Secondary education

Secondary education

Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary schools, high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, vocational schools and preparatory schools, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.

Contents

Secondary education in the EU

Secondary education is the stage of education following primary school. Secondary education is generally the final stage of compulsory education. However, secondary education in some countries includes a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. The next stage of education is usually college or university. Secondary education is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary schools, high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, vocational schools and preparatory schools, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.

Belgium

For more details see Education in Belgium - Secondary education
See below for general information (comparison with Cyprus, same framework)

1.1 General overview of education stages
The Belgian school has a three-tier education system, each stage being divided into various levels:

  • Basic education (F enseignement fondamental D basisonderwijs)
    • Nursery school (F enseignement maternel D kleuteronderwijs): for children aged 3 to 6 – is not compulsory
    • Primary school (F : enseignement primaire D lager onderwijs): for children aged 6 to 12 – is compulsory
  • Secondary education: there are three cycles (F degrés D graden)
  • Post secondary education: non compulsory, organised by universities or schools of higher education, but also by adult education institutions
    • 3-year further education (enseignement supérieur de type court) at bachelor level
    • 5-year further education (enseignement de type long) at master level (one or two more years for doctoral training)

1.2 Secondary Education

1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)
Two main branches of schooling were defined in “Le Pacte scolaire” (agreement signed in 1959 which allowed the parents to choose their children’s school): The secular branch of schooling ruled by a public legal entity (le Pouvoir Organisateur) (it used to be the State, nowadays the Communities, the provinces and municipalities). This education is subsidised and supervised by the Communities. The ‘Free’ denominational (mainly catholic) or non-denominational branch of schooling ruled by a private legal entity (PO). The curriculum depends on the free network authorities. However, the education is also subsidised and supervised by the Communities. The non-confessional branch is essentially to be found at post secondary level. The private branch (a minority) is ruled by a private legal entity, namely the parents. The child receives education at home or at a private school. In both cases it is financed by the parents themselves.

1.2.2 Access
In the Belgian system most students are free to choose their school even if it is far from where they live. But a new system is being introduced to regulate the enrolment of children when they enter the first year at secondary level. This system takes various elements into account: the parents’ choice (nine possibilities), the proximity between the primary school and the secondary school…)

http://www.inscription.cfwb.be/index.php?id=299

1.2.3 Types
The first cycle gathers all the students. From the second cycle the students are faced with choices which might define their future careers.

  • General education (F enseignement secondaire general D algemeen secundair onderwijs): the students are faced with academic subjects.
  • Technical education (F enseignement secondaire technique D technisch secundair onderwijs), half of the subjects being academic and half non academic.
    • General-oriented technical education (F technique de transition), which lasts 4 to 5 years.
    • Vocational-oriented education, (F technique de qualification) which lasts 4 to 5 years.
  • Vocational training (F enseignement secondaire professionnel D beroepssecundair onderwijs) and artistic education (F enseignement secondaire artistique D kunstsecundair onderwijs) lasts 4 to 5 years and consists mainly of non academic subjects.

Apprenticeship : This is an alternative to the traditional system and consists mainly in workplace training. This type of education is provided by CEFAs (Centre d’Enseignement et de formation en Alternance).

  • Special education for children with special needs.

1.2.4 Curriculum
The Networks (branches of schooling) impose the curriculum but the Communities supervise the education given to check if it is respected. There is a list of core subjects which are compulsory, but the number may vary from one year to another or from one course of study to another.

  • General education: native language, maths, history, geography, religion or moral philosophy, the first foreign language (either English or Dutch for the French-speaking students/ English or French for the Dutch-speaking students).
  • Technical and vocational education: Native language, maths, social studies, religion or moral philosophy, (the first foreign language), but the number of periods a week is inferior.

In each type of education there are also statutory subjects (F options).
The general education core subjects/ statutory subject ratio is less important than the technical and vocational education ratio. The general level students can choose literary, scientific or linguistic subjects or sports. So, according to the main subjects chosen, the number of periods a week varies. Usually two main subjects are associated: Latin/maths, social sciences/languages, science/PE … In the technical and vocational education, the subjects chosen are more work-related: agronomy, industry, construction industry, catering, textile, services, economy, applied art, applied science, applied computer science, fine arts…

1.2.5 Timetables
Generally speaking, students go to school from Sept 1 to June 30, from Monday to Friday and most have the Wednesday afternoon off. The timetables vary from one school to another but the lessons usually start around 8:00 am. During the school day there are two or three breaks, one at 10:00 for about 15 minutes, one at noon for about one hour and finish around 4:00 pm and one in the afternoon in some schools. The amount of periods varies from 29 to 34 fifty-minute periods a week.
The official holidays are a one-week mid-term holiday in October/November, two weeks at Christmas, a one-week mid-term holiday in February/March, two weeks at Easter and the two-month summer holiday, plus four half days chosen by the school.

1.2.6 Certification of secondary education
Certifying exams take place every year, generally in December and June. They are prepared and marked by the students’ teachers, although some external exams also exist. However, they are not certifying exams for the time being. This may change in the future.

  • General education: the students completing this cycle get the CESS (Certificat d’Enseignement Secondaire Supérieur). This degree no longer allows the students to get a job. Anyway, most of them generally go on to study. This is the best preparation for those who want to go to university or to a school of higher education.
  • Transition Technical Education: the students completing this cycle also get the CESS. A seventh year is sometimes necessary to prepare the students who want to go on to study, depending on their choice.
  • Qualification technical Education: the students completing this cycle also receive the CESS. They also get a CQ (certificate de qualification), which entitles them to look for a job. But a seventh year is sometimes necessary to prepare the students who want to go on to study, depending on their choice.
  • Vocational or Artistic Education: the students completing this cycle (after the 6th or 7th year) get a CQ. A seventh year is compulsory for the students who want to go on to study and therefore get their CESS.

1.2.7 Parents’ role
According to their own education level, the parents can or cannot help their children. But as a matter of fact, the students have to learn autonomy during this period. There exist parents’ associations, who also take part in councils called Conseils de participation. The parents’ role varies a lot from one school to another. In some schools it only consists in coming to parents’ meetings to discuss their children’s situation and/or to school open days (generally called Portes Ouvertes).

1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school
Every school is free to organise its own chess, football, basketball…team and take part in championships, tournaments, etc. As for sports, an association called FRSEL (Fédération royale sportive de l’enseignement libre), for example, organises such events. These activities are purely optional and usually take place on Wednesday afternoons. Teachers can also organise workshops themselves on a purely voluntary basis. What’s more students can have their own activities (not organised by the school).

