- Historical basis for King Arthur
The historical basis of King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among
historians. The King Arthurof Arthurian legendappears in many legends but it has not been decisively established whether his origin was entirely mythical or whether he was based on one or more historical figures.
A popular view holds that Arthur was a real person. The most common suggestion, which is in line with the traditional cycle of legends, he was a
Romano-Britishleader fighting against the invading Anglo-Saxonssome time between the late 5th centuryand early 6th century. Archaeological studies show that during Arthur's alleged lifetime, the Anglo-Saxon expansions do seem to have been halted for a whole generation.Fact|date=August 2008 If he existed, his power base would probably have been in the Celtic areas of Wales, Cornwalland the West Country, the Brythonic 'Old North' (covering modern northern Englandand southern Scotland) or possibly Brittany. However, controversy over the centre of his supposed power and the extent and kind of power he would have wielded continues to this day.
It has been suggested that Arthur was a Roman
cataphractcommander who remained behind after the official Roman evacuation. A long serving Roman cavalry officer would own a blue-steel cavalry sword, refined to this degree by daily reforging. This would shatter the iron knives ( Seax) wielded by Saxon forces and could be used to support his claim to historicity if the "cut-steel" etymology of his legendary sword, Excalibur, is to be accepted. The use of late Roman cavalry tactics against the undisciplined infantry formations of the Saxons would also explain his success and the popular myth of a cavalry force.
There are only a few early sources that mention Arthur. The earliest, by date of composition, is a British poem, "Gododdin", which was probably composed around the year
600. It refers to a warrior who "glutted black ravens [i.e., killed many men] on the rampart of the stronghold, although he was no Arthur". The earliest surviving manuscript of this poem dates from about the 11th century, however, so it is possible that this line is a later addition.cite book |last= Fletcher|first= Richard|title= Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England|pages=17-19|year= 1989|publisher= Shepheard-Walwyn|isbn=0-85683-089-5]
The Welsh poem '
Llongborth', traditionally attributed to Llywarch Hen, describes a battle at a port-settlement and mentions Arthur in passing; it also refers to him as "emperor". The poem is a praise-poem and elegy for a king called Geraint (Gerontius), who is often identified with Geraint of Dumnonia.
The relevant verse from the poem is: "In Llongborth I saw Arthur's Heroes who cut with steel. The Emperor, ruler of our labour."
The poem is found in
The Black Book of Carmarthen,cite book |last= Jarman|first= A.O.H|title= Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin|year= 1982|publisher= Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru|isbn=0-7083-0629-2] compiled around 1250, from earlier documents. Y Gododdin was similarly copied at much the same time. The two poems differ in the relative archaic quality of their language, that of Gododdin being the older in form. However, this could merely reflect differences in the date of the last revision of the language within the two poems. The language would have had to have been revised for the poems to remain comprehensible.
The next reference comes from the "
Historia Brittonum", usually attributed to Nennius, a Welsh ecclesiastic who was probably active in the early ninth century.cite book |last= Fletcher|first= Richard|title= Who's Who in Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England|pages=112|year= 1989|publisher= Shepheard-Walwyn|isbn=0-85683-089-5] Nennius lists a dozen battles fought by Arthur, and gives him the title of "dux bellorum", which can be translated as "war commander". Nennius also says that Arthur fought "alongside the kings of the Britons", rather than saying that Arthur was himself a king. One of the battles Nennius lists appears to be the same as a great British victory mentioned by Gildasin an earlier history, the battle of Mons Badonicus, though Gildas does not give the name Arthur. Gildas in his "De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae" (or "On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain") does mention a British king Cuneglasuswho had been "charioteer to the bear"; the Brythonic word for bear was "Art".
The final sources is the "
Annales Cambriae", a series of annals that give the date of Mons Badonicus as 516, and Arthur's death as occurring in 537 at Camlann. These annals survive in a version dating from the tenth century. All other sources relating to Arthur by name are later than these; that is, they were written at least four hundred years later than the events to which they refer.
