- Karelian language
nation=recognised as minority language in: flagicon|Karelia
Republic of Karelia[ [http://gov.karelia.ru/Legislation/lawbase.html?lid=1751 Гюйнмндюрекэмше Юйрш ] ]
Karelian is a language closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily
mutually intelligible. Karelian is spoken mainly in Republic of Karelia, Russia. Dialects spoken in Finnish Karelia( North Kareliaand South Karelia) are not considered Karelian but dialects of Finnish. dubiousFact|date=August 2008
Karelian belongs to the
Finno-Ugric languages, and is distinguished from Finnish by some important extensions to the phonology and the lack of influence from modern 19th and 20th century Finnish. It cannot merely be classified as a Finnish dialect with Russian influences, because it has original innovations and it may differ considerably from Finnish. Fact|date=August 2008There is no standard Karelian language, although the Republic of Karelia's authorities have recently begun to attempt standardization. [ [http://www.gov.karelia.ru/News/2006/12/1226_07_e.html 26.12.2006 - Decision of creating uniform Karelian alphabet is made ] ] Each writer writes in Karelian according to his own dialectal form. The script is the Latin alphabet as used for Finnish with letters added.
In this article, "Karelian" denotes
dialects from Russian Karelia. In Finnish usage, however, "Karelian" mostly denotes the dialects of the 420,000 refugees from the Karelian isthmusand other parts of Finnish Kareliathat were re-settled in what remains of Finland after World War II.Fact|date=October 2007 These dialects were influenced by massive immigration, chiefly from Savonia, following the 17th century expansion of the LutheranSwedish realm extending as far as to Ingria. Thus the linguistic border between (Orthodox) Russian Karelia and (Lutheran) Finnish Karelia was probably more pronounced than that between Finnish Karelia and Savonia.http://www.kotus.fi/verkkojulkaisut/julk129/karjalat_kartta1.shtml] Today, these dialects are concentrated to the towns of the South Karelian region of Finland, where many refugees ended up.
Karelian is spoken in the
Russian Republic of Karelia, and also by some 5,000 speakers in Finland.
Ludic languageor dialect "(Luudi, Lyydi, "or" lüüdi" in their own tongue) is sometimes classified as a dialect of Veps.
Finnish and Karelian were suppressed and outlawed during Stalin's
Great Purges. Karelian was considered a dialect of Finnish and thus wasn't written as is before the Soviet times. The Soviets created several Cyrillic standardizations, which all failed, in the end due to Stalin's persecution of Karelians as "undesirables".
Finnish, and not Karelian, was the second
official languageof Karelia from the Winter War1940 up until the 1980s, [http://www.helsinki-hs.net/news.asp?id=20020129IE17] when perestroikabegan. Since the late 1990s there have been moves to pass special language legislation, which would give "Karelian" an official status. "Finnish" has also again been proposed as a second official language for the republic, but the proposal has never been implemented.
Language or dialect?
Earlier, by some Finnish linguists, Karelian may be classified as a
dialectof Finnish. Today, however, the variety spoken in East Karelia is usually seen as a proper language. The phonological and lexical differences often disallow mutual intelligibility in exact terms. The dialect spoken in White Karelia has only minor differences with Eastern dialects of Finnish language and is completely mutually intelligible with spoken Finnish. The Olonets Karelian is different in many ways and Finnish speaker understands only about a half of the speak.
The dialects spoken by the mainly Lutheran Finnish Karelian population in the
South Karelian Region of Finland, where many World War IIrefugees were re-settled, are considered to be part of the South Eastern dialects of the Finnish language. The dialect spoken in the Karelian Isthmusbefore World War II and the Ingrian languageare also seen as part of this dialect group, in Finland sometimes denoted as "Karelian dialect". [ [http://www.internetix.ofw.fi/opinnot/opintojaksot/8kieletkirjallisuus/aidinkieli/murteet/kaakkois.html Kaakkoismurteiden alue ] ]
As it could also be argued Karelian should be considered separate from Finnish because of its geopolitical location within the boundaries of another
state, a conclusion might be that Karelian has a similar relation to Finnish as has English to the Scots language.
The modern script is based on the
Finnish alphabetand is written with Finnish orthography. However, some features of the Karelian language and thus orthography are different from Finnish:
* The Karelian system of
fricatives and affricates is extensive — in Finnish, there is only one 's'.
* Phonemic voicing occurs.
* Karelian retains
palatalization, usually denoted with an apostrophe (e.g. "d'uuri")
* The letter 'ü' may replace 'y' in some texts.
* The letter 'c' denotes /ts/, although 'ts' is used also. 'c' is more likely in Russian loan words.
These differences are not merely a Russian influence, since they are found in native words.
Notice that 'c' and 'č' have length levels, which is not found in standard Finnish. For example, in Kalevala, Lönnrot's orthography "metsä : metsän" hides the fact that the pronunciation of the original material is actually /mettšä : metšän/, with palatalization of the affricate. The exact details depend on the dialect, though. See " [http://www.internetix.ofw.fi/opinnot/opintojaksot/8kieletkirjallisuus/aidinkieli/murteet/ts-vasti.html Yleiskielen ts:n murrevastineet] ".
Fricatives Letter Alt. IPA Karelian Finnish c c IPA|/ʦ/ kuču kutsu č ch IPA|/ʧ/ šoma, seiččemän soma, seitsemän s s IPA|/s/ se se š sh IPA|/ʃ/ niškoi niskoihin z z IPA|/z/ tazavaldu tasavalta ž zh IPA|/ʒ/ kiža, liedžu kisa, lietsu
Karelian actually uses IPA|/z/ as a
voiced alveolar fricative. (In Finnish, "z" is a foreign spelling for IPA|/ts/.) The plosives IPA|/b/, IPA|/d/ and IPA|/g/ may be voiced. (Most Finnish speakers don't differentiate these from IPA|/p/, IPA|/t/, and IPA|/k/.)
The letters "č", "š" and "ž" are postalveolars. They are replaceable with the digraphs "ch", "sh" and "zh" — even so that "ruočči" becomes "ruochchi". The sounds represented by "č, š" and "ž" are native to Karelian, but not Finland Finnish. Finnish speakers do not distinguish IPA|/ʃ/ and IPA|/ʒ/ from IPA|/s/, nor IPA|/tʃ/ from IPA|/ts/ (medial) or IPA|/s/ (initial). For example, the native Karelian words "kiža", "kuču", "šoma", "liedžu" and "seiččemän" are "kisa", "kutsu", "soma", "lietsu" and "seitsemän" in standard Finnish.
"Modern Karelian alphabet" (2007)
Birch bark letter no. 292
* Olonets Karelian
* [http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/karelians.shtml The Peoples of the Red Book: THE KARELIANS]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/4280/eng_index.html Karjalaine lehüt - Karelian page]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/4280/lisuri8.html Karjalan kirjakielestä] (in Finnish)
* [http://www.ethnologue.org/show_language.asp?code=krl Ethnologue on Karelian]
* [http://www.omniglot.com/writing/karelian.htm Omniglot]
* [http://opastajat.karelia.ru/psu/bogdanova/kirjaimet.html Karjalan kirjaimet] (in Karelian)
* [http://elibrary.karelia.ru/book.shtml?levelID=034005&id=2071&cType=1 Грамматика карельского языка]
* [http://sanakniigu.onego.ru/index.php?lan=rus Karelian-Russian-Finnish dictionary]
* [http://www.veps.de/Sanasto/ Karelian-Vepsian-Finnish-Võro dictionary]
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