- Muslim history
Muslim history began in
Arabiawith the Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an in the 7th century. Islam's historical development has affected political, economic, and military trends both inside and outside the Islamic world. As wit h Christendom, the concept of an "Islamic world" is useful in looking at different periods of human history; similarly useful is an understanding of the identification with a quasi-political community of believers, or " ummah", on the part of Islam's practitioners down the centuries.
Within a century of Muhammad's recitations of the
Qur'an, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic Oceanin the west to Central Asiain the east. This new polity soon broke into a civil war known to Islamic historians as the First Fitna, and later affected by a Second Fitna. Through its history, there would be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states and empires offered only token obedience to a caliphunable to unify the Islamic world.
The subsequent empires of the
Ummayyads, Abbasids, the Mughals, and the Seljuk Turk, Safavid Persiaand Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. The peoples of the Islamic world gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctor nurses and philosophers during the Golden Age of Islam. Technology flourished; there was much investment in economic infrastructure, such as irrigation systems and canals; stress on the importance of reading the Qur'an produced a comparatively high level of literacy in the general populace.
In the 18th and 19th centuries A.D., Islamic regions fell under the sway of European imperial powers. Following World War I, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parcelled out as European
protectorates. Since then, there has been no major widely-accepted claim to the caliphate (which had been last claimed by the Ottomans).
Although affected by various ideologies, such as
communism, during much of the twentieth century, Islamic identity and Islam's salience on political questions have arguably increased during the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century. Rapid growth, western interests in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalizationinfluenced Islam's importance in shaping the world of the twenty-first century. [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1212925100226&pagename=Zone-English-ArtCulture%2FACELayout Milestones of Islamic History]
There are several Muslim versions of early Islamic history as written by the
Sunni, Shi'a, and Ibadisects. Nineteenth century Western scholars tended to privilege the Sunni versions; the Sunni are the largest sect, and their books and scholars were easily available. Over the last hundred years, Western scholars have become much more willing to question the orthodox view and to advance new theories and new narratives.cn
According to the traditionalist view, the
Qur'anbegan with Muhammad's claims of divine revelations in 610AD. The verses of the Qur'an were written down and memorized during his life. Meccawas conquered by the Muslims in the year 630AD. In 628the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina signed a truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyya. A 10 year peace was to be broken by Quraish who, with their allies, the tribe of "Bakr", attacked the tribe of "Khuza'ah" who were allies of the Muslims. Muhammad died in June 632. The Battle of Yamamawas fought in December of the same year, between the forces of Muslim Caliph Abu Bakrand Musailima.
After Muhammad died, a series of Caliphs governed the Islamic State: Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali. These first Caliphs are popularly known as the "
Rashidun" or "rightly-guided" Caliphs. After the Rashidun, a series of Caliphates were established. Each caliphatewas like a monarchy, developed its own unique laws and adopted a particular sect of Islam as a State religion. Until the ninth century C.E. the Muslim Worldwould remain a single political entity under the leadership of one Caliph. The early Caliphateis also known as the Arab Empireor Islamic Empire.
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bar:barre1 from: 632 till: 661 color:orange text:Al-Rashidun from: 661 till: 750 color:cyan text:
Ummayadfrom: 750 till: 960 color:green text: Abbasid
Al-Rashidun - "The Rightly-Guided Khalifahs"
Following Muhammad's death, a series of four Caliphs lead the Islamic Empire during this period.
