Graf is a historical German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title akin to the Viking title Jarl). A derivation ultimately from the Greek verb graphein 'to write' may be fanciful: Paul the Deacon wrote in Latin ca 790: "the count of the Bavarians that they call gravio who governed Bauzanum and other strongholds…" (Historia Langobardorum, V.xxxvi); this may be read to make the term a Germanic one, but by then using Latin terms was quite common.
Since August 1919, in Germany, Graf and all other titles are considered a part of the name. The comital title Graf has of course also been used by German-speakers (as official or vernacular language), also in Austria and other Habsburg crown lands (mainly Slavic and Hungary), in Liechtenstein and much of Switzerland.
- A Graf (Count) ruled over a territory known as a Grafschaft, literally 'countship' (also rendered as 'county').
- The comital titles awarded in the Holy Roman Empire often related to the jurisdiction or domain of responsibility and represented special concessions of authority or rank. Only the more important titles remained in use until modern times. Many Counts were titled Graf without any additional qualification.
- For a list of the titles of the rank of Count etymologically related to Graf (and for other equivalents) see article Count.
List of nobiliary titles containing the term graf
Some are approximately of comital rank, some higher, some lower. The more important ones are treated in separate articles (follow the links); a few minor, rarer ones only in sections below.
German English Comment/ etymology Markgraf Margrave (only continental) and
(younger) Marquess or Marquis
Mark: march (border province) + Graf Landgraf Landgrave Land (country) + Graf Reichsgraf Count of the Empire Reich i.e., (the Holy Roman) Empire + Graf Gefürsteter Graf Princely Count German verb for "to make into a Reichsfürst" + Graf Pfalzgraf Count Palatine
or Palsgrave (the latter is archaic in English)
Pfalz (palatial estate, Palatinate) + Graf Rheingraf Rhinegrave Rhein (river Rhine) + Graf Burggraf Burgrave Burg (castle, burgh) + Graf Altgraf Altgrave Alt (old) + Graf (very rare) Freigraf Free Count Frei = free (allodial?) + Graf; both a feudal title of comital rank and a more technical office Wildgraf Wildgrave Wild (game or wilderness) + Graf Raugraf Raugrave Rau (raw, uninhabited, wilderness) + Graf Vizegraf Viscount Vize = vice- (substitute) + Graf
Reichsgraf, Gefürsteter Graf
A Reichsgraf was a nobleman whose title of count was conferred or confirmed by the Holy Roman Emperor, and literally meant "count of the (Holy Roman) Empire". Since the feudal era any count whose territory lay within the Empire and was under the immediate jurisdiction of the Emperor with a shared vote in the Reichstag came to be considered a member of the "upper nobility" (Hochadel) in Germany, along with princes (Fürsten), dukes (Herzöge), electors, and the emperor himself. A count who was not a Reichsgraf was apt to possess only a "mediate" fief (Afterlehen) — he was subject to an immediate prince of the empire, such as a duke or elector.
However, the Holy Roman Emperors also occasionally granted the title of Reichsgraf to subjects and foreigners who did not possess and were not granted immediate territories — or, sometimes, any territory at all. Such titles were purely honorific. In English, Reichsgraf is usually translated simply as count and is combined with a territorial suffix (e.g. Count of Holland, Count Reuss), or a surname Count Fugger, Count von Browne. But even after the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Reichsgrafen retained precedence above other counts in Germany. Those who had been quasi-sovereign until German mediatisation retained, until 1918, status and privileges pertaining to members of reigning dynasties.
A gefürsteter Graf (in English, princely count) is a Reichsgraf who has been made Reichsgraf by an act of the king, as opposed to one whose ancestors have held this privilege since the High Middle Ages.
Notable Reichsgrafen included:
- Henneberg, a title merged into the imperial dignity
- Nassau-Weilburg since 26 September 1366 (previously, simply Graf)
- Tyrol as a dominion of the Austrian crown
A complete list of Reichsgrafen as of 1792 can be found in the List of Reichstag participants (1792).
A Landgraf or Landgrave was a nobleman of comital rank in feudal Germany whose jurisdiction stretched over a sometimes quite considerable territory. The title survived from the times of the Holy Roman Empire. The status of a landgrave was often associated with sovereign rights and decision-making greater than those of a simple Graf (Count), but carried no legal prerogatives.
Landgraf occasionally continued in use as the subsidiary title of such nobility as the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, who functioned as the Landgrave of Thuringia in the first decade of the 20th century; but the title fell into disuse after World War I. The jurisdiction of a landgrave was a Landgrafschaft landgraviate and the wife of a landgrave was a Landgräfin or landgravine.
A combination of Landgraf and Gefürsteter Graf (both above). Example: Leuchtenberg, later a duchy.
Burgrave / Viscount
A Burggraf, or Burgrave, was a 12th and 13th century military and civil judicial governor of a castle (compare castellan, custos, keeper) of the town it dominated and of its immediate surrounding countryside. His jurisdiction was a Burggrafschaft, burgraviate.
Later the title became ennobled and hereditary with its own domain.
Example: Burgrave of Nuremberg.
It occupies the same relative rank as titles rendered in purist German by Vizegraf, in Dutch as Burggraaf or in English as Viscount (Latin: Vicecomes), in origin also a deputy of a Count, as the burgrave dwelt usually in a castle or fortified town. Soon many became hereditary and almost-a-Count, ranking just below the 'full' Counts, but above a Freiherr (Baron).
It was also often used as a courtesy title by the heir to a Graf.
