons, a Saxon tribe in modern Middlesex and Hertfordshire.
*Suthrege, the Saxons of modern Surrey.
*Hicca, a small "Middle Angle" tribe in modern Cambridgeshire.
*Wreoconsaete, an Anglian tribe in the hills of Shropshire.
*Gyre, a small "Middle Angle" tribe in modern Cambridgeshire.
*Witware, the Jutes of the Isle of Wight.

Kingdom of England

Wales

Sub-Roman and Medieval Brythonic kingdoms in Wales
Wales experienced a similar history during this time, although the Welsh population successfully resisted the influx of Anglo-Saxon settlers into the British Isles. The country was home to a number of princedoms until England's ultimate conquest of the region in the later medieval period.

*Kingdom of Gwynedd, a kingdom that eventually became the core of the Principality of Wales
*Dyfed
*Deheubarth
*Powys
*Brycheiniog, became modern Brecknockshire
*Ceredigion
*Gwent
*Morgannwg, became modern Glamorgan
*Gwerthyrnion
*Meirionnydd, became modern Merionethshire
*Seisyllwg
*Rhufoniog
*Rhos
*Dogfeiling
*Dunoting
*Maelienydd
*Principality of Wales a feudal confederation of Welsh principalities and a vasal of England between 1267 and 1282.

cotland

Sub-Roman Cumbric kingdoms in Scotland
*Valentia, an entity between Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall during the period following the departure of the Romans until c.450.
*Alt Clud
*Gododdin
*Manau Gododdin

Pictish kingdoms in Scotland
*Cait — situated in modern Caithness and Sutherland
*Ce — situated in modern Mar and Buchan
*Circinn — perhaps situated in modern Angus and the Mearns [37]
*Fib — the modern Fife, known to this day as 'the Kingdom of Fife'
*Fidach — location unknown
*Fotla — modern Atholl (Ath-Fotla) [38]
*Fortriu — cognate with the Verturiones of the Romans; recently shown to be centered around Moray

Gaelic kingdoms in Scotland
*Dál Riata, the proto-state that became Scotland. "(this kingdom spanned western Scotland and northeastern Ireland)"

Other
*Kingdom of Scotland

Ireland

Extinct kingdoms in Ireland
Ireland during the early medieval period consisted of some two hundred "tuathas" or minor kingdoms, which were in turn vassals of the rulers of an over-kingdom, called a "cóiced" (usually translated as a portion, a fifth, or a province). The most prominent of these kingdoms were

* Aileach - later Tír Conaill and Tír Eógain
* Airgíalla
* Ulaid
* Mide
* Laighin
* Osraighe
* Munster - including Ormond, Desmond and Thomond
* Uí Maine
* Connacht

Between the 8th and 12th centuries, various Ard Rí attempted unsuccessfully to impose their rule over all the kingdoms in Ireland. Among those whose efforts almost made this a reality were Flann Sinna, reigned 877-916); Niall Glúndub mac Áedo (916-919); Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (1002-1014); Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain (1055-1086; and Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair (1119-1156). The last of these kingdoms ceased to exist in the early 17th century. Further Irish kingdoms included:

*Aidhne
*Breifne
*Dál Fiatach
*Dál nAraidi
*Dál Riata "(this kingdom spanned western Scotland and northeastern Ireland)"
*Desmond
*Dublin
*Fir Manach
*Meath
*Moylurg
*Uí Failghe

For further information see Irish kings.

France

**Frankish Kingdom/Carolingian Empire (~419-843)
***West Francia which eventually developed into the Kingdom of France
**Central Francia
***Kingdom of Lotharingia (855-869)
***Duchy of Lorraine
**Duchy of Burgundy (880-1482), dynastic pivot – in personal union – of most of the Low Countries and much of eastern and northern France
**Duchy of Brittany (841 to 1532)
**Papal states of
***Avignon
***Peñíscola under antipope Benedict XIII
**Republic of St. Tropez (1470-1672)
**Duchy of Normandy - this state technically continues to exist as the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, British crown dependencies not a part of the United Kingdom, while the rest was incorporated into France.
**Duchy of Bar

Low Countries

*in the Low Countries (present Belgium and/or Netherlands, but not Luxembourg)
**Seventeen Provinces was transformed
**Countship of Flanders
**Duchy of Gelre (roughly Guelders), another claimant to archducal rank
**Countship of Holland
**Duchy of Bouillon
**Countship of Namur
**Drenthe
**Prince-bishopric of Liège
**Duchy of Brabant, claiming the rank of archduchy as premier principality in the former duchy of Lower Lotharingia
**Countship of Hainaut (its personal union with Holland was not a state as such)
**Countship of Hoorn
**Breda
**Bergen op Zoom
**Arkel
**Thorn
**Montfoort
**Friesland (Frisia)
**Groningen
**Oostergo
**Westergo
**Gemert
**Woerden
**Prince-bishopric of Utrecht
**Countship of Zutphen