Abbasids - "Islamic Golden Age"
The gains of the Ummayad empire were consolidated upon when the
Abbasiddynasty rose to power in 750, with the conquest of the Mediterranean islands including the Balearicsand Sicily.cite encyclopedia | title=Islam | encyclopedia=Encyclopaedia of Islam Online | author=L. Gardet | coauthors=J. Jomier | accessdate=2007-05-02] The new ruling partyhad been instated on the wave of dissatisfaction propagated against the Ummayads, cultured mainly by the Abbasid revolutionary, Abu Muslim. [Lewis (1993), p.84] [Holt (1977a), p.105] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. Most notable was the development of Arabic prose and poetry, termed by "The Cambridge History of Islam" as its "golden age." [Holt (1977b), pp.661-663] This was also the case for commerce and industry (considered a Muslim Agricultural Revolution), and the arts and sciences (considered a Muslim Scientific Revolution), which prospered, especially under the rule of Abbasid caliphs al-Mansur(ruled 754 — 775), Harun al-Rashid(ruled 786 — 809), al-Ma'mun(ruled 809 — 813), and their immediate successors."Abbasid Dynasty", "The New Encyclopedia Britannica" (2005)] Baghdadwas made the new capital of the caliphate (moved from the previous capital, Damascus) due to the importance placed by the Abbasids upon eastern affairs in Persiaand Transoxania. It was at this time, however, that the caliphate showed signs of fracture and the uprising of regional dynasties. Although the Ummayad family had been killed by the revolting Abbasids, one family member, Abd ar-Rahman I, was able to flee to Spain and establish an independent caliphate there, in 756. In the Maghreb region, Harun al-Rashid appointed the Arab Aghlabids as virtually autonomous rulers, although they continued to recognise the authority of the central caliphate. Aghlabid rule was short lived, as they were deposed by the Shiite Fatimiddynasty in 909. By around 960, the Fatimids had conquered Abbasid Egypt, building a new capital there in 973 called "al-Qahirah" (meaning "the planet of victory", known today as Cairo). Similar was the case in Persia, where the Turkic Ghaznavids managed to snatch power from the Abbasids."Islam", "The New Encyclopedia Britannica" (2005)] Whatever temporal powerof the Abbasids remained had eventually been consumed by the Seljuq Turks(a Muslim Turkish clan which had migrated into mainland Persia), in 1055.
During this time, expansion continued, sometimes by military warfare, sometimes by peaceful proselytism. The first stage in the conquest of India began just before the year 1000. By some 200 (from 1193 — 1209) years later, the area up to the
Ganges riverhad been conquered. In sub-Saharan West Africa, it was just after the year 1000 that Islam was established. Muslim rulers are known to have been in Kanem starting from sometime between 1081 to 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gaoas early as 1009. The Islamic kingdoms associated with Mali reached prominence later, in the 13th century.
During the Abbasid reign,
Baghdadbecame one of the greatest cultural centers of the world.The Abbasidswere said to be descendents of Abbas the uncle of Muhammad claiming that they were the 'messiah' or saviours of the people under the Ummayadrule.Abbasid caliphs Harun al-Rashidand Al-Mamunwere great patrons of arts and sciences, and enabled these domains to flourish.Islamic philosophy also developed as the Shariahwas codified, and the four Madhabswere established and built. This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism. The greatest achievement, however, was completion of the canonical collections of Hadithof Sahih Bukhariand others. [Nasr (2003), p.121]
The Abbasids soon became caught within a three-way rivalry of Arabs, Persians and the immigrant Turks. [Nasr (2003), p. 121-122] In addition, the cost of running a large empire became too great. [ Lapidus (1988), p.129] The political unity of Islam began to disintegrate. The Emirates, still recognizing the theoretical leadership of the caliphs, drifted into independence, and a brief revival of control was ended with the establishment of rival caliphates. Eventually the Abbasids ruled as puppets for the
Buwayhidemirs. During this time, great advancements were made in the areas of astronomy, poetry, philosophy science and mathematics.
pain & the Umayyads
The Arabs first began their conquest of southern Spain or al-Andalus in 710 and created a province under the Caliphate which extended as far as the north of the peninsula. Hourani, pg.41] After the Abbasids came to power, some Ummayads fled to Muslim Spain and established themselves in Córdoba. By the end of the 10th century, the ruler Abd al-Rahman III (912-61) took over the title of
Beginning in the 8th century C.E. the
Christiankingdoms of Spain had begun the Reconquistaaimed at retaking Al-Andalusfrom the Moors. In 1095, Pope Urban II, inspired by the perceived holy wars in Spain and implored by the eastern Roman emperor to help defend Christianity in the East, called for the First Crusadefrom Western Europe which captured Edessa, Antioch, Tripoliand Jerusalem. The Christian Kingdom of Jerusalememerged and for a time controlled many holy sites of Islam. Saladin, however, restored unity within the Umma by defeating the Fatimids, and was then able to put an end to the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187 C.E. Other crusades were launched with at least the nominal intent to recapture the holy city and other holy lands, but hardly more was ever accomplished than the errant looting and occupation of Christian Constantinople, leaving the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire severely weakened and ripe for later conquest. However, the crusaders did manage to weaken Muslim territories preventing them from further expansion into Christendom.
