- Arabic poetry
Arabic poetry (Arabic, الِشعر العربي "ash-shi`ru 'l-`arabiy") is the earliest form of
Arabic literature. Our present knowledge of poetry in Arabic dates from the 6th century, but oral poetryis believed to predate that. Arabic poetry is categorized into two main types, rhymed, or measured, and prose, with the former greatly preceding the latter. The rhymed poetry falls within fifteen different meters collected and explained by Al-Farahidiin what is known as “علم العروض” (The Science of Arood). Al-Zamakhsharilater added one more meter to make them sixteen. The meters of the rhythmical poetry are known in Arabic as “بحور” or Seas. The measuring unit of the “seas” is known as “تفعيلة” (taf’eela) with every sea containing a certain number of taf’eelas that the poet has to observe in every verse ("bayt") of the poem. The measuring procedure of a poem is very rigorous. Sometimes adding or removing a consonant or a vowel can shift the "bayt" from one meter to another. Also, in rhymed poetry, every "bayt" has to end with the same rhyme ("qafiya") throughout the poem.
With the expansion of Islam into Persia, the Arabic language was greatly enriched by
grammarians and writers of Persian descent. The new converts also made major contributions to Arabic poetry. The quality of Arabic poetry composed has, at times, deteriorated especially during the Mamluks era and onward.Fact|date=September 2008 In the 20th century, there has been a resurgence of Arabic literature and poetry, particularly in Egyptand Lebanon.
The pre-Islamic poetry is commonly referred to in
Arabicas "الشعر الجاهلي" or Jahili poetry, literally "the poetry of the period of ignorance".
Poetry held an important position in pre-Islamic society with the poet or "
sha'ir" filling the role of historian, soothsayerand propagandist. Words in praise of the tribe (" qit'ah") and lampoons denigrating other tribes (" hija'") seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The "sha'ir" represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, and mock battles in poetry or " zajal" would stand in lieu of real wars. 'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the "sha'irs" would be exhibited.
Alongside the "sha'ir", and often as his poetic apprentice, was the "rawi" or reciter. The job of the rawi was to learn the poems by heart and to recite them with explanations and probably often with embellishments. This tradition allowed the transmission of these poetic works and the practice was later adopted by the "huffaz" for their memorisation of the
Qur'an. At some periods there have been unbroken chains of illustrious poets, each one training a "rawi" as a bard to promote his verse, and then to take over from them and continue the poetic tradition. For example, Tufayltrained 'Awas ibn Hajar, 'Awas trained Zuhayr ibn Abî Sûlmâ, Zuhayr trained his son Ka'b bin Zuhayr, Ka'b trained al-Hutay'ah, al-Hutay'ah trained Jamil Buthaynahand Jamil trained Kuthayyir 'Azzah.
Singers who simply performed works included Ibrahim al-Mawsili, his son
Ishaq al-Mawsiliand Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdison of caliph al-Mahdi. Many stories about these early singers were retold in the " Kitab al-Aghani" or "Book of Songs" by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani.
Among the most famous poets of the pre-Islamic era are
Imru' al-Qais, al-Nabighah al-Dhubyani, Tarafah ibn al 'Abd , and Zuhayr ibn Abî Sûlmâ. Other poets, such as Ta'abbata Sharran, al-Shanfara, 'Urwah ibn al-Ward, were known as "su'luk" or vagabond poets, much of whose works consisted of attacks on the rigidity of tribal life and praise of solitude. Some of these attacks on the values of the clan and of the tribe were meant to be ironic, teasing the listeners only in order finally to endorse all that the members of the audience held most dear about their communal values and way of life. While such poets were identified closely with their own tribes, others, such as al-A'sha, were known for their wanderings in search of work from whoever needed poetry.
The very best of these early poems were collected in the 8th century as the "
Mu'allaqat" meaning "the hung poems" (because they were hung on or in the Kaaba) and the " Mufaddaliyat" meaning al-Mufaddal's examination or anthology. It also aimed to be the definitive source of the era's output with only a single example of the work of each of the so-called "seven renowned ones", although different versions differ in which "renowned ones" they chose. The "Mufaddaliyat" on the other hand contains rather a random collection; apparently all that was remembered and perhaps some that was only produced in the 8th century and was not truly pre-Islamic.