The "Legenda Sancti Goeznovii", a hagiography of the Breton saint Goeznovius dated to 1019, includes a brief segment dealing with Arthur and
Vortigern. The "Legenda" is important for providing an early historical narrative of Arthur that is independent of Geoffrey of Monmouth's highly legendary " Historia Regum Britanniae". [Ashe, Geoffrey (1991). "Legenda Sancti Goeznovii". In Norris J. Lacy, "The New Arthurian Encyclopedia", pp. 204–205. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-4377-4.]
Possible historical identity
Magnus Maximus and other Western Emperors
Western Roman Empirecrumbled in the 4th and 5th Centuries, a number of ambitious generals in command of provincial armies rebelled and proclaimed themselves emperor. In 383, a leading Roman officer in Britannia, Magnus Maximus(aka Maximianus or "Macsen Wledig") proclaimed himself emperor and crossed, with his army, into Gaul. He quickly defeated and killed the Western Emperor Gratian, and for the next five years ruled the Western Empire, until Theodosius Idefeated and executed him in 388.
Arthur is also said to have crossed to the continent and fought against Imperial troops. In addition, according to medieval Welsh texts, Arthur is sometimes described as an "ymerawdwr" (Welsh for "emperor", from the
Latin" imperator"). Maximus himself was from Hispaniaand could have been born to a family of Celtiberian descent. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, 'Maximianus' was one of the kings of the Britons to precede Arthur. With the name Macsen Wledig, Maximus is featured in a story of the " Mabinogion", a collection of Medieval Welsh texts that also feature two stories on Arthur and one on Taliesin.
As the Roman Empire continued to decay, there were numerous generals in Britannia who were 'raised to the purple', if even for a short time. One such was Constantine III, who ruled for four years before being executed; according to Geoffrey, Constantine III was Arthur's grandfather.
Riothamus(aka Rigothamus or Riotimus, apparently meaning "Highest King") was a historical figure whom ancient sources list as "a king of the Britons". He lived in the late 5th century, and most of the stories about him were recorded in the Byzantine historian Jordanes' " The Origin and Deeds of the Goths", written in the mid-6th century, only about 80 years after his presumed death.
460, the Roman diplomat and bishop Sidonius Apollinarissent a letter to Riothamus, asking his help to quell unrest among the Brettones, British colonists living in Armorica. This letter still survives.
In the year
470, the Western Emperor Anthemiusbegan a campaign against Euric, king of the Visigothswho were invading Gaul. Anthemius requested help from Riothamus, and Jordanes writes that he crossed the ocean into Gaul with 12,000 warriors. The location of Riothamus’s army was betrayed to the Visigoths by the jealous Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, and Euric defeated him in a battle in Burgundy. Riothamus was last seen retreating near a town called Avallon. Geoffrey Ashepoints out that, as above, Arthur is said by the early sources to have crossed into Gaul twice, once to help a Roman emperor and once to subdue a civil war. Assuming that Riothamus was a king in Britain as well as Armorica, he did both. Arthur is also said to have been betrayed by one of his advisors, and Riothamus was betrayed by one of his supposed allies. Finally, it is well known how King Arthur was carried off to Avalon(which Geoffrey of Monmouth spells "Avallon") before he died; Riothamus, escaping death, was last known to have been in the vicinity of a town called Avallon.
It is unknown whether Riothamus was a king in Britain, in Ireland or of Armorica; as Armorica was a British colony and Jordanes writes that Riothamus "crossed the ocean", it is possible both are correct. The name "Riothamus" may possibly mean "high king", and so may just have been a title, perhaps borne by someone named Artorius or Arthur. On the other hand, Irish sources claim that
Niall of the Nine Hostages, Riothamus (High King) of Ireland, was campaigning in Gaul at this time, possibly dying about 455 in a campaign that went as far as the Alps. "All traditions agree that he died outside of Ireland. According to legend his followers carried his body back to Ireland, fighting seven battles along the way, and whenever they carried Niall's body before them they were unbeatable." The succeeding High King, Feradach Dathí, also known as Nath Í, son of Fiachrae, son of Eochaid Mugmedon, was also said to have made foreign conquests in Gaul at about this time, and died after being struck by lightning in the Alps.
Ambrosius Aurelianus(also sometimes referred to as Aurelius Ambrosius) was a powerful Romano-Britishleader in Britain. He was renowned for his campaigns against the Saxons, and there is some speculation that he may have commanded the British forces at the Battle of Badon Hill. At any rate, the battle was a clear continuation of his efforts.