Germany

*in historic and present-day Germany and neighbouring countries/regions
**East Francia
***Holy Roman Empire (843-1806)
****List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, nearly all of those (largely Kleinstaaterei) were merged into larger states, eventually into modern Germany, Austria, and other large modern states, remarkable exceptions including Liechtenstein and Luxembourg
**Pomerania ruled by the Dukes of Pomerania (1121-1637)
**Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights

pain and Portugal

*Iberian states
**Christian Hispania
***Crown of Aragon (-1479)
****Aragon (1035-1479)
*****Ribagorza
*****Sobrarbe
****Principality of Catalonia
*****Countship of Barcelona
*****Urgell
*****Pallars Sobirà
*****Pallars Jussà
*****Empúries
****Kingdom of Valencia
****Kingdom of Majorca
***Kingdom of Asturias (716-913) afterwards
***Kingdom of León (913-1037, 1195-1230)
****Kingdom/County of Galicia
*****Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal
*****County of Portugal ("Portucale", in old Portuguese)
*****County of Coimbra
***Kingdom of Castile (11th century - 1479)
***Kingdom of Navarre
***Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia
***Visigothic Hispania
***Vandalic and Alanic kingdoms in Iberia
**Moorish Al Andalus
***Caliphate of Cordoba, originally an emirate
***Taifa kingdoms, mainly emirates
****Albarracín
****Algeciras
****Almería
****Alpuente
****Badajoz
****Baeza
****Balearic Islands or Majorca
****Beja and Évora
****Carmona
****Constantina and Hornachuelos
****Cordova
****Ceuta
****Denia
****Granada
****Guadix and Baza
****Huelva
****Jaen
****Jérica
****Lisbon
****Lorca
****Malaga
****Menorca
****Mértola
****Molina
****Morón
****Murcia
****Murviedro and Sagunto
****Niebla
****Orihuela
****Purchena
****Ronda
****Saltés and Huelva
****Algarve
****Santarém
****Segorbe
****Segura
****Seville
****Silves
****Tavira
****Tejada
****Toledo
****Tortosa
****Valencia
****Zaragoza

Italy

*in present Italy
*Post-Roman Kingdom of Italy
**Republic of Venice (727-1797)
**Republic of Genoa (~1000-1797)
**Carantania
**Duchy of Lucca
**Duchy of Modena and Reggio
**Duchy of Parma
**Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont
**Duchy (first Countship) of Savoy (1416-1714)
**Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily (1043-1410, 1442-1500, 1735-1816)
**Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816-1860)
**Tuscany
**Papal States — partially annexed by the kingdom of Italy in 1860, completely annexed in 1870
**and many minor city states and feudal principalities

Russia and Ukraine

*In and around present-day European Russia and Ukraine:
**Volga Bulgaria (660-1236)
**Novgorod Republic
**Golden Horde - in 1430s into Kazan Khanate, Crimean Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Big Horde; Russia finally became independent
**Khazar Empire (652-1016)
**Kievan Rus (860 - 12th century)
**Trubczewsk - Originally a sub-principality under Novhorod-Siversky, Trubchevsk was independent sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, in 1164–1196, 1202–1211, 1212–1240, 1378–1399, and finally in 1462–1503.
**Grand Duchy of Lithuania (-1795)

Balkan States

*Balkan states
**Republic of Ragusa/Dubrovnik (1358-1808)
**Medieval Croatian state (~800s-1102)
**Great Bulgaria (632-660)
**First Bulgarian Empire (681-1018)
**Second Bulgarian Empire (1186-1396)
**Bulgarian Khanate (681-864)

*Byzantine Empire (330-1453)
**Empire of Nicaea (1204-1261)
**Empire of Trebizond
**Despotate of Epirus
**Despotate of Morea
*European Crusader States (1098-1291)
**Latin Empire of Constantinople
**Kingdom of Thessalonica
**Principality of Achaea
**Duchy of Athens
**Duchy of the Archipelago

Elsewhere

*Near East
**Sultanate of Rüm (1077-1307)
**Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1080-1375)
**Asian Crusader States (1098-1291)
***Countship of Edessa
***Kingdom of Jerusalem
***Principality of Antioch
***Countship of Tripoli
***Kingdom of Cyprus
*Khwarezmian Empire (1077-1220)
*Mongol Empire (1200-1266)
*Crimean Khanate (1441-1783)
*Tibetan Empire (7th to the 11th century)
*Nanzhao (737-902)
*Kingdom of Dali (937-1253)
*Guge (ca. 900- ca. 1650)
*Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171) in North Africa
*Seljuk Empire
*Timurid Empire Persia, Central Asia, and part of India
*Mughal Empire (1526-1857) in India
*Dzungar

outh Asia

*Bactria
*Indo-Parthian Kingdom
*Indus Valley Civilisation (Harappa, Mohenjo Daro in present Pakistan) South Asia
*Magadha
*Kushan Empire
*Chola Empire which spread to Malaya, Indonesia, Ceylon
*Pandyan Kingdom which spread to Ceylon
*Chera dynasty
*Pallavas
*Mughal Empire

China

*Shang Dynasty
*Zhou Dynasty
*Warring States
**Chu
**Cai
**Cao
**Chen
**Lu
**Song
**Yue
**Wu
**Jin
**Han
**Zheng
**Wei
**Zhao
**Qi
**Yan
**Qin
*Qin Dynasty
*Han Dynasty
*Three Kingdoms
**Eastern Wu
**Cao Wei
**Shu Han
*Jin Dynasty
*Sixteen Kingdoms
**Cheng Han
**Former Liang
**Former Qin
**Former Yan
**Han Zhao
**Later Liang
**Later Qin
**Later Yan
**Later Zhao
**Northern Liang
**Northern Yan
**Southern Liang
**Southern Yan
**Western Liang
**Western Qin
**Xia
*Southern and Northern Dynasties
**Liu Song
**Northern Wei
**Southern Qi
**Eastern Wei
**Liang Dynasty
**Western Wei
**Chen
**Northern Qi
**Northern Zhou
*Sui Dynasty
*Tang Dynasty
*Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
**Later Liang Dynasty
**Later Tang Dynasty
**Later Jin Dynasty
**Later Han Dynasty
**Later Zhou Dynasty
**Wu
**Wuyue
**Min
**Chu
**Southern Han
**Former Shu
**Later Shu
**Jingnan
**Southern Tang
**Northern Han
*Song Dynasty
*Yuan Dynasty
*Ming Dynasty
*Qing Dynasty