There are several characteristics that distinguish pre-Islamic poetry from the poetry of later times. One of these characteristics is that in pre-Islamic poetry more attention was given to the eloquence and the wording of the verse (البيت) than to the poem as whole. This resulted in poems characterized by strong vocabulary and short ideas but with loosely connected verses. A second characteristic is the romantic or nostalgic prelude with which pre-Islamic poems would often start. In these preludes the poet would remember his beloved and her deserted home and its ruins. This concept in Arabic poetry is referred to as “الوقوف على الأطلال” ("standing at the ruins") because the poet would often starts his poem by saying that he stood at the ruins of his beloved, a kind of "
ubi sunt". This characteristic was later dropped from the Arabic poem and some Arab poets, such as Abu Nuwas, became a target of mockery of pre-Islamic poetry.
Poetry Under Islam
These early poems were to some extent considered a threat to the newly emerging faith of
Islamand if not actually suppressed, fell into disuse for some years. The division of society into tribes and the internecine warfare carried out through verse served to separate Arabs at a time when religion was trying to pull them together.Fact|date=September 2008 The "sha'ir" and their pronouncements were too closely associated with the religion practiced before Islam, and the role of the poet was singled out for criticism in the Qur'an. They also praised subjects of dubious merit such as wine, women and gambling, which clashed with the new ideology. Satirical poems attacking an idea or leader were less censured. While some poets were early converts, poetry about or in praise of Islam took some time to develop.
It was the early poems' importance to Islamic scholarship, though, which would lead to their preservation. Not only did the poems illuminate life in the early years of Islam and its antecedents but they would also prove the basis for the study of
linguisticsof which the Qur'an was regarded as the pinnacle.
Many of the pre-Islamic forms of verse were retained and improved upon. "Naqa'id" or
flytings, where two poets exchange creative insults, were popular with al-Farazdaqand Jarir swapping a great deal of invective. The tradition continued in a slightly modified form as "zajal", in which two groups 'joust' in verse, and remains a common style in Lebanon.
Ghaylan ibn 'Uqbah(c. 696 - c. 735), nicknamed Dhu al-Rummah, is usually regarded as the last of the Bedouinpoets. His works had continued the themes and style of the pre-Islamic poets particularly eulogising the harsh but simple desert life, traditionally recited round a campfire. Although such themes continued and were returned to by many modern, urban poets, this poetic life was giving way to court poets. The more settled, comfortable and luxurious life in Ummayyad courts led to a greater emphasis on the " ghazal" or love poem. Chief amongst this new breed of poet was Abu Nuwas. Not only did Abu Nuwas spoof the traditional poetic form of the qasidaand write many poems in praise of wine, his main occupation was the writing of ever more ribald "ghazal" many of them openly homosexual.
While Nuwas produced risqué but beautiful poems, many of which pushed to the limit what was acceptable under Islam, others produced more religiously themed poetry. It is said that Nuwas struck a bargain with his contemporary
Abu al-Alahijah: Abu Nuwas would concentrate on wine and love poems whilst al-Alahijah would write homilies. These homilies expressed views on religion, sin and the afterlife, but occasionally strayed into unorthodox territory. While the work of al-Alahijah was acceptable, others such as the poet Salih ibn 'Abd al-Qudduswere executed for heresy. Waddah al-Yaman, now the national poet of Yemen, was also executed for his verse, but this was probably due to his over-familiarity with the wife of the caliph Al-Walid I.
The Sufi tradition also produced poetry closely linked to religion. Sufism is a mystical offshoot of Islam and it emphasised the allegorical nature of language and writing. Many of the works of Sufi poets appear to be simple "ghazal" or "khamriyyah". Under the guise of the love or wine poem they would contemplate the mortal flesh and attempt to achieve transcendence.
Rabi'ah al-'Adawiyyah, Abd Yazid al-Bistamiand Mansur al-Hallajare some of the most significant Sufi poets, but their poetry and doctrine were considered dangerous, and al-Hallaj was eventually crucified for heresy.
The caliph himself could take on the role of court poet with
Al-Walid IIa notable example, but he was widely disliked for his immorality and was deposed after only a year.
An important doctrine of Arabic poetry from the start was its complexity, but during the period of court poetry this became an art form in itself known as "
badi". There were features such as metaphor, pun, juxtaposing opposites and tricky theological allusions. Bashar ibn Burdwas instrumental in developing these complexities which later poets felt they had to surpass. Although not all writers enjoyed the baroque style, with argumentative letters on the matter being sent by Ibn Burd and Ibn Miskawayh, the poetic brinkmanship of "badi" led to a certain formality in poetic art, with only the greatest poets' words shining through the complex structures and wordplay. This can make Arabic poetry even more difficult to translate than poetry from other languages, with much of a poet's skill often lost in translation.