1.2.9 Uniforms
In many schools the uniform was suppressed in the seventies. Some schools have decided to re-introduce it owing to the discrimination caused by differences in clothing. In many schools, however, only a t-shirt with the school logo is required for PE lessons and specific clothes for technical and vocational subjects. For oral examinations upper-level students are often required to wear a suit and tie for boys and a skirt and blouse for girls.

1.2.10 Costs
The secondary education is free although school stationery, swimming pool and trip expenses are generally payable by the parents.

1.2.11 Private lessons

Private lessons are more and more frequent, even if it is quite low compared with other European countries. In 2010 one family out of ten has to find help outside school. These private lessons mainly aim at helping students in difficulty. The subjects students have the most difficulty with are maths, French, Dutch, English and chemistry. These lessons are given either at the teacher’s home or at the student’s. They cost about €25 for an hour but there is no rule. University students also give private lessons for about €17 an hour.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education
The CESS is required in all cases. There are some exceptions. For example there is an entrance examination for the ones who want to study Engineering Sciences (Ingénieur Civil).

Cyprus

1.1 General overview of education stages
Cyprus has a three-tier educational system, each stage being divided into specific levels:

  • Basic education
    • Nursery (Ages 3-5) Not obligatory
    • Pre-primary school (Ages 5-6) At the age of five, children normally attend the pre primary class, which prepares them to join Primary school
  • Primary school (Ages 6-12)Primary school has six grades.
  • Secondary education
    • Gymnasium (Ages 12-15) After primary school, students attend the lower secondary school (GYMNASIUM) which has three grades.
    • Eniaio Lykeio or Unified Lyceum (Ages 15-18)
  • Post secondary education Public Tertiary Institutions or Universities

1.2 Secondary Education

1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)

1.2.2 Access

1.2.3 Types

  • General Secondary Education offers a six-year educational programme for students aged between 12 and 18.
    • At the Gymnasium (Lower Secondary school), the main orientation is the general humanistic education. Education at Gymnasium is compulsory for the first three years, up to the age of 15.
    • At the Lykeio (Upper Secondary school), the educational system is more flexible and offers various specialisations depending on the inclination, skills and interests of the students. The Upper Secondary cycle of the Public Secondary General Education offers a three-year duration programme for students aged between 15and 18.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education is offered in two streams, a Theoretical and a Practical one. Students who have successfully completed the 3rd grade at the Gymnasium, are eligible to study these programmes.

Evening classes come under Secondary Education and operate in the evening. Those who have reached their 18th year of age, or their 15th year of age and are evidently able to work, can register in evening classes.

1.2.4 Curriculum

  • Gymnasium

Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Religious Studies, English, French, Career Education, Music and Art are taught at the Gymnasium and these subjects are common for all students.

  • Lykeio
    • In the first grade, (class A), all subjects are common core ones, which means that they are compulsory: These are , Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, French, Music, Art, Religious studies and Computer Science
    • In the second grade, (class B), students are required to attend 19 periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. In addition, they must also select three or four stream subjects of four periods per week and either two or zero courses of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.
    • In the third and final grade, (class C), students are required to attend 17 teaching periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. They should also select four stream subjects of four periods per week and one subject of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.

1.2.5 Timetables
Students go to school from Sept 10th to May 20th, from Monday to Friday.The lessons start at 7:30 and finish at 13:35.During the school day there are three breaks, one at 9:00 that lasts 15minutes, one at 10:45 that lasts 25 minutes and one at 12:40 that lasts 10 minutes.There are 35 forty-five minute periods a week.

School Holidays: October 1st, October 28th, December 23rd – January 6th, January 30th, March 25th, April 1st, May 1st, Good Monday – Friday after Easter Week, Holy Spirit, Green Monday, Summer holidays: From June to September


1.2.6 Certification of secondary education

  • Unified Lyceum: An indicative certificate (for those who successfully complete grades A and B) or a School Leaving Certificate (APOLYTERION), for those who graduate, is awarded at the end of the school year to all successful students. The School Leaving Certificate is a qualification for employment in office work.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education: Upon successful completion of the programme, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, (APOLYTERION), which is recognized as equivalent to a School Leaving Certificate of a public three-grade Upper -Secondary school.

1.2.7 Parents’ role

1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school
The Unified Lyceum Programme «Action – Creativity – Social Contribution» («A. C. S. ») The program «A.C.S. » is organized by the school and is approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The program is compulsory for all students and their participation is a prerequisite to a successful completion of the curriculum for each grade and for obtaining a school leaving certificate. The activities that have been organized by schools so far, are now regularized, enriched and upgraded through this program.

1.2.9 Uniforms
School uniform is compulsory for all students in Cyprus. The uniform comprises of grey trousers or jeans for boys and grey skirt or jeans for girls and white, black or grey t-shirt. There is also a special uniform for PE classes.

1.2.10 Costs
The secondary education in Cyprus is free for all students. The books are also provided to students for free.

1.2.11 Private lessons
Private lessons in Cyprus are very common. Almost all students prepare for external exams, usually GCE A´ and O´ Levels through private tuition, to ensure access to foreign universities, especially in the UK. A lot of students, especially in Lyceum take private lessons at subjects they have difficulties.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education
Access to Public Tertiary Institutions in Cyprus and Greece can be achieved through the National Entrance exams, while the School Leaving Certificate can ensure access to private tertiary institutions

Cyprus

1.1 General overview of education stages
Cyprus has a three-tier educational system, each stage being divided into specific levels:

  • Basic education
    • Nursery (Ages 3–5) Not obligatory
    • Pre-primary school (Ages 5–6) At the age of five, children normally attend the pre primary class, which prepares them to join Primary school
  • Primary school (Ages 6–12)Primary school has six grades.
  • Secondary education
    • Gymnasium (Ages 12–15) After primary school, students attend the lower secondary school (GYMNASIUM) which has three grades.
    • Eniaio Lykeio or Unified Lyceum (Ages 15–18)
  • Post secondary education Public Tertiary Institutions or Universities

1.2 Secondary Education

1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)

1.2.2 Access

1.2.3 Types

  • General Secondary Education offers a six-year educational programme for students aged between 12 and 18.
    • At the Gymnasium (Lower Secondary school), the main orientation is the general humanistic education. Education at Gymnasium is compulsory for the first three years, up to the age of 15.
    • At the Lykeio (Upper Secondary school), the educational system is more flexible and offers various specialisations depending on the inclination, skills and interests of the students. The Upper Secondary cycle of the Public Secondary General Education offers a three-year duration programme for students aged between 15and 18.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education is offered in two streams, a Theoretical and a Practical one. Students who have successfully completed the 3rd grade at the Gymnasium, are eligible to study these programmes.

