- Mansi language
Mansi маньси/моаньсь Spoken in Russia Region Khantia-Mansia Ethnicity Mansi Native speakers 2,750 (2002) Language family Language codes ISO 639-3 mns This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
The Mansi language (also Vogul, although this is obsolete, and "Maansi") is a language of the Mansi people. It is spoken in territories of Russia along the Ob River and its tributaries, including the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Sverdlovsk Oblast. According to the 1989 census, there were 3,184 Mansi-speaking people in Russia.
The base dialect of the Mansi literary language is the Sosva dialect, a representative of the northern dialect area; the discussion below is based on the standard language. Fixed word order is typical for the Mansi language. Adverbials and participles play an important role in sentence construction. The written language was first published in 1868, and in 1937 was revised using a form of the Cyrillic alphabet.
The Mansi language is subdivided into four main dialects which are to a large degree mutually unintelligible, and therefore perhaps best considered four languages.
Northern (Sosva, Upper Lozyvin) has strong Russian, Komi, Nenets, and Northern Khanty influence. There is no accusative case; that is, both the nominative and accusative roles are unmarked on the noun. */æ/ and */æː/ have been backed to [a] and [aː].
Western (Pelym, Vagily, Middle and Lower Lazyvin) went extinct ca. 2000. It had strong Russian and Komi influences. Long vowels were diphthongized.
Southern (Tavdin) went extinct ca. 1900. It had vowel harmony and a strong Tatar influence, and displayed several archaisms such as retention of /y/ (elsewhere merged with */æ/), /tsʲ/ (elsewhere deaffricated to /sʲ/), and /aː/ (elsewhere raised to /oː/).
Labial Alveolar (Alveolo-)
Velar Plain Labialized Stops /p/
- /w/ acts the labialized counterpart of the only voiced fricative /ɣ/.
- In some dialects a postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ appears (written ш).
Unrounded Rounded Close i(ː)
Mid (ə) Open a(ː)
The highlighted letters, and Г with the value /ɡ/, are used only in names and loanwords. А
Mansi is an agglutinating language.
There are two articles in Mansi: definite ань (aɲ), which also means "now" when placed before verbs, and indefinite акв (akʷ), literally "one".
There is no grammatical gender. Mansi distinguishes between singular, dual and plural number. Six grammatical cases exist. Possession is expressed using possessive suffixes, for example -зм, which means "my".
Grammatical cases, declining
Example with: пут /put/ (cauldron)
case sing. dual plural nom. пут
- - instr. путэл
Missing cases can be expressed using postpositions, such as халнэл (χalnəl, 'of, out of'), саит (sait, 'after, behind'), etc.
Mansi conjugation has three persons, three numbers, two tenses, and four moods. Active and passive voices exist.
Intransitive and transitive conjugations are distinguished. This means that there are two possible ways of conjugating a verb. When the speaker conjugates in intransitive, the sentence has no concrete object (in this case, the object is nothing or something like something, anything). In the transitive conjugation, there is a concrete object. This feature also exists in the other Ugric languages.
Mansi uses suffixes to express the tense. The tense suffix precedes the personal suffix.
Tense Suffix Example Present -г (lat. -g) минагум (lat. minagum – I am going) Past -с (lat. -s) минасум (minasum – I went)
The language has no future tense; the future is expressed in other ways.
Indicative mood has no suffix. Imperative mood exists only in the second person.
The suffixes are the following:
Person Singular Dual Plural 1st -ум -умен -ув 2nd -эн -эн -эн 3rd (no suffix) -ыг -эт
Thus, the conjugation of the verb мина (lat. mina [go]), in past tense (remember the suffix -с):
Person Singular Dual Plural 1st минасум (minasum) минасумен (minasumen) минасув (minasuv) 2nd минасэн минасэн минасэн 3rd минас минасыг минасэт
Verbs have active and passive voice. Active voice has no suffix; the suffix to express the passive is -ве-.
Verbal prefixes are used to modify the meaning of the verb in both concrete and abstract ways. For example, with the prefix эл- (el-) (away, off) the verb мина (mina) (go) becomes элмина (elmina), which means to go away. This is surprisingly close to the Hungarian equivalents: el- (away) and menni (to go), where elmenni is to go away
ēl(a) – 'forwards, onwards, away'
jōm- 'to go, to stride' ēl-jōm- 'to go away/on' tinal- 'to sell' ēl-tinal- 'to sell off'
χot – 'direction away from something and other nuances of action intensity'
min- 'to go' χot-min- 'to go away, to stop' roχt- 'to be frightened' χot-roχt- 'to take fright suddenly'
# Mansi Hungarian 1 аква (akʷa) egy 2 китыг (kitiɣ) kettő 3 хурум (xuːrəm) három 4 нила (ɲila) négy 5 ат (at) öt 6 хот (xoːt) hat 7 сат (saːt) hét 8 нёллов (ɲololow) nyolc 9 онтэллов (ontolow) kilenc 10 лов (low) tíz 20 хус (xus) húsz 100 сат (saːt/janiɣsaːt) száz 1000 сотэр (soːtər) ezer
Numbers 1 and 2 also have attributive forms: акв (1) and кит (2); compare with Hungarian két, and Old Hungarian "kit").
ам хул алысьлаӈкве минасум. – I went fishing (literally "I fish catch went").
Comparison with Hungarian
Here are some invented sentences in Northern Mansi (IPA transcription) and Hungarian. They demonstrate well the relationship between Hungarian and Mansi.
Mansi Approximate pronunciation using Hungarian spelling Hungarian English ˈxuːrəm neː ˈwitnəl ˈxuːlpəl xus xuːl ˈpuːɣi. Húrem né vitnel húlpel husz húl púgi Három nő a vízből hálóval húsz halat fog. Three women are catching twenty fish with a net from the water. ˈxuːrəm-saːt-xus ˈxulax-sam ˈampəm ˈwitn̩ ˈoːli Húrem-szát-husz hulah-szam ampem viten óli Háromszázhúsz hollószemű ebem vízen él. The three hundred and twenty dogs of mine with raven eyes live on water. luː ˈlaːɕal ˈmini toː ˈseːln̩ Lú lásal mini tó szélen Ló lassan megy a tó szélén. A horse is slowly walking on the shore of the lake.
- Nyelvrokonaink. Teleki László Alapítvány, Budapest, 2000.
- A világ nyelvei. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest
- Kálmán, Béla. 1965. Vogul Chrestomathy. Indiana University Publications. Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 46. Mouton, The Hague. [In English.]
- Munkácsi, Bernát and Béla Kálmán. 1986. Wogulisches Wörterbuch. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. [In German and Hungarian.]
- Riese, Timothy. Vogul: Languages of the World/Materials 158. Lincom Europa, 2001. ISBN 3895862312
- Ромбандеева, Евдокия Ивановна. Мансийский (вогульский) язык, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Linguistics, 1973. [In Russian.]
- Mansi at Omniglot
- Mansi language dictionary
- Red Book of the Peoples – Mansi history
- Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia – Mansi education
Uralic languages Finnic Sami Miscellanea Permic Ugric Samoyedic Italics indicate extinct languages
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