Gildas(an early British historian and priest who may have been born during Aurelianus’ lifetime) in his sermon, "On the Ruin of Britain", following a massive Saxon invasion, Aurelianus was the only person who stayed calm, despite the fact that his parents and most other Roman settlers had been killed in the attacks. Subsequently, Aurelianus became leader of the remaining British (according to the Major Chronicle Annals, he rose to power in 479), organized them, and led them in their first victory against the Saxons, although subsequent battles went both ways. Gildas also writes that Aurelianus’ parents "wore the purple", and thus were apparently descended from Roman emperors. The Aureliiwere a noted Roman senatorial family, and it is possible that Ambrosius was descended from them.
Badon Hill, depending on varying sources and archeological evidence, was fought sometime between
491and 516(Gildas, born in 494or 516, writes that the battle took place at the year of his birth) with most scholars accepting a date around 500. The location of the battle is thought to have been in southwest England, perhaps near the town of Bath (called Badon by the Saxons) or the nearby Solsbury Hill, where an ancient hill fort existed. However, some believe that Badon Hill is actually somewhere to the north, in or near modern Scotland.
Badon Hill was fought between the British and the invading Saxons, believed to have been the South Saxons under their
Bretanwealda(Lord of Britain, also spelled Bretwalda) Aelle, reigned 477- 514. This title, used by the Saxons, is an odd one as it may be etymologically related to the Welsh Brythonic'Gweldig' which some interpret as meaning 'Emperor', applied to a number of British rulers such as Cunedda. The Saxons were utterly defeated by the British (it is theorized that Aelle may have died in the battle), and did not again attack the Celts until 571; even by the 590sthe Celts were still inflicting large defeats on the Saxon kingdoms, leaving a final "golden age" for Celtic civilization in Britain.
Gildas fails to name the commander at Badon but he refers to one of his contemporary "fetter kings" as having been "charioteer to the bear". According to the
Brythonic bard Taliesin, who lived approximately 534- 599, the British commander at Badon was the "chief giver of feasts" ("supreme commander", perhaps related to dux) Arthur, to whom the victory is attributed in all later accounts. Owing to a possible mistranslation of a word from Gildas, describing Aurelianus as either the "ancestor" or the "grandfather" of his descendants of Gildas’ generation, it is possible that Aurelianus lived in the generation before the Battle of Badon.
Geoffrey of Monmouth's "History of the Kings of Britain" also states that Arthur led the forces at Badon; on the other hand, Geoffrey is notoriously unreliable and much of what he writes is incompatible with factual history. However, Geoffrey makes Aurelianus a king of Britain, and older brother of
Uther Pendragon, the father of King Arthur, thus relating Aurelianus and Arthur. He also states that Aurelianus was the son of the usurper emperor Constantine III, although it is extremely unlikely to have actually been true.
Arthnou was an inhabitant of
6th century Tintagel. He is known only from archaeology. A piece of slate bearing his name, and since dubbed the ' Arthur stone', was discovered during excavations of the 6th century layers under Tintagel Castle. It was apparently a practice inscription for a dedicatory plaque within the structure of a building or other edifice. The Latininscription has been translated by Charles Thomas to read "Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had this built". "Artognou" was the primitive Brythonicform of a name that would be pronounced "Arthnou", meaning something akin to "bear-like". The prefix certainly links it to the 'Arthur' family of names. From the same area, pieces of expensive 6th century Mediterranean pottery have been excavated, showing that this high-status site was controlled by a rich and powerful noble with trade links with distant civilizations. According to Geoffrey of Monmouthand subsequent medieval writers, King Arthur was conceived at Tintagel. He implies that Arthur is a distant descendant of Old King Cole, whose name could be spelled "Coll".