The many Chinese states had an influence on surrounding regions; from the Song Dynasty period alone, this includes:
*Liao Dynasty (Khitan ethnicity)
*Western Xia (Tangut ethnicity)
*Jin Dynasty (Jurchen ethnicity)

A number of now-extinct states formed under Chinese influence along the Silk Road in the Tarim Basin, including:
*Karasahr
*Khotan
*Kucha
*Yarkand

Korea

The early history of Korea was as complex as that of neighbouring China. A number of Korean states existed on the peninsula and reached up into Manchuria before the formation of the modern state of Korea. These included:

*Gojoseon
*Jin
*Buyeo
*Goguryeo
*Baekje
*Silla
*Gaya Confederacy
*Unified Silla
*Balhae
*Taebong
*Hubaekje
*Goryeo

Vietnam

The country of Vietnam in the past was very different to the modern day. The first Vietnamese kingdom occupied only present-day northern Vietnam. In the 10th century, Vietnam began to push to the south for the next 1000 years which was called Nam Tiến (southward expansion) in Vietnamese. It conquered other kingdoms and was split by civil war. All the kingdoms that united to form Vietnam are:

*Amaravati
*Annam (Chinese Province)
*Annam (French colony)
*Âu Lạc
*Champa
*Cochinchina
*Funan
*Kauthara
*Kampuchea Krom
*Nam Việt
*North Vietnam
*Panduranga
*Sedang
*South Vietnam
*Tonkin
*Vạn Xuân
*Văn Lang
*Vijaya

outheast Asia

*Khmer Empire
*Patani Kingdom
*Majapahit
*Malacca Sultanate
*Pala Empire
*Singhasari
*Langkasuka
*Srivijaya
*Sukhothai kingdom
*Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo - Sulu is now included in the Philippines, while North Borneo is now the Malaysian State of Sabah

Pre-Columbian America

The Americas have historically been home to a number of indigenous states, civilizations and societies of great complexity. Those indigenous states which were still in existence by the time of the first permanent European colonizations from the late fifteenth century onwards were soon substantively destroyed and/or absorbed. The list below includes both those which had ceased to exist before this European arrival, and those which ceased to independently function as a result of this impact.
*Ancient Pueblo Peoples (Anasazi)
*Aztec Empire
*Cahokia
*Carib
*Chachapoya
*Chimú
*Ciboney
*Huari (Wari)
*Inca civilization
*Tiwanaku
*Maya civilization
*Moche (Mochica)
*Nazca (Ica-Nazca)
*Olmec
*Selk’nam
*Taino
*Timucuan
*Teotihuacan Empire
*Tlaxcala
*Toltecs
*Tahuantinsuyu (the Inca Empire)

In addition, there were a wide variety of pre-Inca cultures, few of which developed into organised states.

Oceania

*Tu'i Tonga Empire
*Kingdom of Hawaii (Island)
*Kingdom of Maui
*Kingdom of Molokai
*Kingdom of Oahu
*Kingdom of Kauai" See List of Indigenous Australian group names "

