- Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf
Count Francis Conrad von Hötzendorf (German: Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf – the proper family name is Conrad) (November 11, 1852 – August 25, 1925) was an Austrian soldier and Chief of the General Staff of the Austro-Hungarian Army at the outbreak of World War I.
Early life and military career
Conrad was born in Penzing, a suburb of Vienna. His father was a retired Hussar colonel, originally from south Moravia. His mother was the daughter of the famous Vienna artist Kübler. Conrad's great grandfather had been raised to the nobility in 1816 adding "von Hötzendorf", the surname of his wife from the Palatinate, as his predicate.
Conrad was educated at the Theresianische Militärakademie and at age 19 received a commission as lieutenant in a Jäger unit. After graduating from the Kriegsschule in 1876, he transferred to the General Staff Corps. In 1878-1879, these duties brought him to Bosnia and Herzegovina, when those two Turkish provinces were assigned to the military administration of Austria-Hungary. He was also a member of the staff during the insurrection in Dalmatia, in 1882.
In the fall of 1888, he began a new appointment as a professor of tactics in the Kriegsschule (military academy) in Vienna, a position he prepared for by touring the battlefields of the Franco-Prussian War.
Return to command and Chief of Staff
Conrad requested transfer back to command in 1892 and took charge of an infantry regiment. Later that year he commanded the 55th Infantry Brigade in Trieste and was promoted to major general. After acting against a major Italian uprising in the city in 1902, he was made Feldmarschalleutnant and took command of the 8th Infantry Division at Innsbruck in 1903.
By the time of his appointment to chief of staff for the Austro-Hungarian armed forces in November 1906, he had established a reputation as a teacher and writer. Like other Austro-Hungarian officers of his generation, he had little direct combat experience, but had studied and written extensively about theory and tactics. His published works on infantry tactics sold well and were printed in multiple editions. He was a tireless campaigner for modernization of the armed forces.
World War I
Conrad was one of the main proponents of war with Serbia in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Conrad often proposed unrealistically grandiose plans, disregarding the realities of terrain and climate. The plans that he drew up frequently underestimated the power of the enemy. For example, the Serbian army proved far more effective than he had expected (see Serbian Campaign (WWI) for details). Also, his first offensives against Russia were remarkable for their lack of effect combined with massive human cost. His mistakes led to the disastrous first year of war that crippled Austro-Hungarian military capabilities. The most disastrous defeat came in 1916, in the Brusilov Offensive by Russia. The Austro-Hungarian forces under Conrad's command lost nearly 1.5 million men, and were never again capable of mounting an offensive without German help. Most of Austria's victories were possible only in conjunction with German armies, on which the Austro-Hungarian army became increasingly dependent.
On the other hand, the historian Cyril Falls argues that Conrad was probably the best strategist of the war and that his plans were brilliant in conception. The German generals in the east based most of their successful offensive operations on Conrad's plans. To his admirers he was a "military genius"; one such admirer was the Soviet general and theorist Boris Shaposhnikov in his book Mozg Armii, in which Conrad was presented as a model for a good Chief of the General Staff. On the other hand, "Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf never admitted his share of responsibility for the onset of the First World War or the defeat of Austria-Hungary... he claimed to have been "just a military expert" with no voice in the key decisions."
Following the accession of Emperor Karl to the throne in November 1916, Conrad was elevated to the rank of field marshal, one of only three men in Austria-Hungary to hold that rank at the time. While still the heir-apparent, the new emperor had reported to Franz Josef that the "mismanagement" in the army's high command could not be cleared out until Conrad was replaced, but admitted that finding someone to take his role would not be easy. Yet under the new emperor, Conrad's powers were gradually eroded. In December Karl took supreme command of the army and operational control of all combat units in the army and navy. On March 1, 1917, Karl dismissed Conrad, who then requested retirement. The emperor personally asked him to remain on active duty, and when Conrad accepted, he was placed in command of the South Tyrolean Army Group.
In the late spring of 1918, the failure of the Austro-Hungarian offensives against the Italians, with costly and bloody assaults led by both Conrad and Boroević, brought condemnation upon the imperial leadership. Further complicating Conrad's image was his identification with those in the government intent on continuing the war. In this atmosphere, Conrad, described as a "broken man", was dismissed on July 15, perhaps in an effort to deflect further criticism.
In 1918 he was made a Graf, or Count, having been a baron.
Conrad married Wilhelmine le Beau in 1886, with whom he had four sons. He would later marry Virginia von Reininghaus in 1915, against the wishes of his children.
Policy, politics, and theory
In military matters, Conrad emphasized the importance of aggressive, well-trained infantry and the strategic and tactical offensive.
Conrad was something of a social Darwinist, and believed a battle between German and Slavic civilization was inevitable. The power of the Magyar elite within Austria-Hungary troubled him, as he believed it weakened and diluted what he saw as an essentially German empire. He also worried about Italian ambitions in the Balkans. However, his greatest ambition was for a pre-emptive war against Serbia in order to neutralize the threat that he believed they posed, and at the same time change the political balance within Austria-Hungary against the Magyars by incorporating more Slavs. According to Hew Strachan, "Conrad von Hötzendorf first proposed preventive war against Serbia in 1906, and he did so again in 1908-9, in 1912-13, in October 1913, and May 1914: between 1 January 1913 and 1 January 1914 he proposed a Serbian war twenty-five times."
- The German Army post in Oberammergau, Bavaria, built in 1937, is named the Conrad von Hötzendorf Kaserne.
- He appears in Karl Kraus' tragedy The Last Days of Mankind in act 1 scene 24.
- He has a prominent role in Dennis Wheatley's historical adventure The Second Seal.
- ^ Regarding personal names: Graf is a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin. von Hötzendorf is also a title.