In 1250 C.E., the short-lived
Ayyubiddynasty (established by Saladin) was overthrown by slave regiments, and a new dynasty—the Mamluks—was born. The Mamluks soon expanded into Palestine, expelled the remaining Crusader states and repelled the Mongol attempt to invade Syria. Thus they united Syriaand Egyptfor the longest period of time between the Abbasid and Ottoman empires (1250-1517). Hourani, pg.85]
Islam in Africa
The first continent outside of Arabia to have an Islamic history was
Africabeginning with the hijirah to Ethiopia. Islam in Ethiopia can be dated back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a band of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by, in Muhammad's estimation, a pious Christian king. Moreover, Islamic tradition states that Bilal, one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Ethiopia.
Islam in Maghreb
The Maghreb meaning "place of
sunset" or " western" in Arabic, is the region of Africanorth of the SaharaDesert and west of the Nile— specifically, coinciding with the Atlas Mountains. Geopolitically, the area includes Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, Western Sahara, and sometimes Mauritania, which is often placed in West Africainstead. This part of Islamic territory has independent governments during most part of history of Islam. There were some great governments. Idrisid dynastyThe Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985. The dynasty is named after its first sultan Idris I. Almoravid dynastywas a Berber dynasty from the Saharathat flourished over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsuladuring the 11th century. Under this dynasty the Moorishempire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen(in Algeria) and a great part of what is now Senegaland Maliin the south, and Spainand Portugalin the north. Almohad Dynastyor "the Unitarians," were a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynastyin the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africaas far as Egypt, together with Al-Andalus.
Islam in East Africa
There were Islamic governments in
Tanzania. The people of Zayd were allegedly the first Muslims to immigrate to East Africa. Islam came to east Africa mainly through trade routes. the African peoples that lived along these routes became converts due to the close contact they had to Arabs traders in areas like Tabora, from which they affected the manners of Muslims. this led to eventual conversion without encouragement nor discouragement of the Muslim Arabs. In pre-colonial east Africa, the structure of Islamic authority was held up through the 'Ulama ("wanawyuonis," in Swahili). Their base was mainly in Zanzibar. These leaders had some degree of authority over most of the Muslims in East Africa at this time; specially before the territorial boundaries were established. This is because the majority of Muslims lived within the sphere of influence of the Sultanate in Zanzibar, the chief Qadi there was recognized for having the final religious authority.Reference: August H. Nimtz, Jr."Islam and Politics in East Aftrica. the Sufi Order in Tanzania." University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1980.
Islam in West Africa
Usman dan Fodioafter the Fulani War, found himself in command of the largest state in Africa, the Fulani Empire. Dan Fodio worked to establish an efficient government, one grounded in Islamic law. Already aged at the beginning of the war, dan Fodio retired in 1815 passing the title of Sultan of Sokoto to his son Muhammed Bello.
Islam in Asia
Islam in India, Islam in Pakistan"Islamic rule came to the region in the 8th century, when Muhammad bin Qasimconquered Sindh, ( Pakistan). Muslim conquests were expanded under Mahmud and the Ghaznavidsuntil the late twelfth century, when the Ghuridsoverran the Ghaznavids and extended the conquests in northern India. Qutb-ud-din Aybak, conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanates.
In the fourteenth century,
Alauddin Khiljiextended Muslim rule south to Gujarat, Rajasthanand Deccan. Various other Muslim dynasties also formed and ruled across India from the 13th to the 18th century such as the Qutb Shahiand the Bahmani, but none rivalled the power and extensive reach of the Mughal Empireat its peak.
