Junior college

Junior college

The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries.

India

In India, most states provide schooling through grade 12. Maharashtra and Karnataka however, have a system of junior colleges. After taking the 10th grade board exams (SSLC), school students have to apply for 11th grade (PUC) at a junior college. Junior colleges are located in Degree colleges. Some of the famous junior colleges of Mumbai include K.C. College, Jai Hind College, Ruparel College and Ramnarain Ruia College. Some of the famous junior colleges of Bangalore include Christ College, St. Joseph's College, Vijaya College and Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College.

Japan

See List of junior colleges in Japan.

United States

In the United States, a junior college (informally, a "juco") is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide academic, vocational and professional education. The highest certificate offered by such schools is usually an associate's degree, although many junior college students continue their education at a university or college, transferring some or all of the credit earned at the junior college toward the degree requirements of the four-year school.

Junior colleges originated in the Chautauqua movement in late 19th century New York State. Around the turn of the century, groups from established colleges and universities would travel around the nation, visiting small towns that did not have access to upper-level schools, offering eight to ten-week courses on subjects such as the arts, science and literature.

The term "junior college" has historically referred to all non-bachelor's degree granting post-secondary schools, but over the last few decades many public junior colleges, which typically aim to serve a local community, have replaced "junior" with "community" in their names. This may give the impression that a "junior college" must be a private school, but only a small percentage of two-year institutions are private [ [http://www.thememoryhole.org/edu/eric/ed327222.html ED327222 1989-12-00 The Survival of Private Junior Colleges. ERIC Digest ] ] , many public community colleges continue to be called "junior college", and the two terms are used interchangeably in casual speech.

Cultural connotations

Junior colleges have long had to contend with a reputation for low academic standards. The concept can be traced back 100 years to the original public junior college, in Joliet, Illinois, which was set up in a high school as the equivalent of grades 13 and 14 in order to prepare qualified students for the final two years of university.John Merrow, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/merrow.html Community Colleges: Dream Catchers] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007.] To some extent this is inherent in the junior college mission of providing practical education to students who for various reasons fall outside the typical profile of a four-year college student (for example, someone who has graduated high school and spent several years working in a relatively unskilled job). Over the years, such colleges developed a reputation as the schools of last resort.Beth Frerking, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/bestccs.html Community Colleges: For Achievers, a New Destination] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007.] According to federal statistics, 42% of public community college freshmen take remedial courses.John Merrow, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/22merrow-profile-3.html Community Colleges: A Harsh Reality] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007.] However this does not necessarily affect their future transfer prospects: a junior college graduate with good grades can generally transfer to a four-year school and go on to obtain a full bachelor's degree; and there is a growing movement of students who are attending junior colleges to save significant sums of money in the first two years of a four year education.John Merrow, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/22merrow-profile-4.html Community Colleges: The Smart Transfer] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007.]

Athletics

Certain junior colleges also serve as incubators for college athletes, particularly in basketball and football; in sports parlance, they are often referred to as "Jucos".Robert Andrew Powell, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/sport22.html?ref=edlife Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007] A talented player who would not meet the academic or athletic standards of a major college program may be able to play for two years in junior college, establishing an academic record in the process, and then transfer to the major college.Robert Andrew Powell, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/sport22.html?ref=edlife Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007] This process has occasionally resulted in scandals, often involving the academics of the student athletes.Robert Andrew Powell, [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/education/edlife/sport22.html?ref=edlife Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot] , "The New York Times", April 22, 2007]

Military junior college

In the United States, a Military junior college is a military-style junior college that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the armed forces reserve in two years, instead of the usual four. The students must still go on to complete a bachelor's degree before serving as regular officers on active duty.

There are currently five Military junior colleges:

* Georgia Military College, Milledgeville, Georgia
* Marion Military Institute, Marion, Alabama
* New Mexico Military Institute, Roswell, New Mexico
* Valley Forge Military Academy, Wayne, Pennsylvania
* Wentworth Military Academy, Lexington, Missouri

ingapore

In Singapore, a Junior College (JC) is equivalent to a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. After the GCE 'O' level examinations in Secondary 4 or 5, students may apply for admission to either a JC or a polytechnic. The two years spent there culminate in a GCE 'A' level certificate which is the most common qualification used for university admission.

References

ee also

*Community college
*List of junior colleges in the United States

External links

* [http://chronicle.com/free/v50/i03/03a02301.htm Where Have All the Private 2-Year Colleges Gone?]
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/private.htm The Survival of Private Junior Colleges] - US Federal Education Resources Information Center Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges, Los Angeles, California.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • junior college — noun count or uncount a college in the U.S. where students can study practical subjects, learn study skills, or follow a two year course of study that prepares them to enter a university: COMMUNITY COLLEGE: I m taking some classes at a junior… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • junior college — n [U and C] a college in the US or Canada where students take a course of study that continues for two years = ↑community college …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • junior college — ☆ junior college n. a school offering courses for two years beyond high school, either as the first two years of a standard four year college program or as a complete career training program resulting in a certificate or an associate degree …   English World dictionary

  • junior college — 1. a collegiate institution offering courses only through the first one or two years of college instruction and granting a certificate of title instead of a degree. 2. a division of a college, university, or university system offering general… …   Universalium

  • junior college — noun a college that offers only the first two years terminating in an associate degree • Hypernyms: ↑college • Hyponyms: ↑community college, ↑normal school, ↑teachers college * * * noun, pl ⋯ leges [count] US : a school that has two years of… …   Useful english dictionary

  • junior college — o community college Institución educativa que imparte programas de hasta dos años de duración, y que entrega instrucción académica, técnica y vocacional a nivel de college (colegio universitario), con énfasis en la preparación de carreras… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • junior college — UK / US noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms junior college : singular junior college plural junior colleges a college in the US where students can study practical subjects, learn how to study, or prepare for university …   English dictionary

  • Junior college — Le terme junior college s applique à différentes institutions d éducation, dans différents pays, notamment en Inde, aux États Unis, au Japon et à Singapour. À Singapour, un Junior College (JC) est équivalent à un collège en sixième au Royaume Uni …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Junior College — Système éducatif des États Unis d Amérique Le Système éducatif des États Unis d’Amérique est décentralisé, la plupart des décisions sur les programmes et sur le financement étant prises par des instances locales : les school boards. Les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • junior college — Synonyms and related words: academe, academia, alma mater, college, college of engineering, community college, degree granting institution, four year college, graduate school, institute of technology, ivied halls, journalism school, law school,… …   Moby Thesaurus


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