Mansi language


Mansi language
Mansi
маньси/моаньсь
Spoken in  Russia
Region Flag of Yugra.svg Khantia-Mansia
Ethnicity Mansi
Native speakers 2,750[1]  (2002)
Language family
Uralic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mns

The Mansi language (also Vogul, although this is obsolete, and "Maansi") is a language of the Mansi people. It is spoken in territories of Russia along the Ob River and its tributaries, including the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Sverdlovsk Oblast. According to the 1989 census, there were 3,184 Mansi-speaking people in Russia.

The base dialect of the Mansi literary language is the Sosva dialect, a representative of the northern dialect area; the discussion below is based on the standard language. Fixed word order is typical for the Mansi language. Adverbials and participles play an important role in sentence construction. The written language was first published in 1868, and in 1937 was revised using a form of the Cyrillic alphabet.

Contents

Dialects

The Mansi language is subdivided into four main dialects which are to a large degree mutually unintelligible, and therefore perhaps best considered four languages.

Northern (Sosva, Upper Lozyvin) has strong Russian, Komi, Nenets, and Northern Khanty influence. There is no accusative case; that is, both the nominative and accusative roles are unmarked on the noun. */æ/ and */æː/ have been backed to [a] and [aː].

Western (Pelym, Vagily, Middle and Lower Lazyvin) went extinct ca. 2000. It had strong Russian and Komi influences. Long vowels were diphthongized.

Eastern (Kondin) is spoken by 100–200 people. It has Khanty and Tatar influence. There is vowel harmony, and for */æː/ it has [œː], frequently diphthongized.

Southern (Tavdin) went extinct ca. 1900. It had vowel harmony and a strong Tatar influence, and displayed several archaisms such as retention of /y/ (elsewhere merged with */æ/), /tsʲ/ (elsewhere deaffricated to /sʲ/), and /aː/ (elsewhere raised to /oː/).

Phonology

Mansi
consonants
Labial Alveolar (Alveolo-)
Palatal
Velar
Plain Labialized
Stops /p/
п
/t/
т
/c/
ть
/k/
к
/kʷ/
кв
Nasals /m/
м
/n/
н
/ɲ/
нь
/ŋ/
ӈ
/ŋʷ/
ӈв
Fricatives /s/
с
/ɕ/
сь
/x/ /ɣ/
х г
/xʷ/
хв
Approximants /j/
й
/w/
в
Laterals /l/
л
/ʎ/
ль
Trill /r/
р
  • /w/ acts the labialized counterpart of the only voiced fricative /ɣ/.
  • In some dialects a postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ appears (written ш).
Mansi
Vowels
Unrounded Rounded
Close i(ː)
ы/и
u(ː)
у/ю
Mid e(ː)
э/е
o(ː)
о/ё
Mid (ə)
Open a(ː)
а/я

Alphabet

The first publication of the written Mansi language was in a translation of the Gospel of Matthew, published in London in 1868. In 1937, the Cyrillic alphabet replaced the Latin.

The highlighted letters, and Г with the value /ɡ/, are used only in names and loanwords.
А
/a/
Б
/b/
В
/◌ʷ/
Г
/ɡ/, /ɣ/
Д
/d/
Е
/ʲe/
Ё
/ʲo/
Ж
/ʒ/
З
/z/
И
/i/
Й
/j/
К
/k/
Л
/l/, /ʎ/
М
/m/
Н
/n/, /ɲ/
Ӈ
/ŋ/
О
/o/
П
/p/
Р
/r/
С
/s/
Т
/t/
У
/uː/
Ў
/w/
Ф
/f/
Х
/χ/
Ц
/t͡s/
Ч
/t͡ʃʲ/
Ш
/ʃ/
Щ
/ʃʲtʃʲ/
Ъ
/-/
Ы
/ɪ/
Ь
/◌ʲ/
Э
/ə~ɤ/
Ә
/æ/
Ю
/ʲu/
Я
/ʲa/

Grammar

Mansi is an agglutinating language.

Article

There are two articles in Mansi: definite ань (aɲ), which also means "now" when placed before verbs, and indefinite акв (akʷ), literally "one".[2]

Nouns

There is no grammatical gender. Mansi distinguishes between singular, dual and plural number. Six grammatical cases exist. Possession is expressed using possessive suffixes, for example -зм, which means "my".

Grammatical cases, declining

Example with: пут /put/ (cauldron)

case sing. dual plural
nom. пут
put
путыг
putɪɣ
путэт
putət
loc. путт
putt
путыгт
putɪɣt
путэтт
putətt
lat. путн
putn
путыгн
putɪɣn
путэтн
putətn
abl. путнэл
putnəl
путыгнэл
putɪɣnəl
путэтнэл
putətnəl
trans. путыг
putɪɣ
- -
instr. путэл
putəl
путыгтэл
putɪɣtəl
путэтэл
putətəl

Missing cases can be expressed using postpositions, such as халнэл (χalnəl, 'of, out of'), саит (sait, 'after, behind'), etc.