Islam reached the islands of
Southeast Asiathrough Indian Muslim traders near the end of the 13th century. Soon, many Sufimissionaries translated classical Sufi literaturefrom Arabic and Persian into Malay. Coupled with the composing of original Islamic literaturein Malay, this led the way to the transformation of Malay into an Islamic language. [Nasr (2003), p. 143] By 1292, when Marco Polovisited Sumatra, most of the inhabitants had converted to Islam. The Sultanate of Malaccawas founded by Parameswara, a Srivijayan Prince in the Malay peninsula. Through trade and commerce, Islam spread to Borneoand Java, Indonesia. By late 15th century, Islam had been introduced to the Philippines.Fact|date=April 2007
As Islam spread, three main Muslim political powers emerged.
Aceh, the most important Muslim power, was based firmly in Northern Sumatra. It controlled much of the area between Southeast Asia and India. The Sultunate also attracted Sufipoets. The second Muslim power was the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula. The Sultanate of Demakwas the third power emerged in Java, where the Muslim emerging forces defeated the local Majapahitkingdom in the early 16th century. [Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 226-230] Although the sultanate managed to expand its territory somewhat, its rule remained brief.
Portuguese forces captured Malacca in 1511 under the naval general
Afonso de Albuquerque. With Malacca subdued, Aceh Sultanateand Brunei established themselves as the centre of Islam in Southeast Asia. Brunei sultanate remains intact even to this day.
The wave of
Mongol invasions, which had initially commenced in the early 13th century under the leadership of Genghis Khan, marked a violent end to the Abbasid era. The Mongol Empirehad spread rapidly throughout Central Asia and Persia: the Persian city of Isfahanhad fallen to them by 1237. With the election of Khan Mongkein 1251, sights were set upon the Abbasid capital, Baghdad. Mongke's brother, Hulegu, was made the head of the Mongol Armyassigned with the task of subduing Baghdad. This was achieved at the Battle of Baghdad (1258), which saw the Abbasids overrun by the superior Mongol army. The last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta'sim, was captured and killed; and Baghdad was ransacked and subsequently destroyed. The cities of Damascus and Aleppofell shortly afterwards, in 1260. Any prospective conquest of Egypt was temporarily delayed due to the death of Mongke at around the same time.
With Mongol conquest in the east, the
Ayyubid dynastyruling over Egypt had been surpassed by the slave-soldier Mamluks in 1250. This had been done through the marriage between Shajar al-Durr, the widow of Ayyubid caliph al-Salih Ayyub, with Mamluk general Aybak. Military prestige was at the center of Mamluk society, and it played a key role in the confrontations with the Mongol forces. After the assassination of Aybak, and the succession of Qutuzin 1259, the Mamluks challenged and decisively routed the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalutin late 1260. This signalled an adverse shift in fortunes for the Mongols, who were again defeated by the Mamluks at the Battle of Homsa few months later, and then driven out of Syria altogether. With this, the Mamluks were also able to conquer the last of the crusader territories.Fact|date=April 2007
Three Muslim empires
In the 15th century and 16th centuries three major Muslim empires were created: the aforementioned
Ottoman Empirein much of the Middle East, Balkansand Northern Africa; the Safavid Empirein Greater Iran; and the Mughul Empirein South Asia. These new imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder, and more efficient administration. [Armstrong (2000) p. 116] By the end of the 19th century, all three had declined significantly, and by the early 20th century, with the Ottomans' defeat in World War I, the last Muslim empire collapsed.
