South Estonian language

South Estonian language
South Estonian
Baltic States
Linguistic classification: Uralic
South Estonian language area.jpg
The historical South Estonian (Võro, Seto, Mulgi, Tartu) language area with historical South Estonian language enclaves (Lutsi, Leivu and Kraasna)

South Estonian emerged in the 17th century as a distinct language[1] in Swedish Livonia aside the North Estonian language spoken in Swedish Estonia. The first South Estonian grammar was compiled by Johann Gutslaff in 1648.[2]

The South Estonian literary language (also Tartu literary language German: Dorpatestnisch) declined by the end of 19th century as the northern Estonian literary language (also Tallinn literary language German: Revalestnisch) became the standard for the Estonian literary language.[3]

After Estonia gained independence in 1918 the standardized Estonian language policies were implemented further throughout the country. The government officials during the era believed that the Estonian state needed to have one standard language for all its citizens that led to exclusion of South Estonian at schools. The ban on the instruction and speaking of South Estonian dialects in schools continued during Soviet occupation (1940–1990).[4]

After Estonia regained independence in 1991 the Estonian government has begun supporting the protection and development of regional languages.[4] The policy has led to the revival of South Estonian, a modernized literary form founded on historical South Estonian dialect Võro has been created.[5][6]

The other dialects of South Estonian language area include Mulgi, Tartu, and Seto. Võro has remained furthest from the standard written Estonian language and has been least understood by speakers of other Estonian dialects.[2][6]

The Leivu and Lutsi South Estonian enclaves in Latvia became extinct in the 20th century.[2] The Kraasna enclave in Russia, still aware of their identity, has been assimilated linguistically by Russians.[7]



Tarto maa rahwa Näddali Leht published in 1807 in South Estonian Tartu literary language.

The two different historical Estonian languages, North and South Estonian are based on the ancestors of modern Estonians migration into the territory of Estonia in at least two different waves, both groups speaking considerably different Finnic vernaculars.[5] Some of the most ancient isoglosses within the Finnic languages separate South Estonian from the entire rest of the family, including a development *čk → tsk, seen in for example *kačku → Standard Estonian katk "plague", Finnish katku "stink", but South Estonian katsk; and a development *kc → , seen in for example *ükci "one" → Standard Estonian üks, Finnish yksi, but South Estonian ütś.[8]

Modern standard Estonian has evolved on the basis of the dialects of Northern Estonia. However, in the 17th to 19th century in Southern Estonia literature was published in a standardized form of Southern Tartu and Northern Võro. This usage was called Tartu literary language or also South Estonian literary language.[9] The written standard was used in the schools, churches and courts of the Võro and Tartu linguistic area but not in the Seto and Mulgi area.

The first South Estonian grammar was written by Johann Gutslaff in 1648 and a translation of the New Testament (Wastne Testament) was published in 1686. In 1806 the first Estonian newspaper Tarto-ma rahwa Näddali leht was published in South Estonian Tartu literary language. [10]

Comparison of old South Estonian (Tartu) literary language, modern South Estonian (Võro) and modern standard Estonian:

Lord's Prayer (Meie Esä) in old literary South Estonian (Tartu):

Meie Esä Taiwan: pühendetüs saagu sino nimi. Sino riik tulgu. Sino tahtmine sündigu kui Taiwan, niida ka maa pääl. Meie päiwälikku leibä anna meile täämbä. Nink anna meile andis meie süü, niida kui ka meie andis anname omile süidläisile. Nink ärä saada meid mitte kiusatuse sisse; enge pästä meid ärä kurjast: Sest sino perält om riik, nink wägi, nink awwustus igäwätses ajas. Aamen.

Lord's Prayer (Mi Esä) in modern literary South Estonian (Võro):

Mi Esä taivan: pühendedüs saaguq sino nimi. Sino riik tulguq. Sino tahtminõ sündkuq, ku taivan, nii ka maa pääl. Mi päävälikku leibä annaq meile täämbä. Nink annaq meile andis mi süüq, nii ku ka mi andis anna umilõ süüdläisile. Ni saatku-i meid joht kiusatusõ sisse, a pästäq meid ärq kur’ast, selle et sino perält om riik ja vägi ni avvustus igävädses aos. Aamõn.

Lord's Prayer (Meie isa) in modern standard Estonian:

Meie isa, kes Sa oled taevas: pühitsetud olgu Sinu nimi. Sinu riik tulgu. Sinu tahtmine sündigu, nagu taevas nõnda ka maa peal. Meie igapäevast leiba anna meile tänapäev. Ja anna meile andeks meie võlad nagu meiegi andeks anname oma võlglastele. Ja ära saada meid kiusatusse, vaid päästa meid ära kurjast. Sest Sinu päralt on riik ja vägi ja au igavesti. Aamen.

The status of South Estonian began to diminish after the 1880s. Under the influence of the European liberal oriented nationalist movement it was decided that there must be one Estonian language. The beginning of the 20th century was the period for the rapid development of the Northern-based Estonian literary language.

Present situation

South Estonian today

The South Estonian language began to undergo a revival in the late 1980s. Today, South Estonian is used in the works of some of Estonia's most well known playwrights, poets, and authors. Most success has been achieved in promoting Võro language and a new literary standard based on Võro. Tartu and Mulgi dialects have become nearly extinct.

Language example of the modern literary (Võro) South Estonian

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Kõik inemiseq sünnüseq avvo ja õiguisi poolõst ütesugumaidsis. Näile om annõt mudsu ja süämetunnistus ja nä piät ütstõõsõga vele muudu läbi käümä.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also


  1. ^ Dalby, Andrew (2004). Dictionary of Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 183. ISBN 0231115695. 
  2. ^ a b c Abondolo, Daniel Mario (1998). The Uralic Languages. Taylor & Francis. p. 115. ISBN 9780415081986. 
  3. ^ Kaplan, Robert (2007). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. p. 50. ISBN 1847690289. 
  4. ^ a b Sutton, Margaret (2004). Civil Society Or Shadow State?. IAP. pp. 116, 117. ISBN 9781593112011. 
  5. ^ a b Rannut, Mart (2004). "Language Policy in Estonia". Noves SL. Revista de Sociolingüística. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  6. ^ a b estonica. "Language, Dialects and layers". Retrieved 2009-02-27. [dead link]
  7. ^ Olson, James; Lee Brigance Pappas (1994). An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 216. ISBN 0313274975. 
  8. ^ Kallio, Petri (2007). "Kantasuomen konsonanttihistoriaa" (in Finnish) (PDF). Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 253: 229–250. ISSN 0355-0230. Retrieved 2009-05-28.  Note that reconstructed *č and *c stand for affricates [t͡ʃ], [t͡s].
  9. ^ South Estonian literary language @google scholar
  10. ^ Abondolo, Daniel Mario (1998). "Literary Estonian". The Uralic Languages. Taylor & Francis. p. 116. ISBN 9780415081986. 


  • Eller, Kalle (1999): Võro-Seto language. Võro Instituut'. Võro.
  • Iva, Sulev; Pajusalu, Karl (2004): The Võro Language: Historical Development and Present Situation. In: Language Policy and Sociolinguistics I: "Regional Languages in the New Europe" International Scientific Conference; Rēzeknes Augstskola, Latvija; 20–23 May 2004. Rezekne: Rezekne Augstskolas Izdevnieceba, 2004, 58 – 63.

External links

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