Athrwys ap Meurig
Historians Baram Blackett and Alan Wilson have re-interpreted
Old Welshmanuscripts and other evidence to suggest that Arthur was Athrwys ap Meurig, possibly a king of Glamorganand Gwent, and have published some seven books on the subject. Their investigations have led to the discovery of what they believe to be two Arthurian artifacts of great importance, both of which have been independently examined and tested by experts. The first, discovered in 1983, is the burial stone of Athrwys ap Meurig, which reads, "Rex Artorius, Fili Mavricius". The other, an electrumcross weighing some two-and-a-half pounds, discovered in 1990, has been tested three times, contains 79% silver and reads "Pro Anima Artorius" or "for the Soul of Arthur". Chris Barber and David Pykitt have identified Arthur as the same man by similar means. However, they go on to suggest that he emigrated to Brittanyin old age and become known as Saint Armel. Most scholars who have examined the names Athrwys and Arthur have rejected the idea of any similarity [cite book | last = Bartrum | first = Peter C | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = A Welsh Classical Dictionary | publisher = National Library of Wales | date = 1993 | location = Aberystwyth | pages = 136 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = ] and suggested that Iolo Morgannwg's various spellings of the name Athrwys (on one page writing it as Arthur) led to later confusion.
Owain Ddantgwyn, the 'Arthur'
Graham Phillips and
Martin Keatman, in their book, "King Arthur: The True Story", argue that the name 'Arthur' was a mere title (see below) and that its recipient was Owain Ddantgwyn, an apparent King of Rhôswhom they relocate to Powys. From a passage in Gildas' De Excidio Britanniae, they interpret the description of Owain's son, Cuneglas, to mean that he was the successor at the 'bear's fort', the 'bear' or 'arth' being his father.
Áedán mac Gabráin
Áedán mac Gabráinwas a king of the Dál RiataScotti from c. 574to c. 608. He was not British, but could have been an influence on Arthur nonetheless; some theories say that Arthurian legends began in the north, and spread south. It has also been said that the Battle of Badon Hill, supposedly commanded by Arthur, was fought in the north.
Aidan was crowned on the island of
Ionaby St. Columba, the Irish of the White Martydom. Iona was the centre of Scottish Christianity and the place where the first Christian church in Scotland was built, and Columba the missionary priest who brought Christianity to Scotland from Ireland. Thus, Iona and Columba can be compared to the southern Avalon and Joseph of Arimathea, both of which are important in Arthurian legend. Iona and Avalon are even similarly named. Columba is said to have been educated in Ireland by a priest taught by Gildas, the chronicler of the Battle of Badon Hill.
Áedán sought to make Dál Riata independent from the Irish whose support Dál Riata had previously required, and in
603went to war against the pagan Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. The resulting Battle of Degsastan(whose location, like Badon Hill, is unknown) could have helped fuel the northern Badon Hill theory, although Aidan lost to the Saxons.
608, Áedán died and was buried on Iona, similar to how Arthur was supposedly buried on Avalon. One of his sons, Artuir, is also seen as a possible model for the legendary leader (see below).
Artuir mac Áedáin
Though he was the eldest son of Áedán mac Gabráin, Artuir never became king of Dál Riata; his brother
Eochaid Buideruled after his father's death. When Áedán apparently gave up his role and retired to monastic life, Artuir became war leader, though Áedán was officially still king. Thus it was Artuir who led the Scotti of Dál Riatain a war against the Picts, separate from the later war with Northumbria. By this theory, Artur was predominantly active in the region between the Roman walls — the Gododdin. David F. Carollargues that Artuir led a loose coalition of the Christian Celtsagainst their pagan invaders — effectively holding them off for about one hundred more years. He was ultimately killed in battle in 582. This is the solution proposed by Michael Wood. However, Artur is merely one of the aforementioned four leaders who were probably named after the original Arthur. In modern times, Artur's name is spelled "Artuir".
Many aspects of the King Arthur legend correspond to Artuir’s life. Artuir made use of an old Roman fortress known as Camelon (possibly the later Camelot), and he died in battle near the river Allan , also known as Camallan (possibly Camlann). Like the Arthur of legend he had a sister called Morgan, and was a contemporary of Myrddin (who later came to be called Merlin). In myth, the mortally wounded Arthur was taken to an island called Avalon. In the 6th century there was an island surrounded by three rivers, Allan, Forth and Teith. On the island was a settlement called Invalone. This island was near the site of the real Artuir’s death and may be the inspiration for Avalon. It should also be noted that the earliest mentions of Arthur are in Welsh. The area of Scotland in which Artuir lived and fought (Strathclyde) was Welsh speaking at this time.
