- Old Tupi language
iso2= [http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=sai sai] (Collective)
Old Tupi or Classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native
Tupi peopleof Brazil, mostly those who lived close to the sea. It belongs to the Tupi-Guaranilanguage subfamily, and which has a written history spanning the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. In the early colonial period Tupi was used as a lingua francathroughout Brazil by Europeans as well as Amerindiansand had literary usage, but it was later suppressed almost to extinction, leaving only one modern descendant with an appreciable number of speakers, Nheengatu.
The names Old Tupi or Classical Tupi are used for the language in English and by modern scholars (it is referred to as "tupi antigo" in Portuguese), but native speakers called it variously "ñeengatú" "the good language", "ñeendyba" "common language", "abáñeenga" "human language", in Old Tupi, or "língua geral" "general language", "língua geral amazônica" "Amazonian general language", "língua brasílica" "Brazilian language", in Portuguese.
Old Tupi was spoken by an illiterate people, living under cultural and social conditions very unlike those found in
Europe. It is quite different from Indo-European languagesin phonology, morphology and grammar.
It belonged to the
Tupi-Guaranilanguage group, which stood out among other South American languages for the vast territory it covered. Until the 16th century, these languages were found throughout nearly the entirety of the Brazilian coast, from Paráto Santa Catarina, and the River Plate basin. Today Tupi languages are still heard in Brazil (states of Maranhão, Pará, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo) as well as in French Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguayand Argentina.
It is a common mistake to speak of a "Tupi-Guarani language", which is incorrect: Tupi,
Guaraniand a number of other minor or major languages all belong to the Tupian language family, in the same sense that English, Romanian and Sanskritbelong to the Indo-European language family. However, the level of similarity between Tupi and Guarani is considered higher than that of any given two major European languages. One of the main differences between the two languages was the replacement of Tupi IPA|/s/ by the glottal fricative IPA|/h/ in Guarani.
The first accounts of the Old Tupi language date back from the early 16th century, but the first written documents containing actual information about it were produced from 1575 onwards — when Jesuits
André Thévetand José de Anchietabegan to translate Catholic prayers and biblical stories into the language. Another foreigner, Jean de Lery, wrote the first (and possibly only) Tupi "phrasebook", in which he transcribed entire dialogues. Lery's work is very important because it is the best available record of how Tupi was actually spoken.
In the first two or three centuries of Brazilian history, nearly all
colonists coming to Brazil would learn the "tupinambá" variant of Tupi, as a means of communication with both the Indians and with other early colonists who had adopted the language.
The Jesuits, however, not only learned to speak "tupinambá" but also encouraged the Indians to keep it. As a part of their missionary work they translated some literature into it and also produced some original work written directly in Tupi. José de Anchieta reportedly wrote more than 4,000 lines of poetry in "tupinambá" (which he called "lingua Brasilica") and the first Tupi
grammar. Luís Figueirawas another important figure of this time, who wrote the second Tupi grammar, published in 1621. In the second half of the 18th century, the works of Anchieta and Figueira were republished and Father Bettendorf wrote a new and more complete catechism. By that time the language had made its way into the clergy and was the "de facto" national languageof Brazil — though it was probably seldom written, as the Roman Catholic Churchheld a near monopoly of literacy.
When the Portuguese Prime-Minister
Marquis of Pombalexpelled the Jesuits from Brazil in 1759, the language started to wane fast, as few Brazilians were literate in it. Besides, a new rush of Portuguese immigration had been taking place since the early 18th century, due to the discovery of gold, diamondand gemsin the interior of Brazil; these new colonists spoke only their mother tongue. Old Tupi survived as a spoken language (used by Europeans and Indian populations alike) only in isolated inland areas, far from the major urban centres. Its use by a few non-Indian speakers in those backward places would last for over a century still, but its influence was to be deeper than that.
The first studies on Tupi were not made by trained linguists, but by Catholic missionaries imbued with the will to understand and convert to Christendom those "wild
savages" whose habits (such as cannibalism, polygamy, body piercing, free loveand the absence of clothing) greatly scandalised the European men of faith.
Therefore, the first (and the only contemporary) "grammar" of Tupi reflected the conditioning and the
prejudices of both the religion and the science of Europe: Indo-European terminology and categorisation is used, despite being inadequate for Tupi. This tendency to regularise and grammaticalise the language is evident in the study of Tupian "verbs" and "nouns", as the former do not inflect for tense, while the latter do.