Evening classes come under Secondary Education and operate in the evening. Those who have reached their 18th year of age, or their 15th year of age and are evidently able to work, can register in evening classes.

1.2.4 Curriculum

  • Gymnasium

Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Religious Studies, English, French, Career Education, Music and Art are taught at the Gymnasium and these subjects are common for all students.

  • Lykeio
    • In the first grade, (class A), all subjects are common core ones, which means that they are compulsory: These are, Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, French, Music, Art, Religious studies and Computer Science
    • In the second grade, (class B), students are required to attend 19 periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. In addition, they must also select three or four stream subjects of four periods per week and either two or zero courses of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.
    • In the third and final grade, (class C), students are required to attend 17 teaching periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. They should also select four stream subjects of four periods per week and one subject of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.

1.2.5 Timetables
Students go to school from Sept 10th to May 20, from Monday to Friday.The lessons start at 7:30 and finish at 13:35.During the school day there are three breaks, one at 9:00 that lasts 15minutes, one at 10:45 that lasts 25 minutes and one at 12:40 that lasts 10 minutes.There are 35 forty-five minute periods a week.

School Holidays: October 1, October 28, December 23 – January 6, January 30, March 25, April 1, May 1, Good Monday – Friday after Easter Week, Holy Spirit, Green Monday, Summer holidays: From June to September

1.2.6 Certification of secondary education

  • Unified Lyceum: An indicative certificate (for those who successfully complete grades A and B) or a School Leaving Certificate (APOLYTERION), for those who graduate, is awarded at the end of the school year to all successful students. The School Leaving Certificate is a qualification for employment in office work.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education: Upon successful completion of the programme, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, (APOLYTERION), which is recognized as equivalent to a School Leaving Certificate of a public three-grade Upper -Secondary school.

1.2.7 Parents’ role

1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school
The Unified Lyceum Programme «Action – Creativity – Social Contribution» («A. C. S. ») The program «A.C.S. » is organized by the school and is approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The program is compulsory for all students and their participation is a prerequisite to a successful completion of the curriculum for each grade and for obtaining a school leaving certificate. The activities that have been organized by schools so far, are now regularized, enriched and upgraded through this program.

1.2.9 Uniforms
School uniform is compulsory for all students in Cyprus. The uniform comprises grey trousers or jeans for boys and grey skirt or jeans for girls and white, black or grey t-shirt. There is also a special uniform for PE classes.

1.2.10 Costs
The secondary education in Cyprus is free for all students. The books are also provided to students for free.

1.2.11 Private lessons
Private lessons in Cyprus are very common. Almost all students prepare for external exams, usually GCE A´ and O´ Levels through private tuition, to ensure access to foreign universities, especially in the UK. A lot of students, especially in Lyceum take private lessons at subjects they have difficulties.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education
Access to Public Tertiary Institutions in Cyprus and Greece can be achieved through the National Entrance exams, while the School Leaving Certificate can ensure access to private tertiary institutions

Czech Republic

The Czech school system is, due to historic reasons, almost the same as the German school system. The school system is free and mandatory to age 16. After the Základní škola (Elementary School) in age of 16, students are directed to three different optional secondary education schools:

  • Střední odborné učiliště (SOU) - designed for students going into a trade (e.g., carpentry, masonry, auto-mechanic etc.) Education is 3 years long and entrance exam free, combined with practice(one week study in school/one week practice in factory, bakery,building site... etc.), finished with a certificate.
  • Střední odborná škola (SOŠ) - designed for students going into a profession (accountant, technician, kindergarten teacher..) and finishes with maturita as exit exam. The leaving exam consist of 2 compulsory and 2 optional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional ones depend on the type of school (mathematics, physics, accounting, etc.) The study is 4 years long and you need to pass an entrance exam (Czech Language and Mathematics or Physics, varies with the type of school)
  • Gymnasium - designed for students going to university/college and finishes with a maturita exam. Also with two mandatory subjects Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional subjects vary, usually between humanistic and science. The study is 4, 6 or 8 years long. In case of 6 (8) years one, the pupils finish elementary school two (four) years earlier and this two (four) years has harder studying programme on Gymnasium. There are also entry exams to all these programmes.

The maturita is required for study in University. The Abitur from Gymnasium is better for Humanistic pointed University and SOŠ Abitur is better for Technical pointed university.

Croatia

Serbian Orthodox Secondary School "Kantakuzina Katarina Branković"

Secondary education is currently optional, although most political parties now advocate the stance that it should also become compulsory.

Secondary schools in Croatia are subdivided into:

  • gymnasiums with four available educational tracks; prirodoslovno-matematička gimnazija (specializing in math,informatics and science), jezična gimnazija (with at least three foreign languages required), klasična gimnazija (with a curriculum centered around classics, namely Latin and Ancient Greek) and opća gimnazija (which covers a general education and is not as specific)
  • vocational schools

Gymnasiums, schools of economics and schools of engineering take four years. There are also some vocational schools that last only three years.

Secondary schools supply students with primary subjects needed for the necessary work environment in Croatia. People who completed secondary school are classified as "medium expertise" (srednja stručna sprema or SSS).

There are currently around 90 gymnasiums and some 300 vocational schools in Croatia. The public secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of regional government, the counties.

Denmark

Krabbesholm Højskole

In Denmark it is mandatory to receive education answering to the basic school syllabus until the 10th year of school education. Since 2009 has it been compulsory also to attend pre-school. Furthermore can pupils choose a 11th year of school. After the basic school the majority of pupils between ages 15–19 usually choose to go through the 3-year "Gymnasium", which is University-preparatory. If not attending Gymnasium, the most common alternative is attending vocational training. There are over 100 different vocational courses in Denmark.

Finland

The Finnish education system is a comparatively egalitarian Nordic system. This means for example no tuition fees for full-time students and free meals are served to pupils. There are private schools but they are made unattractive by legislation.

The second level education is not compulsory, but an overwhelming majority attends. There is a choice between upper secondary school (lukio, gymnasium) and vocational school (ammatillinen oppilaitos, yrkesinstitut). Graduates of both upper secondary school and vocational school can apply to study in further education (University and Polytechnics).