- ^ a b "Hoetzendorf, Baron Franz Conrad von". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
- ^ Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 1976. p 143.
- ^ a b c d Rothenburg 1976, p. 143.
- ^ Sondhaus, L. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf: Architect of the Apocalypse. (Studies in Central European Histories.) Boston: Humanities Press, 2000. p 37. (Via Google Books 2/23/11.)
- ^ Sondhaus 2000, p. 37.
- ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 43.
- ^ Falls, Cyril: The Great War, Putnam, New York 1959, p. 36.
- ^ Sondhaus, Lawrence: Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. Architect of the apocalypse. Humanity Press, Boston 2000, ISBN 0-391-04097-9, p. 244.
- ^ a b c Rothenburg 1976, p. 202.
- ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 202-03.
- ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 213-14.
- ^ Rothenburg 1976, p. 214.
Military of Austria-Hungary Armyk. u. k. Armee • Imperial Austrian Army • Royal Hungarian Army • Formations • Army ranks and insignia of the Austro-Hungarian Army • Military Intelligence • Weapons of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Navyk. u. k. Kriegsmarine · List of battleships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy · List of U-Boats of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Airforce Ministers for WarFeldmarschalleutnant Franz Freiherr von John • Feldmarschalleutnant Franz Kuhn Freiherr Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld • General der Kavallerie Alexander Freiherr von Koller • Feldzeugmeister Arthur Maximilian Graf Bylandt-Rheydt (der Ältere) • Feldzeugmeister Ferdinand Freiherr Bauer • Feldzeugmeister Rudolf Freiherr Merkl • General der Kavallerie Edmund Freiherr von Krieghammer • Feldzeugmeister Heinrich Ritter von Pitreich • General der Infanterie Franz Freiherr Schönaich • General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter Auffenberg von Komarów • Feldmarschal Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin • Generaloberst Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten CommandersArchduke Eugen of Austria • Franz Rohr von Denta • Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli • Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna • Archduke Joseph August of Austria • Franz Böhme • Josip Jelačić • Günther Burstyn • Georg Dragičević • Karol Durski-Trzaska • Gheorghe Flondor • Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski • Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany • Rudolf Maister • Artur Phleps • Oskar Potiorek • Alfred Redl • Maximilian Ronge • Viktor Dankl von Krasnik • Viktor Graf von Scheuchenstuel • Stjepan Sarkotić • Gottfried von Banfield • Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria • Miklós Horthy • Franz von Keil • Giovanni Luppis • Georg Ludwig von Trapp • Janko Vuković Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy Chief of the General StaffFeldmarschalleutnant Josef Wilhelm Freiher von Gallina • Feldmarschalleutnant Franz Freiherr von John • Feldmarschalleutnant Anton Freiherr von Schönfeld • Feldzeugmeister Friedrich Graf von Beck-Rzikowsky • Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf • Generalmajor Blasius Schemua • General der Infanterie Arthur Arz von Straußenburg Commanders-in-Chief of the Army Supreme CommandersFranz Joseph • Karl I
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz, Graf (count) — ▪ Austrian military strategist born November 11, 1852, Penzing, Austria died August 25, 1925, Mergentheim, Germany a controversial military strategist and one of the most influential conservative propagandists of Austria Hungary, who… … Universalium
Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz (Xaver Josef), Count — born Nov. 11, 1852, Penzing, Austria died Aug. 25, 1925, Mergentheim, Ger. Austrian soldier. A career officer in the Austro Hungarian army, he became chief of staff in 1906. A conservative propagandist for Austria Hungary, he advocated preventive … Universalium
von — /von/; Ger. /fawn/, unstressed /feuhn/, prep. from; of (used in German and Austrian personal names, originally to indicate place of origin and later to indicate nobility): Paul von Hindenburg. * * * (as used in expressions) Friedrich Leopold… … Universalium
Franz — /franz, frants/; Ger. /frddahnts/, n. a male given name, German form of Frank. * * * (as used in expressions) Beckenbauer Franz Becker Boris Franz Boas Franz Bopp Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Canaris Wilhelm Franz Karl Franz Josef Chrysander Karl … Universalium
Count Leopold Berchtold — Leopold Graf Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, Frättling und Püllütz Austro Hungarian Ambassador to Russia In office 28 December 1906 – 25 March 191 … Wikipedia
count — count1 /kownt/, v.t. 1. to check over (the separate units or groups of a collection) one by one to determine the total number; add up; enumerate: He counted his tickets and found he had ten. 2. to reckon up; calculate; compute. 3. to list or name … Universalium
Conrad — /kon rad/, n. 1. Charles, Jr., born 1930, U.S. astronaut. 2. Joseph (Teodor Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski), 1857 1924, English novelist and short story writer, born in Poland. 3. a male given name: from Germanic words meaning bold and counsel. * * *… … Universalium
Viktor Graf von Scheuchenstuel — (May 10 1857 ndash; April 17, 1938) was a Colonel General in the Austro Hungarian Army. He was a general staff officer and division commander until World War I broke out. During World War I he was a Corps and Army commander serving in Serbia,… … Wikipedia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria — Infobox Austrian Royalty|archduke name = Archduke Francis Ferdinand title =Archduke of Austria Este succession = Archduke of Austria Este reign = 1875 1914 predecessor = Francis II successor = Charles date of birth = birth date|1863|12|18 place… … Wikipedia
Viktor Dankl von Krasnik — Viktor Dankl Count Viktor Dankl von Krasnik (German: Viktor Graf Dankl von Krasnik, born as Viktor Dankl on September 18, 1854, in Udine, died January 8, 1941 in Innsbruck) was a highly decorated career Austro Hungarian officer who reached the… … Wikipedia