- Nordic folk music
Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries. The Nordic countries are generally taken to include Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The Nordic Council, an international organization, also includes the autonomous territories of Åland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Historically, the term Nordic was also applied to Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
The many regions of the Nordic countries share certain traditions, many of which have diverged significantly. It is possible to group together the Baltic states (or, sometimes, only Estonia) and parts of northwest Russia as sharing cultural similarities, contrasted with Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Atlantic islands of, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Greenland's Inuit culture has its own musical traditions, influenced by Scandinavian culture. Finland shares many cultural similarities with both the Baltic nations and the Scandinavian nations. The Saami of Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia have their own unique culture, with ties to the neighboring cultures.
Western Nordic countries
The dulcimer and fiddle are the two most characteristic instruments found throughout Scandinavia. Norway and Sweden, however, have a tradition of virtuosic solo fiddling, which is unknown in Denmark. Also in contrast, Danish traditional music has a more prominent guitar than the northern neighbors. Gammaldans are a kind of dance song played by harmonica and accordion, popular in both Sweden and Norway in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Circle dancing while singing ballads are a historic part of the folk traditions of all of northern Europe. Only the Faroe Islands have maintained this tradition to the present day, though it has been revived in some other areas. Iceland is home to many ancient musical practices no longer found elsewhere in the Nordic area, such as the use of parallel fifths and organum.
Finland was long ruled by Sweden, so much of Finnish culture is influenced by Swedish. There are a number of Swedes living in Finland, and vice versa. These communities have produced traditional musicians like the Swedish-Finn Scea Jansson and Gjallarhorn, and the Finnish-Swedish Norlåtar and JP Nyströms.
Finland's musical ties are primarily to the Balto-Finnic peoples of Russia and the Estonians (Cronshaw, 91). Runolaulu is a kind of song found throughout this area. Estonia and Finland both have national epics based on interconnected forms of runo-song, Kalevipoeg and Kalevala, respectively. "Estonian runo-song has the same basic form as the Finnish variety to which it is related: the line has eight beats, the melody rarely spans more than the first five notes of a diatonic scale and its short phrases tend to use descending patterns" (Cronshaw, 16).
The kantele is a type of instrument played throughout Finland, the Baltic states and northwest Russia. The board-zither or chord-zither is played in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania; these are instruments that are more closely designed to German factory-made zithers and autoharps than the kantele. A bowed lyre (Swedish hiiu-kannel, Finnish jouhikko) was formerly played among Swedes living in Estonia, but usage declined until a recent revival.
In the 19th century, all the Baltic states saw an influx of foreign instruments and styles, resulting in fusions like the German-influenced zinge singing style of Latvia.
Sami, Roma and other minorities
Main articles: Sami music and Roma music
The Sami are found in Norway, Sweden, Finland and the northwest corner of Russia. The only traditional Sami instruments are drums and the flute, though modern bands use a variety of instrumentation. Joiks, unrhymed works without definite structure, are the most characteristic kind of song.
Finland's Roma (Gypsy) population helped to keep traditional Finnish music alive when ethnic Finns failed to do so, a role played by the Roma throughout much of Europe (Cronshaw, 99).
- Nettl, Bruno. Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents. 1965. Prentice-Hall. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
- Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham with James McConnachie and Orla Duane (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
- Smith, Frederick Key (0275973999). Nordic Art Music: From the Middle Ages to the Third Millennium. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 2002.
- Yoell, John H. (1974). The Nordic Sound: Explorations into the Music of Denmark, Norway, Sweden. Crescendo Pub. Co. ISBN 0-87597-090-7.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Folk music — Folk song redirects here. For other uses, see Folk song (disambiguation). Folk music Béla Bartók recording Slovak peasant singers in 1908 Traditions List of folk music traditions … Wikipedia
Swedish folk music — is a genre of music based largely on folkloric collection work that began in the early nineteenth century in Sweden. [Kaminsky 2005:33 41.] The primary instrument of Swedish folk music is the fiddle. Another common instrument, unique to Swedish… … Wikipedia
Filipino folk music — Traditional Music in the Philippines, like the traditional music of other countries, reflects the life of common folk, mainly living in rural areas rather than urban ones. Like its counterparts in Asia, a lot of traditional songs from the… … Wikipedia
Traditional Nordic dance music — is a type of traditional music or folk music that once was common in the mainland part of the Nordic countries Scandinavia plus Finland. The person who plays this kind of music might be called speleman (Swedish/Norwegian), spelman (Swedish),… … Wikipedia
Kaustinen Folk Music Festival — ( Kaustisen kansanmusiikkijuhlat ), arranged yearly in July in Kaustinen, Finland, is the biggest folk music and dance festival in the Nordic countries. It was first arranged in 1968.In its first year, the festival expected 6000 visitors. The… … Wikipedia
Music of Finland — Karelia Sami music Humppa Kantele Genres Folk Pop Opera Rock (Suomirock) Hip hop Trance … Wikipedia
Folk metal — Stylistic origins Heavy metal, folk music Cultural origins Early to mid 1990s across Europe Typical instruments Electric guitar Bass Drums Vocals Folk instruments or Keyboards … Wikipedia
Music of Namibia — Music of Southern Africa Botswana Comoros … Wikipedia
Music of Norway — Part of a series on Norwegians Culture Arch … Wikipedia
Music of Denmark — Danish jazz musician Chris Minh Doky under a live performance … Wikipedia