Upper secondary school, unlike vocational school, concludes with a nationally graded matriculation examination (ylioppilastutkinto, studentexamen). Passing the test is a de facto prerequisite for further education. The system is designed so that approximately the lowest scoring 5% fails and also 5% get the best grade. The exam allows for a limited degree of specialization in either natural sciences or social sciences. The graduation is an important and formal family event, like christening, wedding, and funeral.

In the OECD's international assessment of student performance, PISA, Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003, Finnish 15-year-olds came first in reading literacy, science, and mathematics; and second in problem solving, worldwide. The World Economic Forum ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.[1]

Germany

The German school system is free and compulsory through to the age of 18. After the Grundschule (primary/elementary school lasting four to six years), teachers recommend each pupil for one of three different types of secondary education. Parents have the final say about which school their child will attend.

  • Hauptschule - designed for students going into trades such as construction; complete after 9th or 10th grade (ages 14 to 16). During apprenticeships, pupils then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has been subject to sigdren of immigrants with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
  • Realschule - designed for students who want to apprentice for white-collar jobs not requiring university studies, such as banking; complete after 10th grade (age 15 to 16). Those who change their minds and decide to attend university can proceed after testing to:
  • Gymnasium - academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or polytechnics. Some offer a classical education (Latin, Greek), while others concentrate on economics and the like. The curriculum leading to the Abitur degree were recently reduced from 13th grade to 12th grade (ages 17 to 18 - "G8," eight years of Gymnasium).

The Gesamtschule, a mixed ability school, puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite rare.

Students with special needs are assigned to Förderschule.

Italy

Secondary school (Scuola secondaria) starts at age 11, after 5 years of Primary school, and lasts 8 years.

Secondary school is divided in 3 + 5 years, according to the following scheme:

  • Scuola secondaria di I grado (first grade secondary school, previously scuola media, middle school, by which it is still called): it is mandatory and lasts 3 years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical subjects (Italian language and literature, History, Geography, Mathematics, Natural sciences, English language, a second Foreign Language - usually French, German or Spanish, Technology, Arts, Music, and Physical Education).

It ends with a final exam, which awards a diploma, which includes:

    • 4 written tests prepared by each examining board: Italian, Mathematics, and the two foreign languages
    • an experimental nationally assessed test for tracking progresses in reading comprehension, language knowledge, reasoning skills and basic mathematical skills
    • an overall oral examination on all subjects.

The final grade is a number from 6 to 10 (the best).

  • Scuola secondaria di II grado (second grade secondary school): it lasts 5 years and many different paths exist, which can freely be chosen by the pupil and his/her family; the first 2 years are madatory, the other 3 are not.
    • Liceo: it is the general purpose kind of school, traditionally chosen by those wanting to pursue higher education (university or arts academy). Depending on the area of interest of the pupils, different subkinds exist whose programmes are mostly decided at national level, but all offer at least basic teachings in Italian language and Literature, History, Geography, Philosophy, Mathematics, Physics, Biology, Chemistry, a foreign language (usually English, but also French, German or Spanish), History of Arts and Physical Education:
      • Liceo Classico which focuses on Literature and Classical Studies (Latin and ancient Greek)
      • Liceo Scientifico which focuses on Mathematics and Sciences
      • Liceo Linguistico which focuses on Modern languages
      • Liceo delle Scienze Umane which focuses either on Psichology and Sociology or Law and Economics
      • Liceo Artistico which focuses on different arts (graphical, sculpture, etc...)
      • Liceo Musicale e Coreutico which focuses on music or dance
    • Istituto Tecnico: it is a technical school originally reserved for those who sought a highly qualified work, but today more and more used as a different route to access university. Different paths exist whose programmes are mostly decided at national level, but a general basic education is provided to every pupil, similarly to the liceo, but less focused on the Humanities (no philosophy or arts, but more mathematics than in the non-scientifical liceo); the main ones are:
      • Economico which focuses on how to run all aspects of running the economical and managing part of a business
      • Meccanico which focuses on the processes of design and production of machinery and vehicles
      • Elettronico which focuses on the process of production of electrical and electronical devices
      • Informatico which focuses on managing computers and communication devices
      • Chimico focusing on chemical processes for the industry
      • Agrario focusing on agronomy and farming
      • Costruzioni focusing on the processes linked to the civil engineering and building industry
    • Istituto Professionale: it is a manly vocational school which offers a very specialized formation on a specific field for those looking into entering work; it is generally organized at local level according to the local economy and industry and based on broad national guidelines; it offers periods of stage in the local firms as a part of their courses. A general basic education is given to all pupils.

All kind of secondary schools end with an examination (Esame di Stato, state exam, but usually still called with the traditional name Esame di Maturità, Maturity exam) whose score is on a 100 point scale:

  • up to 25 points for the general marks obtained through the last 3 years (students barely passing each year are awarded 10 points total)
  • up to 45 points (15 each) on three (or four for some special cases) different written tests (each test judged sufficient is awarded at least 10 points):
    • Italian Language and Literature, decided at national level and the same for all examinees: either a text comprehension and critique, or the writing of an essay
    • a subject dependent on the kind of school followed, decided at national level for each different path
    • a third test prepared by each examining board based on the programmes of all the subjects of the last year of study
  • up to 30 points on an overall oral exam regarding all the subjects of the last year (an oral exam judged sufficient is awarded at least 20 points)
  • up to 5 points (to a maximum of 100) in cases the examining board judges appropriate to meriting students.

The exam is passed with a score of 60 or more, and any secondary school diploma is valid for access to any university course.

Netherlands

In The Netherlands, high school is called middelbare school (literally: "middle-level school") and starts right after the 6th grade of primary school (group 8). The pupils who attend high school are around the age of 12. Because education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16 (and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18), all pupils must attend high school.

The high schools are part of the voortgezet onderwijs (literally: "continued education"). The voortgezet onderwijs consists of 3 main streams: vmbo, which has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels; havo, which has 5 grades, and vwo, which has 6 grades. The choice for a particular stream is made based on the scores of an aptitude test (most commonly the CITO test), the advice of the grade 6 teacher, and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers. It is possible to switch between streams. After completing a particular stream, a pupil can continue in the penultimate year of the next stream, from vmbo to havo, and from havo to vwo.