Modern states

tates and territories grouped by geographical location

Europe

*In and around what is now Finno-Scandinavia, unions were personal, not unitary
**Grand Duchy of Finland in personal union with imperial Russia
**Finnish Democratic Republic
**Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic in southern Finland
**Kingdom of Finland
**Kalmar Union - (the three Scandinavian kingdoms; dissolved)
**Union of Denmark-Norway - (dissolved)
**Union of Sweden and Norway - (dissolved)
* In and around what is now France
**French First Republic (1792-1804)
**First French Empire (1804-1815)
**French Second Republic (1848-1852)
**Second French Empire (1852-1870)
**French Third Republic (1870-1940)
**Vichy France (1940-1944)
**French Fourth Republic (1946-1958)
**Corsican Republic (1755-1769)
**Anglo-Corsican Kingdom (1794-1796)
**County of Foix
**Republic of Goust
**Free States of Menton and Roquebrune (1848-1860)
* In and around what is now Germany
**Holy Roman Empire (843-1806) - "not a state"
**Confederation of the Rhine (1806-1813) - "not a state"
**German Confederation (1815-1866) - "not a state"
**North German Federation (1867-1871)
**German Empire (1871-1945)
***German Empire as "Deutsches Kaiserreich" (1871-1918)
***German Empire as Weimar Republic (1919-1933)
***German Empire as Nazi Germany (Third Reich 1933-1945)
***Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD) (also called West Germany 1949-1990) succeeded the German Empire in 1949, expanded in 1957 and 1990
***German Democratic Republic (1949-1990) (also called GDR, DDR, East Germany or Eastern Germany), its states acceded to Federal Republic of Germany in 1990
**Alsace-Lorraine (1918)
**Alsace Soviet Republic (1918)
**Anhalt (Duchy 1863-1918)
***Anhalt-Bernburg (Duchy 1803-1863, inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau)
***Anhalt-Dessau (Duchy 1807-1863)
***Anhalt-Köthen (Duchy 1807-1847, inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau)
**Baden (Grand Duchy - 1806-1918)
**Bavaria (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
***Bavarian Soviet Republic
**Bremen (Free city until today)
**Brunswick
**Frankfurt (Free city 1815-1866)
**Hamburg (Free city until today)
**Kingdom of Hanover (1814-1866)
**Hesse-Darmstadt
**Hesse-Homburg
**Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (Electorate, 1803-1807, 1813-1866)
**Hohenzollern-Hechingen
**Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
**Holstein
**Lauenburg
**Lippe
**Lübeck (Free city 1226-1937)
**Mecklenburg-Schwerin
**Mecklenburg-Strelitz
**Nassau
**Oldenburg
**Prussia (1525-1947)
***Duchy of Prussia (1525-1618)
***Brandenburg-Prussia (1618-1701)
***Kingdom of Prussia (1701-1918)
**Reuss
**Saxe-Altenburg
**Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
**Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
**Saxe-Gotha
**Saxe-Hildburghausen
**Saxe-Meiningen
**Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
**Saxony (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
**Schaumburg-Lippe
**Schleswig
**Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
**Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
**Waldeck
**Württemberg (Kingdom - 1806-1918)
*Historical states of Italy
**Cisalpine Republic (1797-1802)
**Cispadane Republic (1796-1797)
**Republic of Cospaia (1440-1826)
**Sovereign Principality of Elba (1814-1815)
**Kingdom of Etruria (1801-1807)
**Italian Republic (Napoleonic) (1802-1805)
**Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) (1805-1814)
**Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815-1866)
**Duchy of Lucca (1815-1847)
**Duchy of Mantua (1273-1707)
**Duchy of Massa and Carrara (15th century-19th century)
**Duchy of Milan (1395-1797)
**Duchy of Modena (1452-1796, 1815-1859)
**Kingdom of Naples (1285-1816)
**Duchy of Parma (1545-1859)
**Papal States (752-1870)
**Roman Republic (19th century) (1849)
**Kingdom of Sardinia (1324-1861)
**Kingdom of Tavolara (1836-1886, 1899-1934?)
**Republic of Tavolara (1886-1899)
**Transpadane Republic (1796-1797)
**Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1569-1801, 1815-1859)
**Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1815-1860)
**Free Territory of Trieste (1947-1954)
**Republic of Venice (697-1797)
* In and around what is now the British Isles
** Kingdom of England (927-1707)
** Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707)
** Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541)
** Kingdom of Ireland (1541-1801)
** Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1649-1660)
** United Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800)
** United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1922)
* In and around what is now The Netherlands:
** Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581-1795) (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden/Provinciën) Independence from Spain after Eighty Years' War in 1581, conquered by Napoleon 1795.
** Batavian Republic (1795-1806) (Bataafse Republiek) France's vassal state.
** Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810) (Koninkrijk Holland/Royaume d'Hollande) Ruled by Louis Bonaparte, annexed by France 1810.
* In and around what is now Poland
**Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century-1795)
**Kingdom of Lithuania (1251-1263, 1918)
**Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795)
**Lemko-Rusyn Republic (1918-1920)
**Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815)
**Free City of Danzig (1807-1815) (1920-1939)
**Galician Soviet Socialist Republic
**Republic of Krakow (1815-1846)
**Duchy of Courland (1561-1795)
**Republic of Perloja (1918-1923)
* In and around present Russia:
**Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, including the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which became post-communist republics;
**Soviet Republic of Naissaar on an Estonian Baltic island:"For the hundreds of feudal states of various size (mainly Kleinstaaterei) and nature that were part of the non-centralised Holy Roman Empire (mainly in Germany, Austria, Benelux countries and various neighbouring regions), see List of states in the Holy Roman Empire"
*In other former Comecon countries
**
**Hungarian Soviet Republic
**Slovak Soviet Republic
**Kingdom of Yugoslavia (formerly Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), not to be confused with Communist Yugoslavia.
**Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, gradually dismembered
* In and around what is now Spain and Portugal
** Couto Mixto

Asia

* In Afghanistan
**Durrani Empire (1747-1823)
*Kingdom of Iraq
*Ottoman Empire (c.1281-1923)
*Persian Soviet Socialist Republic in Gilan (Iran)
*Republic of Ararat
*Republic of Mahabad
*In Arab countries:
**Alawite State in coastal Syria
**People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
*Jabal el Druze (state)
*Sikkim
*Mysore
*In the Far East
**Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi Province
**Joseon Dynasty (1392-1897)
**Korean Empire (1897-1910)
**Republic of Ezo
**Republic of Formosa
**Hunan Soviet in a continental Chinese province
**Manchukuo
**Mongolian People's Republic
**Ryukyu Kingdom
**Tuva
*In Southeast Asia
**Pattani kingdom
**Kingdom of Sarawak
**Sultanate of Johore
**Sultanate of Maguindanao
**Sultanate of Malacca
**Sultanate of Mataram
**Sultanate of Rajah Buayan
**Sultanate of Sulu

North America

Note: This list includes only nations which formerly existed within the current United States and Canada; for nations in present-day Mexico and Central America, see above at Pre-Columbian America and below at Mexico and Central America.