However, this Artuir may have lived too late to be "the" Arthur, and he may have fought the wrong enemies. From the earliest accounts, Arthur's chief enemies were the "Saxons", not the Picts, and Áedán fought the Northumbrians "after" Artur's death. Artuir was part of the generation born "after" the Battle of Badon Hill, which took place between
491and 516. He was not the only person named "Artur" or some variant of the name in his time. There was also an Arthur King of Elmet, and an Arthur in Pembroke. By contrast, "Artur [us] " had been a rare name, almost unattested until after Badon was fought — which suggests that he was named after the original Arthur (whose name might have been a "nom de guerre" or an honorific). Also, Artuir mac Áedán died in battle with the Picts, while Arthur died in battle with Medraut (Mordred) of Lothian, who was "not" Pictish. While he may not be the original Arthur-figure "per se", his story, like that of the other "Arthurs" may well have contributed to the growing legends.
The Appearance of Arthur in History
John Morris argues that the appearance of the name Arthur, as applied to the Scottish, Welsh and Pennine "Athurs", and the lack of the name at any time earlier, suggests that in the early sixth century the name became popular amongst the indigenous British for a short time. He proposes that all of these occurrences were due to the importance of another Arthur, who may have ruled temporarily as Emperor of Britain. [Morris, John (1977) "The Age of Arthur. A History of the British Isles from 350 to 650" (Phillimore] He demonstrates on the basis of archaeological findings that after a period of Saxon advance, it was halted and surrounded by Celto-Roman finds, before resuming again in the 570's.
Some theories suggest, however, that Arthur had Roman or even pre-Roman origins:
Lucius Artorius Castus
Writers such as
Kemp Malone, C. Scott Littleton, Ann Thomasand Linda A. Malcorsuggest that King Arthur should be identified as one Lucius Artorius Castus, a Roman "dux" of the 2nd century, who was "praefectus" of the VI Legion in Britanniaand might have (though this is far from certain) led a "numerus" of Sarmatians, which was based at Ribchester( Bremetennacum) and which campaigned at and north of Hadrian’s Wall. Castus' alleged military exploits in Britain and Armorica may have been remembered for centuries afterward. This is linked to the original theory of Littleton, Thomas and Malcor which suggests that the folk narratives carried by the Alano-Sarmatians as well as history associated with various groups of Alano-Sarmatians formed the core of the Arthurian tradition (see below).
183– 185, the Caledonians overran Hadrian’s Wall. It has been suggested that Emperor Commodussent him to Britannia in the year 181as commander of the VI Legion and others, and that along with his personal legion, he guarded Hadrian's Wall(the border between Britannia, or Roman England, and Caledonia, or barbarian Scotland) with a contingent of 5,500 Sarmatianheavy cavalry. It is also suggested that Castus’ standard was a large red dragon pennant; auxiliary forces did not use eagle standards. In 185, when his legion collapsed, Castus returned to the northern city of Eboracum, and was then sent by the governor of Britannia to lead cavalry cohorts against an uprising in Armorica (modern Brittany). However, Castus is only known from three inscriptions from Podstranaon the Dalmatian coast; these do not mention command of any other legions (or establish command of VI Victrix — he could have been "praefectus castrorum", third-in-command of the legion), provide evidence of command of the Sarmatians, or indicate anything about his standard.
Etymological links can be made tracing the name Arthur to Artorius; it is also true that no other recorded person in Britain,
Ireland, or Scotlandbears a name similar to "Arthur" until after Castus’ tour of duty in Britannia was over (however, Arthur is always Latinized into "Arthurus", never "Artorius", thus suggesting that it was a distinct name). Arthur’s pennant is said to be the Pendragon, a red dragon similar to the modern Welsh flag. In the earliest descriptions of Arthur, he is not a king, but is referred to as a "dux bellorum" or "commander of war"; as also mentioned above, Castus held the Roman rank of dux.
In the "
Historia Britonum", written shortly after AD 820, there is a list of twelve battles Arthur is stated to have been victorious in. About three centuries later, Geoffrey of Monmouthin his " History of the Kings of Britain", places these twelve battles in the north against barbarians. Seven of these battles have been matched to battles Castus may have fought; but Castus is not definitely known to have fought in any battles. Geoffrey also adds that Arthur fought a civil war, and twice took troops across the sea to Armorica, once to support the Roman emperor and once to deal with his own rebels. Castus’ own legion mutinied, and he was sent to lead cavalry units in northwest Gaul– the location of the region of Armorica – both against rebels and in support of the Roman emperor.