The first to research Tupi was the Spanish-born Jesuit
José de Anchieta, and his works constitute most of what remains of Tupi in writing for study. It is clear, then, that the research of Tupi is hampered by the scarcity of the surviving vocabulary, the lack of sophistication of contemporary scholarship and the bias of a colonial view. Taking this into account, one can agree on the following characteristics of Tupi ("tupinambá" dialect). Antônio Gonçalves Dias, a well-known 19th Century Brazilian poet and scholar, published in 1858 a "Dicionário da Lingua Tupi" ("Dictionary of the Tupi Language").
The phonology of "tupinambá" has some interesting and unusual features. For instance, it has only two
fricatives, IPA|/s/ and IPA|/ʃ/ and does not have the lateral approximant IPA|/l/ or the multiple vibrant rhotic consonant/R/. It also has a rather small inventory of consonants and a large amount of pure vowels (twelve).
This led to a Portuguese
punabout this language, that Brazilians "não têm fé, nem lei, nem rei" (have neither faith, nor law, nor king) as the words "fé" (faith), "lei" (law) and "rei" (king) could not be pronounced by a native Tupi speaker (they would say "pé", "re'i" and "re'i").
Tupi has twelve vowel
phonemes, oral and nasal variants of six basic vowels. The oral vowels are:
* A — similar to Spanish, according to Anchieta ( IPA|/a/).
* E — similar to the English "e" in "bell" (IPA|/ɛ/).
* I — like "ee" in "seed" (IPA IPA|/i/).
* O — like the "o" of "hot" (IPA IPA|/ɔ/).
* U — like "oo" in "moo" (IPA IPA|/u/).
* Y — similar to Polish "y", or Romanian "î". To approximate this sound, pronounce an English "oo" sound (IPA| [u] ), but further forward in the mouth, with the lips less rounded: IPA IPA|/ɨ/. [ [http://geocities.yahoo.com.br/lviz56/y.wav Wavefile with a sample pronunciation of the Tupi Y] by a native speaker of
Nhengatu.] It must be noted, however, that the reported difficulty in understanding this sound may be a consequence of the fact that most Tupi researchers are native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, a language that lacks this specific phoneme.
Each of the six vowels has a nasalised counterpart:
* Ã — IPA IPA|/ã/
* Ẽ — IPA IPA|/ɛ̃/
* Ĩ — IPA IPA|/ĩ/
* Õ — IPA IPA|/ɔ̃/
* Ũ — IPA IPA|/ũ/
* Ỹ — IPA IPA|/ɨ̃/
It should be noted that the nasal vowels are fully vocalic, without any trace of a trailing IPA|/m/ or IPA|/n/. They are pronounced with the mouth open and the palate relaxed, not blocking the air from resounding through the nostrils. These approximations, however, must be taken with caution, as no actual recording exists and it is known that Tupi had at least seven dialects.
There are three semivowels, usually written with the circumflex accent to make clear from which vowel they derive.
* Î — like
semivowel"y" in English (IPA IPA|/j/). Often affricate, becoming similar to the French or Portuguese "j" (IPA IPA|/ʒ/).
* Û — like "w" in English (IPA IPA|/w/).
* Ŷ — appears to be unique to Tupi-Guarani languages, it is identical to Y in quality, but pronounced fast, with the same duration of a semivowel. It is unclear whether Ŷ actually existed in all dialects.
The Tupi consonantal system is as follows:
* There are four
nasal consonants: M, N, Ñ and NG (IPA IPA|/m/, IPA|/n/, IPA|/ɲ/, as in Spanish "ñ" or Portuguese "nh", and IPA|/ŋ/, as in English word final "ng", respectively).
* There are no voiced stops. The unvoiced stops (P, T, K) are paired with prenasalized stops (MB, ND, NG) which Anchieta described as quite similar to M, N and Ñ.
* The consonant written B is not pronounced with the mouth fully closed and has a distinctive
fricativecharacter (IPA IPA|/β/, similar to English "v" or Spanish "b", but articulated using both lips, not the bottom teeth and the top lips); it is not the voiced equivalent of the bilabial stop P.