Pre-colonial Africa

:"See also: List of Great Lakes kingdoms and East African City-States"

*Ashanti Kingdom fell to the United Kingdom in 1900
*Aro Confederacy fell to the United Kingdom in 1902
*Barbary States in North Africa
*Basutoland - 1868, to the United Kingdom
*Benin, fell in 1897 to the United Kingdom
*Buganda became Uganda
*Bunyoro made a British protectorate in 1897
*Burundi fell to Germany in 1899
*Dahomey conquered by France in 1894
*Fante Confederacy, 1874, to the United Kingdom
*Fulani Empire - annexed by France and the United Kingdom in 1903
*Gao
*Ghana, (9th to 13th centuries, fell to Almoravids)
*Almoravids (1040-1147)
*Almohads (1125-1272)
*Beiruk (1767-1916)
*Great Zimbabwe
*Kanem-Borno
*Mali
*Merina
*Monomotapa
*Pemba, Tanzania
*Rwanda 1894 to Germany
*Songhai
*Toro
*Zanzibar
*Zululand

tates and territories grouped by type

Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories

These were all colonies, most of which were renamed after their independence.
*Afars and Issas - French territory between 1967 and 1977, called French Somaliland before that. Became independent as Djibouti.
*Basutoland - Since 1868 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Lesotho in 1966.
*Bechuanaland - Since 1884 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Botswana in 1966.
*Belgian Congo - Belgian colony from 1908 until 1960, when the it became independent as the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo.
*British America - British interests in North America (now generally parts of the USA and Canada) until 1783 when Britain accepted the USA as independent
*British East Africa - British territory. Became Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Had own currency (British East African Shilling)
*British Guiana - became Guyana in 1966
*British Honduras - became Belize in 1981
*British India - became India and Pakistan in 1948
*British North America - Some British interests in North America after the territory of the 13 former colonies became recognized as a new independent country, the USA, in 1783 (note: the colonies in question were, at the time of independence, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; the land of the nominally newly independent territory included a number of Native American nations; also, entities that were already no longer colonies before independence included East Jersey, West Jersey, New Netherlands, New Sweden, and Plymouth Colony.)
*Congo Free State - Name of the state owned from 1884 by King Léopold II of Belgium, later mostly annexed by his country in 1908, then known as Belgian Congo.
*Dahomey - This African kingdom was acquired by France. In 1904, it was made part of the French West African federation. It became independent in 1960, changing its name in 1975 to Benin.
*Danish West Indies - Danish colony, sold in 1917 to the United States. Now known as the United States Virgin Islands.
*Dutch Guiana - became Suriname
*French Equatorial Africa - A French federation of colonies, formed in 1910, containing the colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, Chad and Ubangi-Shari. Each of these states became independent in 1960 (Ubangi-Shari as the Central African Republic).
*French Indochina - French territory until 1949. Became independent as Cambodia, Laos and Việt Nam.
*French Somaliland - became Afars and Issas then independent Djibouti
*French Sudan - A French colony, part of the French West African federation since 1904. In 1959 it formed the independent Mali Federation together with Senegal, which fell apart in 1960, after which the country was renamed Mali.
*French West Africa - dissolved into Mali, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Niger, Guinea, Dahomey, Mauritania.
*German East Africa - became Tanganyika, now part of Tanzania
*German New Guinea - protectorate from 1884 until conquered by Australia in 1914, now part of Papua New Guinea.
*German South-West Africa - A German colony from 1884 to 1915, after which it became South African held territory until 1990, when the country became independent as Namibia.
*Gold Coast - A British colony since 1874, it became independent as Ghana in 1957.
*Hong Kong - colony of the United Kingdom, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997, as a "Special Administrative Region".
*Indian princely states: over 550 principalities which were protectorates of the British crown were merged with the successor states of the British Raj in the years after independence in 1947.
*Italian East Africa - Italian colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland together with occupied Ethiopia.
*Italian North Africa - became Libya
*Macao - colony of Portugal, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999, as a "Special Administrative Region".
*Middle Congo - A French colony, previously named French Congo, became independent as the Republic of the Congo in 1960.
*Minorca - British colony returned to Spain
*Netherlands East Indies - A collection of Dutch colonies, officially since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, up to 1799 controlled by the Dutch East India Company but occupied and administered by the British in an interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars under the authority of the Kew Letters. Became independent as Indonesia in 1949.
*Netherlands Guiana - became Suriname
*Netherlands New Guinea - adjacent to the Netherlands East Indies until 1949, became part of Indonesia in 1963 as Irian Jaya.
*New France was conquered by the United Kingdom; various parts of it later became part of Canada and the United States.
*New Granada - A Spanish colony made up by present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela (which then included Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago). It was established in 1717 and dissolved in 1810 when Venezuela declared its independence.
*New Hebrides - An Anglo-French condominium until 1980. Became independent as Vanuatu.
*New Netherlands - A Dutch colony in the present-day United States, mainly in and around the state of New York. It was conquered by England in 1664.
*New Spain
*Northern Rhodesia - became Zambia in 1964.
*Nyasaland - British protectorate, previously called British Central Africa, it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907. It became part of a federation with Rhodesia in 1953, and became independent as Malawi in 1964.
*Orange River Sovereignty - became the Orange Free State in 1854.
*Oubangui-Chari, also spelled Ubangi-Shari - part of French Equatorial Africa (above), became Central African Republic
*Panama Canal Zone - US administered until 1979. Became part of Panama.
*Commonwealth of the Philippines - a territory of the USA, which became independent in 1946 as the Republic of the Philippines.
*Portuguese East Africa - became Mozambique
*Portuguese Guinea - became Guinea-Bissau
*Portuguese India - became part of India
*Portuguese Timor - The eastern side of the island of Timor was a Portuguese colony until 1975, when independence was declared as East Timor. Indonesian troops seized the country, but the country was finally declared independent in 2002.
*Portuguese West Africa - became Angola
*Rhodesia - name for Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) while unilaterally claiming independence, 1965-1979.
*Rio Muni - Former Spanish colony, then part of territory of Spanish Guinea until 1968. Became independent as Equatorial Guinea.
*Ruanda-Urundi - UN Trusteeship (Belgian) until 1962. Became independent as Burundi and Rwanda.
*Kingdom of Sarawak - Independent 1842, became a British protectorate 1888-1946.
*Protectorate of South Arabia - Federation until 1967, consisting of British colony of Aden and numerous protectorates. Became independent as People's Republic of Yemen (from 1970 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) known as 'South Yemen'.
*South-West Africa - In 1915, South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa, which it held under mandate until 1922, after which they remained ruling the territory until its independence in 1990 as Namibia (since 1994 also including Walvisbaai).
*Southern Rhodesia - British colony, unilaterally declared itself independent as Rhodesia in 1965, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979, then gained international recognition as Zimbabwe 1980.
*Spanish East Indies - Spanish colony in the Philippines and in Micronesia until 1898. After the Spanish-American War, portions were ceded to the United States while the rest were sold to Germany.
*Spanish Guinea - became Equatorial Guinea. Consisted of two former colonies of Rio Muni and Fernando Po.
*Spanish Sahara - now generally known as Western Sahara, but claimed by and divided between Morocco and Mauritania in 1976, later entirely by Morocco. The issues of sovereignty and international recognition have yet to be resolved.
*The Straits Settlements - British colony until 1946. Singapore became independent, the rest united with the Federated Malay States and the five Unfederated Malay States to form Malayan Union.
*Tanganyika - British territory until 1961. From then independent until 1964, when it became part of Tanzania.
*The colonies of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Upper Canada and Lower Canada (later, the Province of Canada), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, plus the territory of Rupert's Land, spent much time reorganizing themselves into various patterns; they all eventually became part of Canada.
*Various concessions.