The Mughal Empire was a product of various
Central Asian invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by the Timuridprince Baburin 1526 with the destruction of the Delhi sultanate, with its capital in Agra. Babur's death some years later, and the indecisive rule of his son, Humayun, brought a degree of instability to Mughal rule. The resistance of the AfghaniSher Shah, through which a string of defeats had been dealt to Humayun, significantly weakened the Mughals. Just a year before his death, however, Humayun managed to recover much of the lost territories, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, the 13 year old Akbar (later known as "Akbar the Great"), in 1556. Under Akbar, consolidation of the Mughal Empire occurred through both expansion and administrative reforms.After Akbar,Jahangir and Shah jahan came to power. Next,Aurangazeb ruled vast areas include afghanisthan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. He ruled India by changing existing set-up and lead the country in a well provided Justice to the people.Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 211-219]
The empire ruled most of present-day
India, Pakistan, Bangladeshand Afghanistanfor several centuries, before it declined in the early 18th century, which led to India being divided into smaller kingdoms and princely states. The Mughal dynasty was eventually dissolved by the British Empireafter the Indian rebellion of 1857. It left a lasting legacy on Indian culture and architecture. Amongst the famous buildings built by the Mughals, include: Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens and Agra Fort. During the empire's reign of power, Muslim communities flourished all over India, particularly in Gujarat, Bengaland Hyderabad. Various Sufi orders from Afghanistanand Iranwere very active throughout the region. Consequently, more than a quarter of the population converted to Islam.
The Safavids (Persian: صفویان) were an
Iranian dynasty from Iranian Azarbaijanthat ruled from 1501 to 1736, and which established Shi'a Islamas Iran's official religion and united its provinces under a single Iranian sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity.
Although claiming to be the descendants of
Ali ibn Abu Talib, the Safavids were originally Sunni(the name "Safavid" comes from a Sufi order called "Safavi"). Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah, an Iranian local dignitary from Iran's north. During their rule, the Safavids recognized Shiismas the State religion, thus giving Irana separate identity from its Sunnineighbours.
Tahmaspacceded to the throne, initiating reviving arts in the region. Carpet making became a major industry, gaining new importance in Iran's cities. But the finest of all artistic revivals was the commissioning of the "Shahnama". The "Shahnama" was meant to glorify the reign of the "Shah" through artistic means. The two-volume copy contained 258 large paintings to illustrate the works of Firdawsi, a Persian poet. The Shah also prohibited the drinking of wine, forbade the use of hashishand ordered the removal of gambling casinos, taverns and brothels. Tahmasp's grandson, Shah Abbas I, also managed to increase the glory of the empire. Abbas restored the shrine of Imam Rezaat Mashhad, and restored the dynastic shrine at Ardabil. Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas also moved the empire's capital to Isfahan, revived old ports, and established thriving trade with the Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of " Naqsh-e Jahan Square" ("Design of the World"). The plaza, located near a Friday mosque, covered twenty acres, thus dwarfing Piazza San Marcoand St. Peter's Square. [Bloom and Blair (2000), p. 199-204]
The Seljuk Turks fell apart rapidly in the second half of the 13th century, especially after the Mongol invasions in Anatolia. [Holt (1977a), p.263] This resulted in the establishment of multiple Turkish principalities, known as
beyliks. Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman dynasty, assumed leadership of one of these principalities ( Söğüt) in 1281, succeeding his father Ertuğrul. Declaring an independent Ottoman emirate in 1299, Osman I led it to a series of consecutive victories over the Byzantine Empire.Fact|date=April 2007 By 1331, the Ottomans had captured Nicaea, the former Byzantine capital, under the leadership of Osman's son and successor, Orhan I. [Koprulu (1992), p.109] Victory at the Battle of Kosovoagainst the Serbs in 1389 then facilitated their expansion into Europe. The Ottomans were firmly established in the Balkansand Anatolia by the time Bayezid Iascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a swiftly growing empire. [Koprulu (1992), p.111]
Further growth was brought to a sudden halt, as Bayezid I had been captured by Mongol warlord
Timur(also known as "Tamerlane") in the Battle of Ankarain 1402, upon which a turbulent period known as the Ottoman Interregnumensued. This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority. When a number of the territories recently conquered by the Ottomans regained independent status, potential ruin for the Ottoman Empire became apparent. However, the empire quickly recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I, waged offensive campaigns against his other ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minorand declaring himself the new Ottoman sultan in 1413.cite web | author=Applied History Research Group | publisher=University of Calagary | url=http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/index2.html | title=The Islamic World to 1600 | accessdate=2007-04-18]