Earlier sources also place Arthur’s headquarters not at
Camelotbut at Caerleon, the "Fortress of Legions". Eboracum, sometimes referred to as "Urbe Legionum" or the "City of the Legion", was the headquarters of both Castus and of legions that supported the Roman forces patrolling Hadrian’s Wall.
1978, C. Scott Littletonand Ann C. Thomas expanded on the ideas of Vasily Abaevand Georges Dumeziland published their theory of a connection between the Sarmatian people and the history and later legend of King Arthur. The Alano-Sarmatians were steppe nomadsfrom what is now southern Ukraine, who fought from horseback with a kontus ('lance'), longsword and bow and carried a shield with a tamgamarking, similar to heraldry. They wore scale armour and conical helms, and were known in the 2nd century for their skill as heavy cavalry. In 175, Marcus Aurelius, after defeating the Sarmatian "Iazyges" tribe (and taking the title "Sarmaticus" [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Imperial_Roman_victory_titles Aurelius takes "Sarmaticus" title] ] ), forcibly hired 8,000 Sarmatians into Roman service. 5,500 of these recruits were sent to the northern borders of Britain. These men probably settled around their base in modern-day Lancashire, where their descendants were still documented as a "troop of Sarmatian veterans" in 428.Fact|date=February 2007
The culture of the Sarmatians is also relevant to the legends of Arthur. Apart from their skill as armoured
knights, they held great, near religious, fondness for their swords — their tribal worship was directed at a sword sticking up from the ground, similar to the Sword in the Stonemotif. They carried standards in the form of dragons, a symbol also used by Arthur and his father Uther Pendragon.
Proponents of the 'Sarmatian connection' theory also look to the legends of the Sarmatians' descendants for evidence. The
Ossetians, an Iranian peoplefrom Ossetia, a country in the Caucasus, speak the Ossetic language, the only Sarmatian language still spoken. The Ossetian Nart sagas, indigenous epics celebrating the exploits of an ancient tribe of heroes, contain a number of interesting parallels to the Arthurian legends. First, the life of the Nart warrior Batrazis tied to his sword, which must be thrown into the sea at his death. When the wounded Batraz asks his last surviving comrade to do the task for him, his companion tries to fool him twice before finally hurling the weapon into the sea. This is very similar to the tale of Arthur's wondrous sword Excaliburwhich had to be returned to the Lady of the Lakeat his death by his last surving knight, Bedivere. Like Batraz' friend, Bedivere is reluctant to lose such a wonderful sword and lies to his master twice before finally assenting. Additionally, the Nart heroes, Soslanand Sosryko, collect the beards of vanquished enemies to trim their cloaks, which is the practice of Arthur's enemy Rience. Like Rience, Soslan has one last beard to obtain before his cloak is complete. Two other similar motifs are the Cup of the Narts ("Nartyamonga"), which appeared at feasts, delivered to each person what he liked best to eat, and which was kept by the bravest of the Narts ("Knights"); and the magical woman, dressed in white, associated with water, who helps the hero acquire his sword, similar to the Arthurian Lady of the Lake.
Although they lived hundreds of years too early (the Saxons first came to Britain three centuries later), Lucius Artorius Castus and Sarmatian cavalry may have been remembered in some form, and could have helped to create the basis for the early tales of King Arthur. While most 'Sarmatian connection' supporters tie the origins of the Arthurian legend to Lucius Artorius Castus and his 2nd century cavalry, others suggest that some Sarmatian details, like the Sword in the Stone itself, may have been added later in French romances, possibly entering the tradition as the result of the impact of the Alans on Europe in the fifth century A.D. Fact|date=February 2007.