Dismembered countries

These states are now dissolved into a number of states, none of which retain the old name.

*Austria-Hungary - This double monarchy was formed in 1867 from the Habsburg empire, having an Austrian and a Hungarian part. In 1918, the empire was split into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia (itself later dismembered), Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; itself later dismembered). Also the Lemko-Rusyn Republic, ceded to Poland.
*British India was partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 brought a third country into existence.
*Federal Republic of Central America also incorrectly known in English as United States of Central America-- independent 1823; fell apart into separate states in civil war 1838-1840.
*Czechoslovakia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary, which dissolved after World War I. During 1939 - 1945 was dismembered into Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and Slovak State. In 1993 the country voluntarily split into two parts, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
*Greater Colombia - Simón Bolívar forged this state from parts of the Spanish Empire. It split into Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador. In 1863 New Granada changed its name to Colombia and Panama split from it in 1903.
*Mali Federation - In 1959 formed by Senegal and French Sudan, both parts of French West Africa, as an independent nation. It fell apart in 1960 into Senegal and Mali.
*Peru-Bolivian Confederacy - A union formed in 1836 by Peru and Bolivia and which lasted until 1839.
*Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations) partitioned in 1772, 1793 and 1795 in three rounds among Russia, Prussia and Austria. These lands are further distributed today among Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.
*Senegambia - Loose confederation between African countries of Senegal and Gambia that existed from 1982 to 1989
*Serbia and Montenegro - Loose state union of the two remaining republics of the former Yugoslavia that was founded in 2003. Both countries are destined to go their own independent way following the May 2006 referendum which decided in favor of the secession of Montenegro. Parliament proclaimed independence in June 2006, but negotiations on the actual execution are still pending.
*Soviet Union, more formally known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (or USSR). Formed in 1922. Dissolved 1991-1992 into its constituent republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
*United Arab Republic - A union formed by Egypt and Syria in 1958 was dissolved in 1961, though Egypt used the name until 1971.
*United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden/Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) created during the Congress of Vienna in 1815, dissolved to Belgium (revolted 1830), Luxembourg (left 1835, but the personal union with the King as Grand Duke ceased to exist since 1890) and Netherlands.
*West Indies Federation - Federal state created by the United Kingdom in 1958 which encompassed most of its possessions in the Caribbean. The federation collapsed after Jamaica voted to separate.
*Tu'i Tonga-Lost states such as Samoa, Fiji, etc to foreign European powers.
*Yugoslavia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary and Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro in 1918. Re-created after World War II dissolved in 1991 [ [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol3/No1/art13.html The Opinions of the Badinter Arbitration Committee: A Second Breath for the Self-Determination of Peoples ] ] . (Slovenia and Croatia have declared independence in June 1991, Macedonia in September 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 1992. In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro have founded a new country, FR Yugoslavia, that was later, in 2003, renamed into Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro itself was dismembered into its constituent republics of Serbia and Montenegro in June, 2006.

Renamed countries

These country names have been replaced. Only major and/or famous cases are listed, there are thousands of relatively obscure former names.