Arabic poetry declined after the 13th century along with much of the literature due to the rise of Persian and
Turkish literature. It flowered for a little longer in Al-Andalus(Islamic Spain) but ended with the expulsion of the Arabs in 1492. The corpus suffered large-scale destruction by fire in 1499 when Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros made a public "auto-da-fe" in Granada, burning 1,025,000 Arabic volumes. [Monroe, James T. "Hispano-Arabic Poetry", p.381, ISBN 1593331150.] Nonetheless, it continued to exert a subtle influence, as evidenced by the love poetry of Sebastiano de Córdoba,Fact|date=September 2008 whose eroticism was re-inverted for a spiritual purpose by the Christian mystic poets Saint John of The Crossand Saint Teresa of Ávila.Clarifyme|date=September 2008
A famous example of Arabic poetry on romance is "
Layla and Majnun", dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a tragic story of undying love much like the later " Romeo and Juliet", which was itself said to have been inspired by a Latinversion of "Layla and Majnun" to an extent. [ [http://www.shirazbooks.com/ebook1.html NIZAMI: LAYLA AND MAJNUN - English Version by Paul Smith] ] Verify credibility|date=October 2008
Another medieval Arabic love story was "
Hadith Bayad wa Riyad", ("The Story of Bayad and Riyad"), a 13th-century Arabiclove story written in Al-Andalus. The main characters of the tale are Bayad, a merchant's son and a foreigner from Damascus, and Riyad, a well educated girl in the court of an unnamed Hajibof Al-Andalus(vizier or minister) which is referred to as the lady. The "Hadith Bayad wa Riyad" manuscript is believed to be the only illustrated manuscript known to have survived from more than eight centuries of Muslim and Arab presence in Spain.
There were several elements of
courtly lovewhich were developed in Arabic poetry, namely the notions of "love for love's sake" and "exaltation of the beloved lady" which have been traced back to Arabic literature of the 9th and 10th centuries. The notion of the "ennobling power" of love was developed in the early 11th century by the Persian psychologist and philosopher, Ibn Sina (known as "Avicenna" in English), in his Arabic treatise "Risala fi'l-Ishq" ("Treatise on Love"). The final element of courtly love, the concept of "love as desire never to be fulfilled", was also at times implicit in Arabic poetry. [G. E. von Grunebaum (1952), "Avicenna's Risâla fî 'l-'išq and Courtly Love", "Journal of Near Eastern Studies" 11 (4): 233-8 [233-4] .]
The genre of Arabic satirical poetry was known as "hija". Satire was introduced into Arabic prose literature by the
Afro-Arabauthor Al-Jahizin the 9th century. While dealing with serious topics in what are now known as anthropology, sociology and psychology, he introduced a satirical approach, "based on the premise that, however serious the subject under review, it could be made more interesting and thus achieve greater effect, if only one leavened the lump of solemnity by the insertion of a few amusing anecdotes or by the throwing out of some witty or paradoxical observations. He was well aware that, in treating of new themes in his prose works, he would have to employ a vocabulary of a nature more familiar in "hija", satirical poetry." [citation|title=The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld: The Banu Sasan in Arabic Society and Literature|first=Clifford Edmund|last=Bosworth|publisher= Brill Publishers|year=1976|isbn=9004043926|page=32] For example, in one of his zoological works, he satirized the preference for longer human penis size, writing: "If the length of the penis were a sign of honor, then the mulewould belong to the (honorable tribe of) Quraysh". Another satirical story based on this preference was an "Arabian Nights" tale called "Ali with the Large Member". [citation|title=The Arabian Nights Encyclopedia|last=Ulrich Marzolph, Richard van Leeuwen|first=Hassan Wassouf|publisher=ABC-CLIO|year=2004|isbn=1576072045|pages=97-8]
In the 10th century, the writer
Tha'alibirecorded satirical poetry written by the poets As-Salami and Abu Dulaf, with As-Salami praising Abu Dulaf's wide breadth of knowledge and then mocking his ability in all these subjects, and with Abu Dulaf responding back and satirizing As-Salami in return. [citation|title=The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld: The Banu Sasan in Arabic Society and Literature|first=Clifford Edmund|last=Bosworth|publisher= Brill Publishers|year=1976|isbn=9004043926|pages=77-8] An example of Arabic political satireincluded another 10th century poet Jarir satirizing Farazdaq as "a transgressor of the Sharia" and later Arabic poets in turn using the term "Farazdaq-like" as a form of political satire. [citation|title=The Mediaeval Islamic Underworld: The Banu Sasan in Arabic Society and Literature|first=Clifford Edmund|last=Bosworth|publisher= Brill Publishers|year=1976|isbn=9004043926|page=70]
The revival of Arabic poetry in the late 19th and early 20th century first displayed a neo-classical style. It consciously used the themes and forms of some of the earliest poets,
Hafiz Ibrahimbeing one of the greatest exponents. Later poets rejected the Arabic neo-classical style, many instead seeking inspiration from romanticism, particularly that of English poetry. Poets such as Sa'id 'Aqlfrom Lebanon, with its closer ties to France, were more influenced by the symbolist movement.