Rhinegrave, Wildgrave, Raugrave, Altgrave
Unlike the other comital titles, Rhinegrave, Wildgrave (Waldgrave), Raugrave, and Altgrave are not generic titles. Rather, each is linked to one specific, historic countship. By rank, these unusually named counts were equivalent to other Counts of the Empire of Uradel status, i.e. they possessed Imperial immediacy, ranked as Hochadel, and would be mediatised upon dissolution of the Empire in 1806.
- "Rhinegrave" (German: Rheingraf) was the title of the count of the Rheingau, a county located between Wiesbaden and Lorch on the right bank of the Rhine. Their castle was known as the Rheingrafenstein. After the Rhinegraves inherited the Wildgraviate (see below) and parts of the Countship of Salm, they called themselves Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm.
- When the Nahegau (a countship named after the river Nahe) split into two parts in 1113, the counts of the two parts, belonging to the House of Salm called themselves Wildgraves and Raugraves, respectively. They were named after the geographic properties of their territories: Wildgrave (German: Wildgraf; Latin: comes sylvanus), after Wald ("forest") and Raugrave (German: Raugraf; Latin: comes hirsutus), after the rough (i.e. mountainous) terrain.
- The first Raugrave was Count Emich I (died 1172). The dynasty died out in the 18th century. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine purchased the estates, and after 1667 accorded the wife and children of his arguably bigamous (morganatic) second marriage to Baroness Marie Luise von Degenfeld, the title of "Raugravine/Raugrave".
- Altgrave (German: Altgraf, "old count") was a title used by the counts of Lower Salm to distinguish themselves from the Wild- and Rhinegraves of Upper Salm, since Lower Salm was the senior branch of the family.
Furthermore, the term -graf occurs in various office titles which did not attain nobiliary status, but were either held as a sinecure by nobleman or courtiers, or by those who remained functional officials, such as the Deichgraf (in a polder management organism).
- German nobility
- History of Germany
- Holy Roman Emperor
- Reichstag (Holy Roman Empire)
- List of German monarchs
Sources and references
- ^ Weimar Constitution Article 109, sentence 2
- ^ a b Velde, François (2008-02-13). "Heraldica.org". The Holy Roman Empire. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/national/hre.htm#Evolution. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
- ^ a b c d Almanach de Gotha, Salm. Justus Perthes, 1944, pp. 169, 276, 280. French.
- ^ Rheingraf. article in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl. 1888–1890, Bd. 13, S. 0780 f.
- ^ Raugraf. article in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl. 1888–1890, Bd. 13, S. 0605 f.
- ^ Raugraf at wissen.de
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Look at other dictionaries:
Graf — Graf … Deutsch Wörterbuch
Graf — [gra:f], der; en, en: 1. (Geschichte) königlicher Amtsträger, der in seinem Amtsbezirk weitgehende administrative und richterliche Befugnisse [sowie grundherrliche Rechte] hat. 2. a) <ohne Plural> Adelstitel zwischen Fürst und Freiherr:… … Universal-Lexikon
Graf — puede referirse a: El título nobiliario alemán correspondiente a conde. Véanse también: Margrave, Landgrave y Pfalzgraf Apellido Arturo Graf. Claudio Graf. David Graf. Hermann Graf. Steffi Graf. Willi Graf. Barcos y aeronaves Acorazado de… … Wikipedia Español
Gräf — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Ailin Gräf (* 1973), chinesische Internetunternehmerin Dieter M. Gräf (* 1960), deutscher Schriftsteller Eduard Gräf (1870 1936), deutscher Politiker (SPD) Hans Gerhard Gräf (1864–1942), deutscher… … Deutsch Wikipedia
GRAF (S.) — GRAF STEFFI (1969 ) En 1987, Steffi Graf s’impose à Roland Garros face à Martina Navratilova. Cette victoire symbolise un changement de générations, puisque Steffi Graf va dominer le tennis féminin durant la fin des années 1980 et le début des… … Encyclopédie Universelle
GRAF (U.) — GRAF URS (1485 env. env. 1527) Orfèvre, peintre, graveur et verrier suisse, né à Soleure et mort à Bâle, Urs Graf est l’un des plus remarquables artistes parmi ceux qui empruntèrent les voies tracées par Dürer. À ses rares tableaux (musées de… … Encyclopédie Universelle
graf — grȁf m <N mn gràfovi> DEFINICIJA 1. v. grafikon 2. mat. apstraktna kombinatorna struktura sastavljena od »vrhova« i »bridova« koji spajaju neke parove vrhova SINTAGMA graf funkcije mat. za funkciju f graf funkcije je skup svih uređenih… … Hrvatski jezični portal
-graf — graf, graph, der; en, en [zu griech. gráphein = schreiben]: in Zusb., z. B. Autograf, Seismograf. * * * graf: ↑ graph. graph, (auch:) graf, der; en, en [1↑Graph]: in Zus., z. B. Autograph, Barograph … Universal-Lexikon
Graf — Graf, IA U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 73 Housing Units (2000): 23 Land area (2000): 0.140008 sq. miles (0.362620 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.140008 sq. miles (0.362620 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Graf, IA — U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 73 Housing Units (2000): 23 Land area (2000): 0.140008 sq. miles (0.362620 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.140008 sq. miles (0.362620 sq. km) FIPS code:… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Graf — [gräf] n. pl. Grafen [gräf′ən] [Ger] a German, Austrian, or Swedish title of nobility corresponding to earl or count … English World dictionary