At around this time the naval fleet of the Ottomans developed considerably, such that they were able to challenge Venice, traditionally a naval power. Focus was also directed towards reconquering the Balkans. By the time of Mehmed I's grandson,
Mehmed II(ruled 1444 — 1446; 1451 — 1481), the Ottomans felt strong enough to lay siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. A decisive factor in this siege was the use of firearms and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans (adapted from Europe and improved upon), against which the Byzantines were unable to compete. The Byzantine fortress finally succumbed to the Ottoman invasion in 1453, 54 days into the siege. Mehmed II, entering the city victorious, renamed it to " Istanbul". With its capital conceded to the Ottomans, the rest of the Byzantine Empire quickly disintegrated. The future successes of the Ottomans and later empires would depend heavily upon the exploitation of gunpowder. [Armstrong (2000), p.116]
In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite
Safavid dynastyassumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I, upon the defeat of the ruling Turcomanfederation Aq Qoyunlu(also called the "White Sheep Turkomans") in 1501. The Ottoman sultan Selim Iquickly sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiranin 1514. Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories into the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Suleiman I(also known as "Suleiman the Magnificent"), Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus against the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had previously fallen under Safavid control. Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, with their empire rivalling the Ottomans'. Suleiman I also advanced deep into Hungaryfollowing the Battle of Mohácsin 1526 — reaching as far as the gates of Vienna thereafter, and signed a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Francis I of Franceagainst Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire10 years later. Suleiman I's rule (1520 — 1566) signified the height of the Ottoman Empire, after which it fell into a relative decline with European empires rapidly industrialising. [www.muslimdecline.blogspot.com]
During the 18th century,
Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab(1703 – 1792) led a religious movement ( Wahhabism) in Najd(central Arabia) that sought to purify Islam. Wahhab wanted to return Islam to what he thought were its original principles as taught by the "as-salaf as-saliheen" (the earliest converts to Islam) and rejected what he regarded as corruptions introduced by bid‘ah(religious innovation) and Shirk (polytheism). He allied himself with the House of Saud, which eventually triumphed over the Rashidis to control Central Arabia, and led several revolts against the Ottoman empire. Initial success (the conquest of Mecca and Medina) was followed by ignominious defeat, then a resurgence which culminated in the creation of Saudi Arabia.
The 20th century
The modern age brought radical technological and organizational changes to Europe and Islamic countries found themselves less modern when compared to the many western nations. Europe's state-based government and rampant colonization allowed the West to dominate the globe economically and forced Islamic countries to question change.
Demise of the Ottoman Empire
By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman empire had declined due to internal conflict and the failure to keep pace with European technological and economic developmentFact|date=July 2008. Their decision to back Germany in World War I meant they shared the Central Powers' defeat in that war, which led directly to the overthrow of the Ottomans by Turkish nationalists led by Kemal Atatürk. Following
World War I, its remnants were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence.Fact|date=April 2007 Ottoman successor states include today's Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Lebanon, Montenegro, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, other Balkan states, North Africaand the north shore of Black sea. ["Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History", vol.4, p.1402]
Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and
nationalismbegan to emerge in the Muslim world. Countries like Egypt, Syria, and Turkeyorganized their governments with definable policies and sought to develop national pride amongst their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity and an inability to resolve age-old prejudices between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims.
Some Muslim countries, such as
Turkeyand Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government. In other cases, such as Saudi Arabia, the new government brought out new religious expression in the re-emergence of the puritanical form of Sunni Islam known to its detractors as Wahhabismwhich found its way into the Saudi royal family.
Partition of India
The "partition of India" refers to the creation in August 1947 of two sovereign states of
Indiaand Pakistan. The two nations were formed out of the former British Raj, including treaty states, when Britain granted independence to the area (see Undivided India). In particular, the term refers to the partition of Bengaland Punjab, the two main provinces of the would be Pakistan.
In 1947, after the partition of India, Pakistan became the largest Islamic Country in the world (by population) and the tenth largest post-WWII state in the modern world. In 1971, after a bloody war of independence the Bengal part of Pakistan became an independent state called Bangladesh.
Today, Pakistan is second largest Islamic country in the world followed by Indonesia. Pakistan is presently the only nuclear power of the Muslim world.
Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world, by population. India has the second largest Muslim population.
The Arab-Israeli conflict spans about a century of political tensions and open hostilities. It involves the establishment of the modern State of Israel as a
Jewish nation state, the consequent displacement of the Palestinian people, as well as the adverse relationship between the Arabnations and the state of Israel (see related Israeli-Palestinian conflict). Despite initially involving the Arab states, animosity has developed between other Muslim nations and Israel. Many countries, individuals and non-governmental organizations elsewhere in the world feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties with Islam, Arab culture, Christianity, Judaism, Jewish cultureor for ideological, human rights, or strategic reasons. While some consider the Arab-Israeli conflict a part of (or a precursor to) a wider clash of civilizationsbetween the Western Worldand the Arab or Muslim world, [ [http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2003/issue4/jf7n4a6.html Causes of Anti-Americanism in the Arab World: A Socio-Political Perspective] by Abdel Mahdi Abdallah (MERIA Journal. Volume 7, No. 4 - December 2003] [ [http://www.science.co.il/Arab-Israeli-conflict-2.asp#Clash Arab-Israeli Conflict: Role of religion] (Israel Science and Technology)] others oppose this view. [ [http://www.memritv.org/Transcript.asp?P1=1050 Arab-American Psychiatrist Wafa Sultan: There is No Clash of Civilizations but a Clash between the Mentality of the Middle Ages and That of the 21st Century] ] Animosity emanating from this conflict has caused numerous attacks on supporters (or perceived supporters) of each side by supporters of the other side in many countries around the world.
Between 1953 and 1964, King Saud re-organized the government of the monarchy his father, Ibn Saud, had created. Saudi Arabia's new ministries included Communication (1953) Agriculture and Water (1953), Petroleum (1960), Pilgrimage and Islamic Endowments (1960), Labour and Social Affairs (1962) and Information (1963). He also put his Talal, one of his many younger brothers (by 29 years his younger) in charge of the Ministry of Transport.
In 1958-59, Talal proposed the formation of a National Council. As he proposed it, it would have been a consultative body, not a legislature. Still, he thought of it as a first step toward broader popular participation in the government. Talal presented this proposal to the king when the Crown Prince was out of the country. Saud simply forwarded the proposal to the ulama asking them whether a National Council was a legitimate institution in Islam. The idea seems to have died in committee, so to speak. It would be revived more than three decades later. A Consultative Council came into existence in 1992.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countriescame into existence in 1960. For the first decade or more of its existence, it was ineffectual in terms of increasing revenue for member nations. But it would have its day. Tension between Faisal and Saud continued to mount until a final showdown in 1964. Saud threatened to mobilize the Royal Guard against Faisal and Faisal threatened to mobilize the National Guard against Saud. It was Saud who blinked, abdicating and leaving for Cairo, then Greece, where he would die in 1969. Faisal then became King.
The 1967 war had other effects. It effectively closed the
Suez canal, it may have contributed to the revolution in Libya that put Muammar al-Gaddafiin power, and it led in May 1970 to the closure of the "tapline" from Saudi Arabia through Syriato Lebanon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of the petroleum in Libya, which is a conveniently short (and canal-free) shipping distance from Europe.
In 1970, it was
Occidental Petroleumwhich constituted the first crack in the wall of oil company solidarity in dealing with the oil producing nations; specifically, in this case, with the demands for price increases of the new Qaddafi government.
In October 1973, another war between Israel and its Muslim neighbors, known as the
Yom Kippur War, got underway just as oil company executives were heading to Vienna, site of a planned meeting with OPECleaders. OPEC had been emboldened by the success of Libya's demands anyway, and the war strengthened the unity of their new demands.
The Arab defeats in the Six Day and
1973 Arab-Israeli wars triggered the 1973 oil crisis. In response to the emergency re-supply effort by the Westthat enabled Israel to defeat Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe. Faisal agreed that Saudi Arabia would use some of its oil wealth to finance the "front-line states," those that bordered Israel, in their struggle.
The centrality of petroleum, the
Arab-Israeli Conflictand political and economic instability and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region.
