- Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Fort and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore
State Party = PAK
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii, iii
ID = 171
Region = Asia-Pacific
Year = 1981
Session = 5th
Danger = 2000-
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171The Shalimar Gardens (
Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Persian gardenand it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahanin Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 A.D. (1051 A.H.) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khanand Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni.
The Shalimar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate
fretwork. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. In 1981, Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Sitealong with the Lahore Fort, under the UNESCOConvention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972.
The three level terraces of the Gardens
The Gardens have been laid out from south to north in three descending terraces, which are elevated by 4-5 metres (13-15 feet) above one another. The three terraces have names in
* The upper terrace named "Farah Baksh" meaning "Bestower of Pleasure".
* The middle terrace named "Faiz Baksh" meaning "Bestower of Goodness".
* The lower terrace named "Hayat Baksh" meaning "Bestower of life".
"Shah Nahar" : Irrigation of the Gardens
To irrigate the Gardens, a canal named "Shah Nahar" meaning "Royal canal", later also known as "Hansti canal", meaning "Laughing canal" was brought from "Rajpot" (present day Madhpur in India), a distance of over 161 kilometers. The canal intersected the Gardens and discharged into a large marble basin in the middle terrace.
From this basin, and from the canal, rise 410 fountains, which discharge into wide marble pools. The surrounding area is rendered cooler by the flowing of the fountains, which is a particular relief for visitors during Lahore's blistering summers, with temperature sometimes exceeding 120 degrees fahrenheit. It is a credit to the ingenuity of the Mughal engineers that even today scientists are unable to fathom how the fountains were operated originally. The distribution of the fountains is as follows:
* The upper level terrace has 105 fountains.
* The middle level terrace has 152 fountains.
* The lower level terrace has 153 fountains.
* All combined, the Gardens therefore have 410 fountains.
The Gardens have 5 water cascades including "the great marble cascade" and "Sawan Bhadoon".
Buildings of the Gardens
The buildings of the Gardens include:
Trees of the Gardens
Some of the varieties of trees that were planted included:
The site of the Shalimar Gardens originally belonged to one of the noble "Zaildar" families in the region, well known as
Mian Family Baghbanpura. The family was also given the Royal title of ' Mian' by the Mughal Emperor, for its services to the Empire. Mian Muhammad Yusuf, then the head of the Mian family, donated the site of Ishaq Pura to the Emperor Shah Jahan, after pressure was placed on the family by the royal engineers who wished to build on the site due to its good position and soil. In return, Shah Jahan granted the Mian family governance of the Shalimar Gardens. The Shalimar Gardens remained under the custodianship of this family for more than 350 years.
In 1962, the Shalimar Gardens were nationalised by General Ayub Khan because leading Mian family members had opposed his imposition of martial law in
Mela Chiraghanfestival used to take place in the Gardens, until President Ayub Khanordered against it in 1958.
Location of the Gardens
The Shalimar Gardens are located near
Baghbanpuraalong the Grand Trunk Road some 5 kilometers northeast of the main Lahore city.
* Mian Family
Shalimar Gardens (Kashmir)
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Lahore&ie=UTF8&z=16&ll=31.586779,74.382033&spn=0.010145,0.021629&t=k&om=1 Satellite view from Google Maps]
* [http://www.ualberta.ca/~rnoor Lahore Photos and History]
* [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/171 UNESCO World Heritage Centre]
* [http://www.arahman.co.uk/shalamar-gardens-b/ Shalimar Gardens - Photograph]
* [http://mianfamily.tripod.com/ Website of
Mian Family Baghbanpura]
* [http://www.pakistanpaedia.com/landmarks/shalamar-gardens_lahore.htm Pakistan Paedia]
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