Successfully completing a particular stream grants access to different levels of tertiary education. After vmbo, a pupil can continue training at the mbo ("middle-level applied education"). A havo diploma allows for admission to the hbo ("higher professional education"), which are universities of professional education. Only with vwo can a pupil enter into a research university.

Portugal

In Portuguese, the word for high school used to be liceu, it was now recently replaced for Escola Secundária (secondary school which includes 7th to 9th grade) and covers grades 10th to 12th. After completing High School students may choose to go to Universidade (University) or Instituto Politécnico (Polytechnic Institute). Also, students may choose to pursue an artistic career, in such case they may audition to the National Conservatory or one of Portugal's Art Schools. The Portuguese government is currently considering the extension of the Compulsory Education to the 12th grade, instead of the 9th. In High School, student can only move on to the next grade if they pass with a satisfactory CGPA (cumulative grade point average).

Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland secondary school starts at the age of 12, and lasts three or optionally five or six years. The main types of secondary school are: community schools, comprehensive schools, colleges (though this term is more usually applied to third-level institutions like universities), vocational schools, voluntary secondary schools and meánscoileanna (secondary schools that teach all subjects through Irish). After three years (age 14-16), every student takes a compulsory state exam known as the Junior Certificate. Typically a student will sit exams in 9 to 11 subjects; English (L1), Irish (L2), a Foreign Language (L3) and Mathematics are compulsory.

After completing the Junior Certificate, a student may continue for two years to take a second state exam, the Leaving Certificate, around age 17-18. Students typically take 6-8 subjects. Except in exceptional circumstances, subjects taken must include Irish (L1), English (L2), a foreign language (L3) and Mathematics. Leaving Certificate results directly determine admission to university via a ranking system managed by the CAO. More than 80% of students who complete the Junior Certificate continue to the Leaving Certificate.

There is an optional year in many secondary schools in Ireland known as Transition Year, which some students choose to take after completing the Junior Certificate, and before starting the Leaving Certificate. Focusing on broadening horizons, the year is often structured around student projects such as producing a magazine, charity work, running a small business, etc. Regular classes may be mixed with classes on music, drama, public speaking, etc. Transition Year is not formally examined but student progress is monitored by teachers on a continuous basis. Programs vary from school to school. This year also focuses on giving the children an insight into the working world through work experience placements.

In addition to the main school system, Ireland has a parallel system of vocational schools, which place less focus on academic subjects and more on vocational and technical skills - around 25% of students attend these. Many vocational schools also offer night classes to adults. There is also a prominent movement known as Gaelscoileanna where every subject is taught through the Irish Language, and these are growing fast in number.

Slovenia

In Slovenia, a variety of high-school institutions for secondary education exists one can choose in accordance with his or her interests, abilities and beliefs. The majority of them are public and government-funded, although there are some diocesan upper secondary schools and a Waldorf upper secondary school, which are private and require tuition to be paid.

Upper secondary schools (Sln. gimnazije) are the most elite and the most difficult high-school programmes, intended for the best students that wish to pursue university education in the future. They are further divided into general upper secondary schools, classical upper secondary schools, technical upper secondary schools, upper secondary schools for arts, and upper secondary schools for business. They all last for four years and conclude with a compulsory leaving examination (Sln. matura) that is a prerequsite for studying at universities. Their curricula include a wide range of subjects that should deliver a broad general knowledge.

Technical high schools last for four years and cover a wide range of disciplines. They end with a vocational leaving examination and allow pupils to study at vocational or professional colleges.

Vocational high schools come in two varieties: the dual and in school-based programme. For the former, the apprenticeship is provided by employers, while the practical training for the latter is offered in school. Both of them complete with a final examination. Students may continue their education in the two-year vocational-technical programme (colloquially known as 3+2 programme), which prepares them for vocational leaving exam if they want to pursue higher education.

The leaving exam course is a one-year programme, intended for vocational leaving exam graduates. After completing leaving exam course, they take the leaving examination, which makes the eligible for university education.

The Vocational course is a one-year programme provided to upper secondary school students who, for various reasons, do not want to continue their education. It concludes with a final examinations, qualifying the applicants for a selected occupation.

Spain

Main article: Education in Spain

Secondary education in Spain is called Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (Compulsory Secondary Education), usually known as E.S.O., and lasts for 4 years (12 to 16). As its name indicates, every Spanish citizen must, by law, attend secondary education when they arrive at the defined age. The State is also committed to guaranteeing every student the possibility of attending it, and also at a state run school (hence no tuition fees) if so demanded.

At the end of secondary education the student can choose among different options to pursue further education, though continuing the education beyond E.S.O. is not compulsory.

United Kingdom

Main articles: Education in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom secondary schools offer secondary education covering the later years of schooling. State secondary schools in England and Wales are classed as either (selective) grammar schools, (non-selective) comprehensive schools, city technology colleges or academies. Within Scotland, there are only two types of state-run schools, Roman Catholic or non-denominational. Most secondary schools in England and Wales are comprehensive schools. Grammar schools have been retained in some counties in England. Academies (previously known as city academies) are a new type of school introduced in 2000 by the New Labour government of Tony Blair. Independent secondary schools generally take pupils at 13.

The table below lists the equivalent secondary school year systems used in the United Kingdom:

Scotland England, Wales Northern Ireland Equivalent Ages
Primary 7 Year 7 (First Form) Year 8 (First Form) 11-12
First Year (Secondary 1) Year 8 (Second Form) Year 9 (Second Form) 12-13
Second Year (Secondary 2) Year 9 (Third Form) Year 10 (Third Form) 13-14
Third Year (Secondary 3) Year 10 (Fourth Form) Year 11 (Fourth Form) 14-15
Fourth Year (Secondary 4) Year 11 (Fifth Form) Year 12 (Fifth Form) 15-16
Fifth Year (Secondary 5) Year 12
Lower Sixth AS
First Year College
Year 13 [Post 16] Lower Sixth 16-17
Sixth Year (Secondary 6) Year 13
Upper Sixth A2
Second Year College
Year 14 [Post 16] Upper Sixth 17-18

Private schools in England and Wales generally still refer to years 7-11 as 1st-5th Form, or alternatively privates schools refer to Year 7 as IIIrds (Thirds), Y8 as LIV (Lower Four), Y9 as UIV (Upper Four), Y10 as LV (Lower Fifth), Y11 as UV (Upper Fifth) and then Sixth-Form.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Education in England, Wales, Northern Ireland

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, students usually transfer from primary school straight to secondary school at age 11. In a few parts of the UK there are middle schools for ages 9 to 13 (similar to American middle schools), and upper schools for ages 13–18. A handful of 8-12 middle schools, an 12-16 or 18 secondary schools still exist. These schools were first introduced in September 1968, and the number rose dramatically during the 1970s, but the number of such schools has declined since the mid 1980s.