However, those who do not accept the Sarmatian connection would argue that the obscurity surrounding Castus makes this identification unlikely, as there seems to be little reason for him to have become a major legendary figure. No Roman historical source actually mentions him, or his alleged exploits in Britain. Nor is there actually any firm evidence that he ever commanded Sarmatians. Also, the greatest resonance of Arthurian tales with Sarmatian ones occur in very late writings, relatively speaking, such as Malory's "
Le Morte Darthur" (when Arthur and his men were already developed into "knights in shining armor") and "none" appear in the earliest Welsh legends, such as those in the " Mabinogion" — which lead some to conclude that Sarmatian influence was limited to the development of the tales instead of historical basis, if at all. [ [http://www.arthuriana.co.uk/historicity/arthur.htm The Historicity & Historicisation of Arthur ] ]
The heroes of the 2004 film "King Arthur" are loosely based on Lucius Artorius Castus and his Sarmatian cavalry. The film's Arthur is a descendant of Artorius and inherits his role of guarding
Hadrian's Wallalong with a troop of Sarmatian warriors.
A pre-Roman Arthur
Darrah and Cumins propose an Arthur who lived in the
Bronze Age, circa 2300 BC. Other sources, including Ed Joyce in "The Key to Camelot" argue that pulling a sword from a stone and an anvil is a metaphor for setting a bronze sword in a stone mould and hammering it into shape on an anvil. Similarly, the return of prized weaponry to the waters appears to have been a British Iron Age funerary practice, as evidenced by the many such items dredged from large rivers and lakes. Geoffrey of Monmouth writes in 'The History of the Kings of Britain' that Merlin built Stonehenge. The fact that the bluestones at the site were placed at approximately 2300BC has led Cummins and others to speculate that parts of the legends reflect a folk memory of historical events. These ideas are disputed by those who point out that the Sword in the Stone is a late medieval embellishment to the legend.Fact|date=February 2007. Roderick MacLeish's fiction book "Prince Ombra" includes this metaphor in its retelling of the Arthurian legend.
Some hold that Arthur originally was a half-forgotten Celtic deity or hero that devolved into a personage.
The word "arth" is modern Welsh for "bear", and among Continental Celts (although not in Britain) there were several bear gods named
Artosor Artio. Also, "artur" (Welsh) and "arturus" ( Latin) meant "bear-man". King Arthur was supposedly referred to by some writers as the "Bear of Britain".
It has also been suggested that Arthur was originally a Celtic or prehistoric demi-god, whose legends were gradually adapted to fit historical fact as a means of keeping the Celtic legends alive after Christianity was introduced. An example would be the sea-god
Llyr, who became the legendary King Lear.
Arthur's story also bears many similarities to Celtic mythologies, such as the hero's possession of a magical weapon (see
Gáe Bulg), the Lady of the Lakehaving many similarities to Celtic water deities, etc.
Still another theory is that Arthur was a completely legendary person, the hero of Celtic bards meant to inspire and enthrall listeners, similar to the Germanic stories of
Beowulf(or, in some stories, Bodvar Biarki). In fact, Beowulf was composed (c. late 8th Century) by Saxon settlers in Britain around the time the first stories of Arthur were emerging, and Arthur and Beowulf share several similarities: both were brave war-leaders who later became king; both carried magical swords; both were betrayed by their men; and both died without an heir. Dragons figure prominently in both stories, and like Arthur, the name "Beowulf" means "bear" (the alternate name for Beowulf, Bodvar Biarki, means "battle bear").
It is conceivable that Beowulf could have provided at least some influence on the emerging legends of King Arthur, or vice-versa, or both; "Beowulf" is set in the
6th Century, the time period of the early Arthurian legends. Even if the earliest spoken form of the Anglo-Saxon legends did not influence the early stories of Arthur, the written version — first transcribed by monks (who Christianizedit, just as they Christianized earlier Celtic legends) in England in the 10th Century, could have influenced later Arthurian writers such as Geoffrey of Monmouth (who wrote in Walesin the 12th century).
Arthur also may hold influences from
Sigmundof the Volsunga Saga. Both Arthur and Sigmund had royal ties. Both drew a sword in order to prove those ties (Arthur drew his from a stone while Sigmund drew his from the roots of a tree). Both of them also had involvement with incest and had a bastard son.
No historical basis
A school of thought, with growing numbers since the publication of Dr.
David Dumville's criticisms, argues that Arthur had no historical existence at all, on the basis that none of the sources are contemporary or reliable.