A common theme in much of the new poetry was the use of the "
ghazal" or love poem in praise of the poet's homeland. This was manifested either as a nationalismfor the newly emerging nation states of the region or in a wider sense as an Arab nationalismemphasising the unity of all Arab people. The poems of praise (" madih"), and the lampoon (" hija") also returned. Ahmed Shawqiproduced several works praising the reforming Turkish leader Kemal Atatürk, but when Atatürk abolished the caliphateShawqi was not slow in attacking him in verse. Political views in poetry were often more unwelcome in the 20th century than they had been in the 7th, and several poets faced censorship or, in the case of Abd al-Wahhab Al-Bayyati, exile.
World War IIthere was a largely unsuccessful movement by several poets to write poems in "shi'r hurr" or free verse. Most of these experiments were abandoned in favour of prose poetry, of which one of the most influential proponents was Nazik Al-Malaika; another contemporary exponent is Iman Mersal[ [http://www.arabworldbooks.com/authors/iman_mersal.htm http://www.arabworldbooks.com/authors/iman_mersal.htm] ] . The growth of modernist poetryalso influenced poetry in Arabic.
Poetry in Arabic is traditionally grouped in a "diwan" or collection of poems. These can be arranged by poet, tribe, topic or the name of the compiler such as the "Asma'iyyat" of
al-Asma'i. Most poems did not have titles and they were usually named from their first lines. Sometimes they were arranged alphabetically by their rhymes. The role of the poet in Arabic developed in a similar way to poets elsewhere. The safe and easy patronage in royal courts was no longer availablewhen but a successful poet such as Nizar Qabbaniwas able to set up his own publishing house.
A large proportion of all Arabic poetry is written using the
monorhyme. This is simply the same rhyme used on every line of a poem. While this may seem a poor rhyme schemefor people used to English literatureit makes sense in a language like Arabic which has only three vowels which can be either long or short.
Mu'rabbah: literary Arabic
Qit'ah, an elegy or short poem about an event
Qasidah, an ode, designed to convey a message. A longer version of qit'ah
Muwashshah, meaning "girdled", courtly love poetry
Dubaytor Ruba'i, a quatrain
Rajaz, a discourse in rhyme, used to push the limits of lexicography
Malhunah: vernacular poetry
Kan ya ma kan, meaning "once upon a time"
Zajal, meaning "shout"
Mawwalor Mawaliya, folk poetry in four rhyming lines
Nabati, the vernacular poetry of the tribes of the Arabian Peninsulaand the Syrian Desert.
Humayni, the vernacular poetry of Yemen.
Madih, a eulogy or panegyric
Hija, a lampoon
Ritha', an elegy
Wasf, a descriptive poem
Ghazal, a love poem, sometimes expressing love of home
Khamriyyah, wine poetry
Tardiyyah, hunt poetry
Zuhdiyyah, homiletic poetry
Hamasa, war poetry
Selected poets and anthologists
List of Arabic language poets
Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid
Abu Al Qasim Al Shabi(1909-1931)
Antara Ibn Shaddad
Abu Tammam(9th century)
Abu Nuwas(9th century)
Bashar ibn Burd
Muti’ ibn Iyas
Jamil Sidqi al-Zahawi
Nizar Qabbani, (1923–1998)
Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri
Mahmood Abu Shahbaaz Londoni
*E.G. Browne. "Literary History of Persia". (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing)
*Philip F. Kennedy. "The Wine Song in Classical Arabic Poetry:
Abu Nuwasand the Literary Tradition.". Open UniversityPress, 1997.
* Khaled El-Rouayheb. "The Love of Boys in Arabic Poetry of the Early Ottoman Period, 1500 - 1800". Middle Eastern Literatures, January 2005, vol.8, no.1.
* [http://www.princeton.edu/~arabic/poetry/ Princeton Online Arabic Poetry (read and listen)] Vocalised Arabic with Audio.
* [http://www.al-hakawati.net/arabic/arabpers/poemindex.asp Arabic poetry in arabic by era]
* [http://www.al-bab.com/arab/literature/poetry.htm] Arabic poetry
* [http://www.poetseers.org/the_great_poets/ar/ Arabic Poets] at Poet Seers
* [http://www.poetryofislam.com/ Islamic Poetry By The Famous Poet Mahmood Abu Shahbaaz Londoni]
* [http://islamicpoems.blogspot.com/ Islamic Poetry]
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