It is uncommon, but sometimes secondary schools (particularly in South West Wales) can also be split into 'Upper' (ages 13–16) and 'Lower' secondary schools (ages 11–13).

Education is compulsory up until the end of year 11 (the last Friday in June in the academic year a person turns 16), and schooling can continue for a further two years after that. Traditionally the five years of compulsory secondary schooling from ages 11 to 16 were known as "first year" through to "fifth year," (and still are in the private sector) but from September 1990 these years were renumbered Year 7 through to Year 11 (Year 8 to Year 12 in Northern Ireland) with the coming of the National Curriculum.

After Year 11 a student can opt to remain at school, transfer to a college, or to leave education and seek work or to start an apprenticeship. Those who stay at school enter Years 12 and 13 (Years 13 and 14 in Northern Ireland). These years are traditionally known as the Sixth Form ("Lower Sixth" and "Upper Sixth"), and require students to specialise in three to five subjects for their A Levels. In ever-increasing numbers since the 1990s some students also undertake more vocational courses at college such as a BTEC or other such qualification.

This is an unusually specialised curriculum for this age group by international standards, and recently some moves have been made to increase the number of subjects studied. After attaining the relevant A Level qualifications the student can enter university.

Scotland

In Scotland, students transfer from primary to secondary education at either 11 or 12 years old. Pupils usually attend the same secondary school as their peers, as all secondaries have 'intake primaries'. Pupils either attend a Roman Catholic, or non-denominational school according to their or more commonly their parents' beliefs. Pupils in Scotland attend the same secondary school throughout their education; there are no sixth-form colleges in Scotland.

The first and second years of secondary school (abbreviated to S1 and S2) is a continuation of the 5-14 curriculum started in primary school. After which students choose which subjects they wish to study with certain compulsory subjects such as English and Mathematics for S3 and S4. These are called Standard Grades, but some schools use Intermediates which take two years to complete with an exam at the end of S4. After Standard Grades/Intermediates, some students leave to gain employment or attend further education colleges, however nowadays most students study for Highers, of which five are usually studied. These take a year to complete. After which some students decide to apply for university or stay on for 6th year, where other Highers are gained, or Advanced Highers are studied. Due to the nature of schooling in Scotland, undergraduate honours degree programmes are four years long as matriculation is normally at the completion of highers in S5 (age 16-17), which compares with three years for the rest of the UK. As well as instruction through the English language education Gaelic medium education is also available throughout Scotland.

Secondary education in other countries

Argentina

The school system is free and mandatory.

Australia

School is compulsory in Australia between the ages of five/six-fifteen/sixteen or seventeen, depending on the state, with, in recent years, over three-quarters of people staying on until their thirteenth year in school. Government schools educate about two-thirds of Australian students, with the other third in independent schools, a proportion which is rising in many parts of Australia. Government schools are free although most schools charge what are known as "voluntary" contributions, while independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees. Regardless of what whether a school is government or independent, it is required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks. Most school students, be they in government or independent school, usually wear uniforms, although there are varying expectations and a few school exceptions.[clarification needed]

Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation:

Brazil

In Brazil, high school is officially called Ensino Médio (formerly Segundo Grau) and is also informally known as colegial. It is the last phase to basic education. Brazilian high school lasts 3 years, attempting to deepen what students have learned in the Ensino Fundamental. Brazilian high school students are referenced by their year – 1st, 2nd and 3rd years.

Unlike other countries, Brazilian students don't have a final test to conclude studies. Their approval depends only on their final grade on each subject. Each university elaborates its own test to select new students – this test, the vestibular, generally happens once a year. Enem, a non-mandatory national exam, evaluates high school students in Brazil and is used to rank both private and public schools.

The best scores in vestibular and in Enem [2] and the best universities are concentrated on the Southern region of the country, mainly in the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, and in the Federal District. The lack of funds and historical and social problems contribute to poor attendance from the students, especially those in public schools. Nevertheless, some are national models, such as the Colégio Pedro II, named after the 19th century emperor.

Private establishments, on the other hand, may be recognized as academically excellent or merely as investments in social networking. Schedules vary from school to school. The subjects taught, however, are conceived by the Ministério da Educação (Ministry of Education) which emphasises the hard sciences.

The educational year begins in February and finishes in December; institutions are permitted to define their own actual start and end dates. They must, however, provide at least 200 days of classes per year.

Universities are also divided into public and private. At this level, public ones are considered excellent and their vestibular exam is highly competitive (the exam for med school in UNICAMP may hit 300 candidates per place). For better preparation, therefore, many students take a curso pré-vestibular (university preparation course), which is offered by large private high schools.

Hong Kong

secondary school (中學, Cantonese: jung1 hok6), college (書院)

Secondary education in Hong Kong is largely based on the British education system. Secondary school starts in the seventh year, or Form One, of formal education, after Primary Six. Students normally spend five years in secondary schools, of which the first three years (Forms One to Three) are compulsory like primary education. Forms Four and Five students prepare for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), which takes place after Form Five. Students obtaining a satisfactory grade will be promoted to Form Six. They then prepare for the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE) (colloquially the A-levels), which is to be taken after Form Seven. The HKALE and HKCEE results will be considered by universities for admission. Some secondary schools in Hong Kong are called 'colleges'. In some schools, Form Six and Form Seven are also called Lower Six and Upper Six respectively.

The HKCEE is equivalent to the British GCSE and HKALE is equivalent to the British A-level.

As of October 2004, there has been heated discussion on proposed changes in the education system, which includes (amongst others) reduction of the duration of secondary education from seven years to six years, and merging the two exams HKCEE and HKALE into one exam, Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education (HKDSE). The proposed changes will take effect in 2009.

The secondary education system of Hong Kong, just as other East Asian countries, is examination-oriented. This does the strong but controversial post-school tutorial education industrya favor.