Other Arthurian characters
Battle of Camlann, the final battle between Arthur and Mordred, is likely to be fictional; however, it is recorded in the "Welsh Annals" or "Annales Cambriae" (although this is probably a later addition), and several sites in Britain have been associated with it.
As he is recorded in the
Annales Cambriaeand other early sources, Mordredmay have been a real person. The Annales Cambriae for the year 537 puts them at the Battle of Camlann, although it does not state that they fought on opposite sides. Instead, it refers to:"The Strife of Camlann in which Arthur and Medraut (Mordred) perished" (This has led some historians, as well as fiction authors like Mary Stewart, to wonder if the historical Arthur and Mordred could have fought on the same side, against the Saxons). Morgan le Fay, Arthur's half-sister of legend, was possibly based on the Celtic goddesses Morriganor Modron. Carroll suggests that Morgan may be a corruption of Maithgen, sister of Artur (see above).
Fisher Kingmay be based on the legend of Joseph of Arimatheaor the Celtic god Avalloc. As a matter of interest, in Celtic legend Avalloc was the father of Modron.
As explained above, the
Grail Questmay have been largely influenced by the Sarmatian folklore of Batraz and his Narts. However, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon traditions also are filled with quests by heroes, and in Celtic folklore there are tales of a magical cup with healing powers. These tales undoubtedly were adapted to refer to the Holy Grailas Britain became Christianized. Bedivereis, along with Arthur and Merlin, one of the oldest characters in Arthurian legend, and thus is more likely to have been a real person than newer additions. He appears in the "Mabinogion" and is connected with the Welsh Finddu dynasty; his father, Pedrod, may have been the historical Welsh monarch Pedr.
Merlin was the name given to two historical figures,
Myrddin Wyllt("Wild Merlin") and Myrddin Emrys ("Majestic Merlin"), combined by Geoffrey of Monmouth into one. The former was a bard who went mad after his king was killed by two rivals (one of whom was the above-mentioned Pedrod) and went to live in a forest. Merlin may also have been influenced by Taliesin. However, both Merlins and Taliesin all lived in the late 6th Century, after the time of most of the above-listed historical Arthurs. Vortigern, the usurper king who, according to legend, invited the Saxons to land in Britain as mercenaries before being killed by Uther Pendragon, was a historical person, as were Hengestand Horsa, the Saxon leaders who rebelled against him. Vortigern itself (like Riothamus) apparently means "highest king", and he could possibly have been named something else.
This following table shows the linkage between the “finished product” of Arthurian names, and their mythical and/or factual sources (some confirmed, others hypothesized).
Sites and places associated with Arthurian legend
*Geoffrey Ashe. (1985). "The Discovery of King Arthur".
*Barber, Chris & Pykitt, David. (1993). "Journey to Avalon".
*Baram Blackett & Alan Wilson. (1986) "Artorius Rex Discovered".
*David F. Carroll (1996) " [http://www.legendofkingarthur.com/ Arturius: The Quest for Camelot] ". ISBN 0-9528410-0-2.
*David N. Dumville. (1977). 'Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend' in "History 62".
*Adrian Gilbert, Baram Blackett & Alan Wilson. (1998). "The Holy Kingdom"
C. Scott Littleton& Linda A. Malcor. (1994). "From Scythia to Camelot".
C. Scott Littleton& Ann C. Thomas. (1978). 'The Sarmatian Connection: New Light on the Origin of the Arthurian and Holy Grail Legends' in "Journal of American Folklore 91".
*Kemp Mallone. (1925). 'Artorius' in "Modern Philology 22".
*Graham Phillips & Martin Keatman. (1992). "King Arthur: The True Story".
*J.E Russell (2005) "The historical Arthur of Galloway"
* [http://www.legendofkingarthur.com D.F. Carroll, "Arturius: Quest for Camelot"]
* [http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/acpbibs/hisarth.htm P.J.C. Field, "The Historical Arthur: a Bibliography"]
* [http://www.arthuriana.co.uk/historicity/arthur.htm Thomas Green, "The Historicity and Historicisation of Arthur"]
* [http://www.hungarianquarterly.com/no144/p113.html Janos Makkay, "The Sarmatian Connection"]
* [http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/2/ha2tf.htm Victor H. Mair, Review of "From Scythia to Camelot"]
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