*Abyssinia was a name formerly used for most of Ethiopia
* Dahomey was a name formerly used for Benin until 1975
*Burma - Renamed Myanmar in 1989. The United States and some other nations do not recognize the ruling military junta of Myanmar and hence do not accept the legitimacy of the name change, continuing to use the name "Burma" in official communications.
*Central African Empire - temporary phase (1976 - 1979) in the existence of the Central African Republic.
*Ceylon - English name of Sri Lanka until 1972. Always known as "Sri Lanka" in the native Sinhalese Language.
*Empire of China - temporary phase (1915 - 1916) in the existence of the Republic of China.
*Éire - took another "description" in 1949.
*Irish Free State - renamed Éire in 1937.
*Ivory Coast - requested to be known as its untranslated name of Côte d'Ivoire in 1985 (Many languages keep on using their own translations of the name: Spanish - "Costa de Marfil", Portuguese "Costa do Marfim", German "Elfenbeinküste")
*Democratic Kampuchea - Name of Cambodia from 1980 to 1989, before reverting to the original (1949 to 1975) name.
*Dominion of India existed between 1947 and 1950. It became a republic in 1950 and took the name "Union of India".
*Khmer Republic - Name of Cambodia from 1975 to 1980.
*New Connecticut - Briefly, in 1777, the name of what became the Vermont Republic.
*Persia - Name of Iran in the west until 1935. Locally it has always been called Iran.
*Mesopotamia - Name of Iraq until 1930.
*Siam - Name of Thailand until 1939.
*Transjordan - Renamed to Jordan in 1946.
*Trucial States - Became United Arab Emirates in 1971.
*United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland renamed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927 (26 of Ireland's 32 counties left the UK in 1922).
*Upper Volta - Name of Burkina Faso until 1984.
*Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes renamed into Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.
*Federal Republic of Yugoslavia renamed into Serbia and Montenegro in 2003.
*Zaire - Name of Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1971 to 1997.

Nominally independent homelands of South Africa

Four of the homelands, or bantustans, for black South Africans, were granted nominal independence from South Africa. Not recognised by other nations, these puppet states were re-incorporated in 1994.
*Bophuthatswana - Declared independent in 1977, reincorporated in 1994.
*Ciskei - Declared independent in 1981, reincorporated in 1994.
*Transkei - Declared independent in 1976, reincorporated in 1994.
*Venda - Declared independent in 1979, reincorporated in 1994.

ecessionist states

These nations declared themselves independent, but failed to achieve it in fact or did not seek permanent independence and were either re-incorporated into the mother country or incorporated into another country.

*Republic of Acre - Declared independence from Bolivia in 1899. Annexed by Brazil in 1903.
*Biafra - Declared its independence from Nigeria in 1967. Defeated and reincorporated in 1970.
*California - declared independence from Mexico in June 1846, claimed by U.S. Navy for United States in July 1846.
*California - Mexico's commander in California, Pío Pico, abandoned the Californios, Mexicans living in California, who organized an army to defend themselves from the United States. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on February 2, 1848.
*Carpatho-Ukraine - declared independence from Czechoslovakia in 1939, but was annexed by Hungary within a few days.
*Cartagena Canton - the haven city of Cartagena, Spain seceded from the First Spanish Republic in 1873.
*Chechnya - Virtually independent from Russia from 1996 as Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, however the country was recognized only by Taliban. After terrorist attacks in 1999 the republic was returned to Russia's control in the Second Chechen War.
*Confederate States of America - Declared its independence from the United States in 1861, reincorporated, 1861-1865.
*Corsican Republic - Seceded from Genoa in 1755, annexed by France in 1769.
*Anglo-Corsican Kingdom (1794-1796)
*Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)
*Crimea, declared independence from Ukraine in 1992 but soon settled for being an autonomous republic within Ukraine.
*Cruzob, achieved independence from Mexico in 1856, but was reannexed in 1901.
*Ezo - declared independence from Japan in 1868 after the defeat of the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate during the Boshin War until it was reincorporated into Japan in 1869
*Republic of Formosa - Lasted from May to October 1895 after the island was ceded by China to Japan and the local gentry and officials declared a tributary republic in a failed attempt to avert Japanese annexation.
*Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)
*Katagalugan - Declared independence in 1902 after the failure of the First Philippine Republic
*Katanga - Declared its independence of the newly formed Republic of the Congo in 1960, was incorporated again in 1963.
*Manitoba - short-lived republic led by Thomas Spence, declared after the Hudson's Bay Company gave up Rupert's Land and before the government of Canada took control (1867).
*República Filipina - Declared its independence in 1898 but was occupied by the United States in 1902. Succeeded by the Republic of the Philippines in 1946.
*Red River Rebellion - provisional government in Rupert's Land, led by Louis Riel in (1869–1870).
*Republic of the Rio Grande ('Republic of Texas') declared independence in 1840, brought back into Mexico by force less than a year later, encompassed the land of the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and parts of the USA state of Texas.
*Republic of Texas - Gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Annexed by the United States in 1845.
*Principality of Trinidad - Declared independence in 1893, claimed by United Kingdom in 1895, but incorporated by Brazil.
*Ukrainian People's Republic - declared independence after the Russian Revolution of 1917, but fell to the Soviet Union in 1920.