India

In India, Before The Indian Constitutional Amendment in 2002, Article 45 (Articles 36 - 51 are on Directive-Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution was- “Art.45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.—The State shall endeavour to provide,within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” But that Constitutional obligation was time and again deferred - first to 1970 and then to 1980,1990 and 2000. The 10th Five-Year Plan visualizes that India will achieve the Universal Elementary Education by 2007. However, the Union Human Resource Development Minister announced in 2001 that India will achieve this target only by 2010. (Ninety-third Amendment) Bill, 2002, renumbered as the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, which was passed on 12 Dec 2002 stated: An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. . BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. Short title and commencement. (1) This Act may be called the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. (2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. 2. Insertion of new article 21A.- After article 21 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely Right to education.- "Art.21A. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.". 3. Substitution of new article for article 45.- For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:- Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. "Art.45. The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.". 4. Amendment of article 51A.

Iraq

Girls at a secondary school in Iraq
  • Secondary Education in Iraq comprises TWO stages, each ending in Baccalaureate Examination
  • No student is admitted to college in Iraq before passing the Baccalaureate Examination held by this Ministry for Preparatory Schools.
  • The maximum obtainable mark is 100, the minimum passing mark is 50.

Malaysia

The national secondary education in Malaysia, modelled after the (historical) English system, consists of 5 school years referred to as "forms" (tingkatan in Malay). Students begin attending secondary schools in the year they turn 13, after sitting for the UPSR (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah or Primary School Assessment Examination) at the end of primary school. Students failing the academic requirement in UPSR are required to read an additional year called the Remove (Peralihan) year before they are allowed to proceed to Form 1. Automatic promotion up to Form 5 has been in place since 1996. Some secondary schools offer an additional two years known as sixth form, divided into lower sixth and upper sixth.

A Malaysian secondary school class photo.

Forms 1 to 3 are known as Lower Secondary (Menengah Rendah), while Forms 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary (Menengah Tinggi). Streaming into Art, Science or Commerce streams is done at the beginning of the Upper Secondary stage. Students sit for a standardised test at the end of both stages; Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) for Lower Secondary, and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM, equivalent to the O-Level examination) for Upper Secondary. At the end of the sixth form, students sit for the Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia or the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (equivalent to the A levels). The language of instruction in national secondary schools is Malay except for language, science and mathematics subjects. Science and mathematics subjects are taught in English since 2003, but Malay will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.

Mexico

Lower-secondary education (3 years) is considered part of basic education in Mexico and is compulsory. For entry, students are required to have successfully completed six years of primary education. The next stage (3 years), Upper-Secondary Education or Preparation School ("Preparatoria") is non-compulsory and has three pathways: General upper-secondary, Technical professional education, and Technological upper-secondary, as it has been called "Bachillerato" it has been frequently confused with the U.S.A. "Bachelors Level" which is called "Licenciatura o Ingeniería" in Latin American countries (well not all, as in Venezuela, the U.S.A. Bachelor´s Level is refereed as "Doctor".[3]

New Zealand

In New Zealand students attend secondary school from the ages from about 13 to 18. Formerly known as Forms 3 to 7, these grades are now known as Years 9 to 13. Schooling is compulsory until the student's 15th (with permission) or 16th birthday. In some areas of the country, secondary school is colloquially known as "college". NCEA is the Government-supported school qualification. New Zealand also has intermediate schools, but these cover the last two years of primary education (years 7 and 8) and are not secondary schools.

Pakistan

Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. Upon completion of grade 10, students are expected to take a standardised test administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE). Upon successful completion of this examination, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate (or SSC). This locally termed as 'matriculation certificate' or 'matric' for short. Students then enter a college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of grade 12, they again take a standardised test which is also administered by the regional boards. Upon successful completion of this test, students are awarded the Higher Secondary (School) Certificate (or HSC). This level of education is also called the F.Sc./F.A. or 'intermediate'. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences) and commerce. Some technical streams have recently been introduced for grades 11 and 12.

Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are also available but not maintained by the BISE but by other examination boards. Most common alternative is the General Certificate of Education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O Level) and Advanced Level (or A Level) respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and Edexcel of the Pearson PLC. Advanced Placement (or AP) is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as 'High School Education' instead. AP exams are monitored by a North American examination board, College Board and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can also be given privately.

Paraguay

In Paraguay, the secondary education is called Educación Media. After nine year of Educación Escolar Básica (Primary School), the student can choose to go to either a Bachillerato Técnico (Vocational School) or a Bachillerato Científico (High School), both are part of the Educación Media' system. This two forms of secondary education last three years, and are usually located in the same campus called Colegio. The Bachillerato Técnico combine general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. Some of the fields are mechanical, electricity, commerce, construction, business administration, etc.

After completing secondary education, one can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both Técnico and Científico schooling.

Republic of Macedonia

High school in Republic of Macedonia is called "средно училиште" or "middle school", and the structure is left from the socialists period. Reforms are conducting at the moment, so the education would be appropriate with the most of the leading world countries.That means that there are still many forms. In general there is high school for preparing for every faculty on the university. There are: electro technical high school, mechanical high school, economics high school, pharmaceutical, medical,...and natural sciences and linguistics gymnasium. The high school is attended between the years of 14 and 18.

Russia

There were around 60,000 general education schools in 2007–2008 school year;[4] this number includes ca. 5,000 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc., 2,300 advanced general-purpose schools[5] and 1,800 schools for all categories of disabled children;[4] it does not include vocational technical school and technicums. Private schools accounted for 0.3% of elementary school enrolment in 2005 and 0.5% in 2005.[6]

According to a 2005 UNESCO report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.[7]

Singapore

Children attend Primary school for the first 6 levels, then secondary schools for the next 4/5 levels, which is followed by either junior college for 2 year courses or centralised institutes for 3-year courses.

Based on results of the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), Singapore's students undergo secondary education in either the Special(Abolished in 2008), Express, Normal streams or the Integrated Programme (implemented in 2004). Both the Special and Express are 4-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education (GCE) 'Ordinary' - 'O' level examination. The difference between Special and Express is that the former takes higher Mother Tongue, which can be used as a first language in exams instead of the subject "mother tongue" that Express students take. However if some Express students can cope with higher Mother Tongue, they are allowed to used it as a first language in exams too.

The Normal stream is a four-year course leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Normal" - "N" level examination, with the possibility of a 5th year followed by a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Ordinary" - "O" level examination. It is split into "Normal (Academic)" and "Normal (Technical)" where in the latter students take subjects that are technical in nature, such as Design and Technology.

The Integrated Programme (IP) is a 6 year programme offered to the top 10 percent of the cohort to pass through the O level exams, and go straight to the affiliated JC.