Verbs

Mansi conjugation has three persons, three numbers, two tenses, and four moods. Active and passive voices exist.

Intransitive and transitive conjugations are distinguished. This means that there are two possible ways of conjugating a verb. When the speaker conjugates in intransitive, the sentence has no concrete object (in this case, the object is nothing or something like something, anything). In the transitive conjugation, there is a concrete object. This feature also exists in the other Ugric languages.

Tenses

Mansi uses suffixes to express the tense. The tense suffix precedes the personal suffix.

Tense Suffix Example
Present -г (lat.[3] -g) минагум (lat. minagumI am going)
Past -с (lat. -s) минасум (minasumI went)

The language has no future tense; the future is expressed in other ways.

Moods

There are four moods: indicative, conditional, imperative and blandishing.

Indicative mood has no suffix. Imperative mood exists only in the second person.

Personal suffixes

The suffixes are the following:

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st -ум -умен -ув
2nd -эн -эн -эн
3rd (no suffix) -ыг -эт

Thus, the conjugation of the verb мина (lat. mina [go]), in past tense (remember the suffix -с):

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st минасум (minasum) минасумен (minasumen) минасув (minasuv)
2nd минасэн минасэн минасэн
3rd минас минасыг минасэт

Active/Passive voice

Verbs have active and passive voice. Active voice has no suffix; the suffix to express the passive is -ве-.

Verbal prefixes

Verbal prefixes are used to modify the meaning of the verb in both concrete and abstract ways. For example, with the prefix эл- (el-) (away, off) the verb мина (mina) (go) becomes элмина (elmina), which means to go away. This is surprisingly close to the Hungarian equivalents: el- (away) and menni (to go), where elmenni is to go away

ēl(a) – 'forwards, onwards, away'

jōm- 'to go, to stride' ēl-jōm- 'to go away/on'
tinal- 'to sell' ēl-tinal- 'to sell off'

χot – 'direction away from something and other nuances of action intensity'

min- 'to go' χot-min- 'to go away, to stop'
roχt- 'to be frightened' χot-roχt- 'to take fright suddenly'

Numbers

# Mansi Hungarian
1 аква (akʷa) egy
2 китыг (kitiɣ) kettő
3 хурум (xuːrəm) három
4 нила (ɲila) négy
5 ат (at) öt
6 хот (xoːt) hat
7 сат (saːt) hét
8 нёллов (ɲololow) nyolc
9 онтэллов (ontolow) kilenc
10 лов (low) tíz
20 хус (xus) húsz
100 сат (saːt/janiɣsaːt) száz
1000 сотэр (soːtər) ezer

Numbers 1 and 2 also have attributive forms: акв (1) and кит (2); compare with Hungarian két, and Old Hungarian "kit").

Example

ам хул алысьлаӈкве минасум. – I went fishing (literally "I fish catch went").

Comparison with Hungarian

Here are some invented sentences in Northern Mansi (IPA transcription) and Hungarian. They demonstrate well the relationship between Hungarian and Mansi.

Mansi Approximate pronunciation using Hungarian spelling Hungarian English
ˈxuːrəm neː ˈwitnəl ˈxuːlpəl xus xuːl ˈpuːɣi. Húrem né vitnel húlpel husz húl púgi Három nő a vízből hálóval húsz halat fog. Three women are catching twenty fish with a net from the water.
ˈxuːrəm-saːt-xus ˈxulax-sam ˈampəm ˈwitn̩ ˈoːli Húrem-szát-husz hulah-szam ampem viten óli Háromszázhúsz hollószemű ebem vízen él. The three hundred and twenty dogs of mine with raven eyes live on water.
luː ˈlaːɕal ˈmini toː ˈseːln̩ Lú lásal mini tó szélen Ló lassan megy a tó szélén. A horse is slowly walking on the shore of the lake.

Notes

  1. ^ www.suri.ee
  2. ^ Мансийский (вогульский) язык, р. 200
  3. ^ *lat.: With Latin script.

References

  • Nyelvrokonaink. Teleki László Alapítvány, Budapest, 2000.
  • A világ nyelvei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest
  • Kálmán, Béla. 1965. Vogul Chrestomathy. Indiana University Publications. Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 46. Mouton, The Hague. [In English.]
  • Munkácsi, Bernát and Béla Kálmán. 1986. Wogulisches Wörterbuch. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. [In German and Hungarian.]
  • Riese, Timothy. Vogul: Languages of the World/Materials 158. Lincom Europa, 2001. ISBN 3895862312
  • Ромбандеева, Евдокия Ивановна. Мансийский (вогульский) язык, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Linguistics, 1973. [In Russian.]

External links


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