Two Iranian revolutions
Iranian Constitutional Revolutiontook place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution marked the beginning of the end of Iran's feudalisticsociety and led to the establishment of a parliament in Persiaand restriction of the power of Shah(king). The first constitution of Iran was approved. But after the final victory of revolutionaries over Shah, the modernist and conservative blocks began to fight with each other. Then World War Itook place and all of the combatants invaded Iran and weakened the government and threatened the independence of Iran. The system of constitutional monarchy created by the decree of Mozzafar al-Din Shahthat was established in Persiaas a result of the Revolution was weakened in 1925 with the dissolution of the Qajardynasty and the accession of Reza Shah Pahlavito the throne.
In 1979 the
Iranian Revolution(also called "The Islamic Revolution" ) transformed Iranfrom a constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to a populist theocratic Islamic republicunder the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi`i Muslim cleric and " marja". Following the Revolution, an Iranian referendum established the Islamic republicas a new government, and a new constitution was approved, electing Ruhollah Khomeini Supreme Leaderof Iran. During the following two years, liberals, leftists, and Islamic groups fought with each other, and ultimately Islamics captured power. At the same time, the U.S., USSR, and most of the Arab governments of the Middle Eastfeared that their dominance in the region was challenged by the new Islamic ideology, so they encouraged and supported Saddam Husseinto invade Iran, which resulted in the Iran-Iraq war.
The 21st century
Islam in Turkey
Since the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of
secularism in Turkeyestablished by institutionalized by Atatürk's Reforms. Although the First Grand National Assembly of Turkey had rallied support from the population for the Independence War against the occupying forces on behalf of Islamic principles, Islam was gradually omitted from the public sphere after the Independence War. The principle of secularism was thus inserted in the Turkish Constitution as late as 1937. This legal action was assisted with stringent state policies against domestic Islamist groups and establishments to delete the strong appeal of Islam in the Turkish society. Even though an overwhelming majority of the population, at least nominally, adheres to Islam in Turkey; the state, which was established with the Kemalist ideologyhas no official religionnor promotes any and it actively monitors the area between the religions using the Presidency of Religious Affairs. The Republic Protestswere a series of peaceful mass rallies by Turkish secular citizens that took place in Turkey in 2007. The target of the first protest was the possible presidential candidacy of the Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, afraid that if elected President of Turkey Erdoğan would alter the Turkish secularist state [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6554851.stm "Secular rally targets Turkish PM"] , BBC News, April 14, 2007.]
Certain academics, such as Jorgen Nielsen ("Towards a European Islam", London: Macmillan Press, 1999), suggest that there is currently emerging a new brand of Islam in Europe, which is often termed "European Islam". While this new kind of Islam is not exactly defined, it could be described as combining on the one hand the religion's basic duties and on the other European culture, values and traditions (such as secularism, democracy, gender equality as perceived by the west, the European system of law, etc.):"See also:
Islam in Europe, Muslims in Western Europe.
Dynasties of Muslim Rulers
There are Muslim Dynasties which the can be found in
list of dynasties of Muslim Rulers
History of the Balkans
Islamic Golden Age
Islam by country- a list
List of wars in the Islamic world
List of the Muslim Empires
Timeline of Islamic history
Disputes over Islamic historical dates
References and further reading
Books and journals
* Hourani, Albert, "A History of the Arab Peoples", Faber & Faber, 2002, ISBN 0-571-21591-2
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ BBC Islamic History Special]
* [http://www.classicalislam.com/pages/history/chronological.htm Chronological history of Islam and Muslims up to current time]
* [http://friesian.com/islam.htm Islam: 662AD - Present]
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/islam/islamsbook.html Internet Islamic History Sourcebook]
* [http://www.sunnah.org/history/islamamr.htm A history of Islam in America]
* [http://www.barkati.net/english/ Brief history of Islam]
* [http://www.barkati.net/english/chronology.htm Chronological history of Islam]
* [http://www.muslimheritage.com/ A history of Islamic culture]
* [http://www.cyberistan.org/ Islamic Civilization]
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