After the second year of a secondary school course, students are typically streamed into a wide range of course combinations, making the total number of subject they have to sit for in "O" level six to ten subjects. This includes science (Physics, Biology and Chemistry), humanities (Elective Geography/History, Pure Geography/History, Social Studies, Literature, etc.) and additional mathematics subject at a higher level, or "combined" subject modules.

Some schools have done away with the O level examination, and pupils only sit for the A level examination or the International Baccalaureate at the end of their sixth year (known as Year 6 or Junior College 2).

Co-curricular activities have become compulsory at the Secondary level, where all pupils must participate in at least one core CCA, and participation is graded together with other things like Leadership throughout the four years of Secondary education, in a scoring system. Competitions are organised so that students can have an objective towards to work, and in the case of musical groups, showcase talents.[8]

United States

As part of education in the United States, secondary education comprises grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. This depends on the school district and how it is comprised. Grades 9 through 12 is the most common grade structure for high school.

Vietnam

High school in Vietnam is called Trung hoc pho thong, which mean "Popular Middle School", for children from grade ten to grade twelve (age of 16 to 18). In high school, students have 12 subjects to learn, and all the 12 subjects are compulsory. For each main subject (Literature, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography and Foreign language), there are two levels of study: Basic and Advanced. Subjects in advanced level will receive more time and intensiveness than the basic ones do. Students are divided into five groups:

  • Basic group: All subjects are in basic level.
  • Group A: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are in advanced level.
  • Group B: Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology are in advanced level.
  • Group C: Literature, History and Geography are in advanced level.
  • Group D: Mathematics, Literature and Foreign language are in advanced level.

Students will graduate from high school if they have passed Graduation Tests of 6 subjects. If not, they must wait for the next year's tests. Students must graduate from high school to attend a university or college.

Names for secondary education by country

  • Argentina: Secundaria or Polimodal, Escuela secundaria
  • Australia: Senior school, Secondary college
  • Austria: Gymnasium (Ober- & Unterstufe), Hauptschule, "Höhere Bundeslehranstalt (HBLA), Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (HTL)
  • Azərbaycan: Orta Məktəb
  • Bahamas, The: Junior High (grades 7-9), Senior High (grades 10-12)
  • Belgium: middelbare school, secundair onderwijs, humaniora, école secondaire, humanités
  • Bolivia: Educación Primaria Superior (grades 6-8) and Educación Secundaria, (grades 9-12)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
  • Brazil: Ensino Médio (officially), Colegial (informally), Segundo Grau (formerly);
  • Bulgaria: Гимназия (gymnasium), Лицей (Lyceum)
  • Chile: Enseñanza Media.
  • Colombia: Bachillerato, Segunda Enseñanza(literally Second Learning)
  • People's Republic of China (China): zhong xue (中学; literally, middle school), consisting of chu zhong (初中; literally beginning middle) from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong (高中; literally high middle) from grades 10 to 12
  • Republic of China (Taiwan): Junior High School(國民中學), Senior High School(高級中學), Vocational High School(高級職業中學), Military School(軍校), and Complete High School(完全中學).
  • Canada: high school, secondary school, école secondaire, lycée, collegiate institute
  • Croatia: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
  • Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο(gymnasium), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (Lyceum)
  • Czech Republic: střední škola (literally middle school), gymnázium (gymnasium), střední odborné učiliště
  • Denmark: gymnasium
  • Estonia: Gymnasium, Lyceum
  • Finland: lukio (Finn.) gymnasium (Swed.)
  • France: collège (junior), lycée (senior)
  • Germany: Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Realschule, Hauptschule, Fachoberschule
  • Greece: Γυμνάσιο (3 years)(gymnasium), Γενικό Λύκειο (3 years) (~1996,2006~present), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (3 years), (1997~2006) (Lyceum)
  • Hong Kong: Secondary school(中學)
  • Hungary: gimnázium (grammar school), középiskola (comprehensive school, lit. "middle-school"), szakközépiskola (vocational secondary school, lit. "specified middle-school")
  • Iceland: Menntaskóli, Framhaldskóli.
  • India: secondary school
  • Indonesia: Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) (lit. "Upper Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) (lit. "First Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) (vocational school, lit. "Middle Vocational School"),
  • Italy: scuola secondaria di primo grado (3 years) + scuola secondaria di secondo grado (5 years): Liceo and Istituto Tecnico.
  • Japan: chūgakkō (中学校; literally middle school), kōtōgakkō (高等学校; literally high school), chūtōkyōikugakkō (中等教育学校; Secondary School) - In the pre-Meiji educational system, the equivalent was called "chūsei"
  • Liechtenstein: gymnasium
  • Lithuania: vidurinė mokykla (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
  • Malaysia: secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school is used
  • Malta: skola sekondarja or secondary school
  • Mexico: Educación secundaria y preparatoria
  • Netherlands: middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
  • New Zealand: high school, college or secondary school
  • Norway: Videregående skole
  • Paraguay: Educación Media
  • Peru: Educación Secundaria or Escuela Secundaria
  • Philippines: High School or Mataas na Paaralan
  • Poland: gimnazjum (grades 7-9), liceum (grades 10-12)
  • Portugal: 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (5th and 6th grades), 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (7th to 9th grades), and Ensino Secundário, Liceu (10th to 12th grades)
  • Romania: gimnaziu (grades 5-8), liceu (grades 9-12)
  • Russia: средняя школа (literally middle school)
  • Serbia: gymnasium (4 years), professional schools (4 years), vocational schools (3 years)
  • South Korea: jung hakkyo (중학교; literally middle school), and godeung hakkyo (고등학교; literally high-rank school)
  • Spain: Educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, compulsory secondary education, 4 years, 7th to 10th grade) and Bachillerato (non-compulsory secondary education, 2 years, 11th and 12th grade); formerly, primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente, 3 years, 9th to 11th grade) and C.O.U. (Curso de Orientación Universitaria, 1 year, 12th grade)
  • Sweden: gymnasium
  • Switzerland: gymnasium, secondary school, collège or lycée
  • Turkiye: Lise
  • United Kingdom: Secondary School (May be referred to as High School)
  • Ukraine: середня освіта (transliteration: serednya osvita)
  • United States: high school (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
  • Uruguay: Liceo (3 years of compulsory education - Ciclo Básico -, and 3 years of specialitation into: humanitites-(law or economics), sciences-(engineering or architecture) or biology-(medicine or agronomy) - Bachillerato diversificado-).

See also

School.svg Schools portal

References

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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