Annexed countries

These nations, once separate, are now part of another country.(At present cases of voluntary accession are included)
*Republic of Alsace-Lorraine - Formed after the collapse of the German Empire at the end of World War I, 11 days later it was occupied by and incorporated in France.
*British Somaliland - became part of Somalia, but has since asserted its independence as the Somaliland republic.
*Regency of Carnaro in 1919 and Free State of Fiume 1920-1924, two short-lived states in the port city of Fiume/Rijeka proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Following World War I, the city was disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia, and eventually captured by Italy in 1921. The city passed to Yugoslavia after World War II and is now in Croatia.
*Chan Santa Cruz Maya state in eastern Yucatan peninsula, recognized as independent nation by British Empire in 1850s; now part of Mexico.
*Cospaia - A tiny republic which lasted for centuries before being divided between Tuscany and the Papal States in 1826.
*Couto Mixto - A tiny border territory that finally became part of Spain.
*Crete - autonomous under Ottoman suzerainty in 1898, unilaterally declared union with Greece in 1908, which was recognized in 1913.
*Eastern Rumelia - province of the Ottoman Empire unified with Bulgaria in 1885
*German Democratic Republic - Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (formerly known as 'West Germany') in 1990, but not as a whole, divided in newly created Bundesländer.
*Far Eastern Republic - puppet of the RSFSR.
*Franceville - Independent in 1889, later governed by France and Britain as part of the New Hebrides; now part of Vanuatu.
*Republic of Hatay
*The Kingdom of Hawaii was unified in 1810 under Kamehameha I, and was recognized by the United States as an independent nation from 1826 until January 17, 1893. Following the overthrow of the monarchy it existed as the independent Republic of Hawaii until annexation by the United States in 1898. Became the Territory, and then the State, of Hawaii.
*Indian Princely States
*Republic of Indian Stream - 1832-1835, now part of U.S.
*Italian Somaliland - Became part of Somalia.
*Kalat - Became part of Pakistan.
*Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic - annexed by Russia, upon the collapse of the Soviet Union became the autonomous Republic of Karelia.
*Manchukuo - Japanese puppet state in Manchuria from 1931 until 1945. Reincorporated into China in 1945.
*Free States of Menton and Roquebrune - Seceded from Monaco in 1848, under nominal protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia, then annexed by France in 1861.
*Moldavia - Now divided among Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.
*Moresnet - A tiny European territory that endured for a hundred years before definitively becoming part of Belgium.
*Natalia Republic was quickly made into a British colony
*Newfoundland- Existed as an autonomous colony of the United Kingdom from 1855 to 1907, then a sovereign dominion until 1934 when it reverted to a crown colony. It joined in Confederation with Canada in 1949.
*Orange Free State - This country was independent from 1854 to 1900, when it was incorporated into South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, along with the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic).
*Islands of Refreshment - The islands of Tristan da Cunha were settled in 1810 and declared independence in 1811. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1815.
*Ryukyu Kingdom - conquered by Japan's Satsuma Domain in 1609; formally annexed in 1879, following the Meiji Restoration.
*Kingdom of Sikkim merged with India in 1975.
*State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs - created in 1918 and joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after existing for just one month.
*South Yemen (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) and North Yemen (Yemen Arab Republic) in 1990 united to form Yemen
*Islamic Republic of Tatarstan - Annexed by the Russian Federation in 1994.
*Tavolara - Never formally annexed, but occupied by an Italian military base ca. 1962.
*Republic of Texas - Annexed by United States in 1846.
*Tibet - A unified Tibetan empire was created in the 8th century, and fell apart a century later. Mongol conquests in the 13th century made Tibet part of a Mongol-ruled Chinese empire, and four centuries later the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty further incorporated Tibet into China. [http://www.fpif.org/pdf/vol5/09iftibet.pdf] In 1914, the 13th Dalai Lama signed a treaty granting Chinese "suzerainty" over both "Inner Tibet" and "Outer Tibet" establishing direct rule over the former and leaving the latter autonomous. [By the Simla Convention (1914) and its appendix Tibet identified itself as "under the suzerainty of China..... [forming] part of Chinese territory" [Article 2, Note 2] . [http://www.tibetjustice.org/materials/treaties/treaties16.html Full text] ] Subordination to China was reaffirmed in 1934. [Goldstein, Melvyn, "A History of Modern Tibet", pp239-241] [India Office Records, IOR/L/PS/12/4175] Chinese sovereignty was confirmed by both Beijing and the Tibetans in 1951. [Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.] [Goldstein, pp812-813] The region is still claimed by the Republic of China.
*Transvaal Republic (South African Republic) - Independent country before becoming part of the British Empire during the Second Boer War in 1902 and is currently part of South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, the other was the Orange Free State.
*Transylvania - Semi-independent before becoming part of Austria-Hungary. Became part of Romania after World War I.
*Tuva (also known as Tannu Tuva) - now part of Russia after the dissolution of the USSR
*Vermont Republic - Republic of Vermont existed from 1777 until 1791, when Vermont became the 14th state of the United States.
*Republic of Vietnam ("South Vietnam") - conquered by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam ("North Vietnam") with assistance from the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (popularly known as the Viet Cong) resistance in 1975, briefly became the Republic of South Vietnam, before being united with North Vietnam to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976.
*Wallachia - United with Moldavia to form Romania in 1859.
*Republic of Yucatán became part of Mexico
*Zanzibar - Zanzibar merged in 1964 with Tanganyika to become Tanzania. Zanzibar was not annexed, but joined through a free referendum.

ee also

* List of countries
* List of historical national capitals
* Former countries in Europe after 1815
* List of largest empires
* List of micronations

References

Harding, Les. Dead Countries of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Aden to Zululand. Scarecrow Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8108-3445-6


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