- Music cognition
Music cognition is an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the mental processes that support musical behaviors, including perception, comprehension, memory, attention, and performance. Originally arising in fields of psychoacoustics and sensation, cognitive theories of how people understand music more recently encompass neuroscience, music theory, music therapy, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics.
Music cognition clearly came to be recognized as a discipline in the early 1980s, with the creation of the Society for Music Perception and Cognition, European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, and the journal Music Perception. The field of music cognition focuses on how the mind makes sense of music as it is heard. It also deals with the related question of the cognitive processes involved when musicians perform music. Like language, music is a uniquely human capacity that arguably played a central role in the origins of human cognition. The ways in which music can illuminate fundamental issues in cognition have been underexamined, or even Austin dismissed as epiphenomenal. However, cognition in music is more and more acknowledged as fundamental to our understanding of cognition as a whole, hence music cognition should be able to contribute both conceptually and methodologically to cognitive science. Topics in the field include the following and others:
- A listener's perception of grouping structure (motives, phrases, sections, etc.)
- Rhythm and meter (perception and production)
- Key inference
- Expectation (including melodic expectation).
- Musical similarity
- Emotional, affective, or arousal response
- Expressive, musical performance
- Conceptual processing 
Some aspects of cognitive music theory describe how sound is perceived by a listener. While the study of human interpretations of sound is called psychoacoustics, the cognitive aspects of how listeners interpret sounds as musical events is commonly known as music cognition.
In the 1970s, music was studied in the sciences mainly for its acoustical and perceptual properties, in what were then relatively novel disciplines such as psychophysics and music psychology. Music scholars criticized much of this research for focusing too much on low-level issues of sensation and perception, often using impoverished stimuli (e.g., small rhythmic fragments) or music restricted to the Western classical repertoire, as well as a general unawareness of the role of music in its wider social and cultural context. However, the cognitive revolution made scientists more aware of the role and importance of these aspects.
Looking back briefly, twenty years ago music went either completely unmentioned in psychology handbooks or appeared only in a subsection on pitch or rhythm perception. Today it is recognized, along with vision and language, as an important and informative domain in which to study the various aspects of cognition which activate psychic processes, including expectation, emotion, perception and memory, and how they apply to therapy. The role of music scholars and scientists in this latter research seems to be greater than ever. It could well be that music cognition will evolve into a prominent discipline contributing to our understanding of music just as much as more traditional analytic frameworks.[dubious ]
- Cognitive Musicology
- Embodied music cognition
- Music and the brain
- Cognitive neuroscience of music
- Music therapy
- ^ Daltrozzo, J., Schön, D. (2009). Conceptual processing in music as revealed by N400 effects on words and musical targets. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(10): 1882-1892.
- ^ Lehtonen, Kimmo (1987). "Creativity, the Symbolic Process and Object Relationships". The Creative Child and Adult Quarterly (Cincinnati, OH: National Association for Creative Children and Adults) 12 (4): 259–270. ISSN 0884-4291. ; cited in Degmečić, Dunja; Požgain, Ivan; Filaković, Pavo (December 2005). "Music as Therapy". International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music (Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Musicological Society) 36 (2): 287–300. ISSN 0351-5796.
- Palmer, Caroline/Melissa K. Jungers (2003): Music Cognition. In: Lynn Nadel: Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Vol. 3, London: Nature Publishing Group, pp. 155–158.
- Patel, Anirrudh D. (2010). Music, language, and the brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Day, Kingsley (October 21, 2004). "Music and the Mind: Turning the Cognition Key". Observer online.
- Jourdain, Robert (1997). Music, the Brain, and Ecstasy: How Music Captures Our Imagination. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-14236-2.
- Honing, Henkjan (2011). "Musical Cognition. A Science of Listening." New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-4228-0.
- Levitin, Daniel J. (2006). "This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession." New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-94969-0
- Purwins & Hardoon (2009). "Trends and Perspectives in Music Cognition Research and Technology." Connection Science. 21(2-3), 85-88.
- Snyder, Bob (2000). "Music and Memory: an introduction" The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69237-6.
- Deutsch, D. (Ed.) (1999). The Psychology of Music, 2nd Edition.San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-213565-2.
- Dowling, W. Jay and Harwood, Dane L. (1986). Music Cognition. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-221430-7.
- Hallam, Cross, & Thaut, (eds.) (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Krumhansl, Carol L. (2001). Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514836-3.
- Parncutt, Richard (1989). Harmony: A Psychoacoustical Approach. Berlin: Springer.
- Sloboda, John A. (1985). The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852128-6.
- Lerdahl, F., and Jackendoff, R. (1996) A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262621076.
- Temperley, D. (2004). The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262701051.
- Thompson, W. F. (2009). Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195377071.
- Zbikowski, Lawrence M. (2004). Conceptualizing Music: Cognitive Structure, Theory, and Analysis. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195140231.
- North, A.C. & Hargreaves, D.J. (2008). The Social and Applied Psychology of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198567424.
- Cross, Ian (1998). "Music Analysis and Music Perception." Music Analysis 17(1).
- Gur, Golan (2008). "Body, Forces, and Paths: Metaphor and Embodiment in Jean-Philippe Rameau’s Conceptualization of Tonal Space" Music Theory Online 14(1).
- Honing, Henkjan (2006). "Computational modeling of music cognition: A case study on model selection." Music Perception 23(5), 365–376.
- Huron, David (1999). "Music and Mind: The foundation of cognitive musicology (The 1999 Ernst Bloch Lectures)" "Berkeley, University of California Press"
- Purwins, Herrera, Grachten, Hazan, Marxer, Serra (2008). Computational Models of Music Perception and Cognition (Part I, Part II) Physics of Life Reviews 5(3), 151-182.
- Deutsch, D. (2010). "Hearing music in ensembles". Physics Today. PDF Document
Music History of music Composition Education and careers Production Cultural and regional genres of musicAfrican (Central African · East African · North African · Southern African · West African) · Asian (Central Asian · East Asian · Middle Eastern · South Asian · Southeast Asian) · European (Central European · Eastern European · Northern European · Southeastern European · Southern European · Western European) · Latin American (Central American · South American) · North American (Canadian · Caribbean · United States) · Oceanian (Australian · Melanesian · Micronesian · New Zealand · Polynesian) Lists Related topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Culture in music cognition — refers to the impact that a person s culture has on their music cognition, including their preferences, emotion recognition, and musical memory. Musical preferences are biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy,… … Wikipedia
Embodied music cognition — is a concept within musicology.A direction within systematic musicology interested in studying the role of the human body in relation to all musical activities. The human body is thereby considered as the natural mediator between mind (focused on … Wikipedia
Music psychology — Music psychology, or the psychology of music, may be regarded as a branch of psychology or a branch of musicology. It aims to explain and understand musical behavior and musical experience. Modern music psychology is mainly empirical: music… … Wikipedia
Music theory — is the study of how music works. It examines the language and notation of music. It seeks to identify patterns and structures in composers techniques across or within genres, styles, or historical periods. In a grand sense, music theory distills… … Wikipedia
Music therapy — Intervention ICD 9 CM 93.84 MeSH … Wikipedia
Music education — is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on all domains of learning, including the psychomotor domain (the development of skills), the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge), and, in particular… … Wikipedia
Music, Thought, and Feeling — Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music Author(s) William Forde Thompson … Wikipedia
Music of Canada — General topics Portal Genres … Wikipedia
Music of Canadian cultures — Music of Canada General topics Portal Genres … Wikipedia
Music of Quebec — Timeline • Samples Genres Classical Folk Hip hop Jazz Pop Rock Specific forms Native American … Wikipedia