* There are only two sibilants, S and X (both
unvoiced, one dental and the other palatal, IPA IPA|/s/ and IPA IPA|/ʃ/, as in English "sh", respectively). Some authors remark that the actual pronunciation of IPA|/s/ was retroflex(though still distinct from IPA|/ʃ/).
* The glottal fricative H is mostly absent and often pronounced as an S. According to most sources, the two sounds were interchangeable, and the prevalence of either varied from dialect to dialect (IPA|/h/ being more common in the southernmost dialects).
* There is a
glottal stop, IPA IPA|/ʔ/, not written, but found between a sequence of two consecutive vowels and at the beginning of vowel-initial words ("aba", "y", "ara", etc.). When indicated in writing, it is generally written as an apostrophe.
rhotic consonant, an alveolar tap(like the "r" of Spanish, or the "t" in American English "city"; IPA IPA|/ɾ/).
The following 16 consonants have been identified (with their IPA equivalents in parentheses):
* B (IPA|/β/)
* G (IPA|/ɣ/)
* H (IPA|/h/)
* K (IPA|/k/)
* M (IPA|/m/)
* N (IPA|/n/)
* Ñ (IPA|/ɲ/)
* NG (IPA|/ŋ/)
* P (IPA|/p/)
* R (IPA|/ɾ/)
* S (IPA|/s/)
* T (IPA|/t/)
* X (IPA|/ʃ/)
* MB (IPA|/mb/)
* ND (IPA|/nd/)
* NG (IPA|/ŋɡ/)
An alternative view
According to Nataniel Santos Gomes, however, the phonetic inventory of Tupi was simpler:
** p, t, k, ‘ (IPA|/ʔ/)
** b (IPA|/β/)
** s, x (IPA|/ʃ/)
** m, n, ñ (IPA|/ɲ/)
** û (/w/), î (/j/)
** r (IPA|/ɾ/)
** i, y (IPA|/ɨ/), u, ĩ, ỹ, ũ
** e, o, õ, ẽ
** a, ã
This scheme does not regard Ŷ as a separate semivowel, does not consider the existence of G (IPA|/ɣ/), and does not differentiate between the two types of NG (IPA|/ŋ/ and IPA|/ⁿɡ/), probably because it does not regard MB (IPA|/ⁿb/), ND (IPA|/ⁿd/) and NG (IPA|/ⁿɡ/) as independent phonemes, but mere combinations of P, T, and K with nasalization.
Santos Gomes also remarks that the
stop consonants shifted easily to nasal consonants, which is attested by the fitful spelling of words like "umbu" ("umu", "ubu", "umbu", "upu", "umpu") in the works of the early missionaries and by the surviving dialects.
According to most sources, Tupi semivowels were more consonantal than their IPA counterparts. The Î, for instance, was rather fricative, thus resembling a very slight IPA|/ʓ/, while Û had a distinct similarity with the voiced stop IPA|/ɡ/, thus being sometimes written "gu". As a consequence of this character, Tupi loanwords in
Brazilian Portugueseoften have "j" for Î and "gu" for Û.
Considerations on the writing system
It would have been almost impossible to reconstruct the phonology of Tupi if it did not have a wide geographic distribution. The surviving Amazonian
Nhengatuand the close Guarani correlates ("Mbyá", " Nhandéva", " Kaiowá" and Paraguayan Guarani) provide material that linguistic research can make use of today in order to achieve an approximate account of the language.
Scientific reconstruction of Tupi suggests that Anchieta simplified (or merely overlooked) the phonetics of the actual language when devising his grammar and his dictionary.
The writing system employed by Anchieta is still the basis for most modern scholars. It is easily typed with regular Portuguese or French typewriters and computer keyboards (but not with keyboards such as ISO-8859-1, which cannot produce "ẽ", "ĩ", "ũ", and "ỹ").
Its key features are:
tildeindicating nasalisation: "a" → "ã".
circumflex accentindicating a semivowel: "i" → "î".
* The acute accent indicating the stressed syllable: "abá".
* The use of the letter "x" for the unvoiced palatal fricative IPA|/ʃ/, a spelling convention common in the languages of the Iberian Peninsula, but unusual elsewhere.
* The use of the digraphs "yg" (for Ŷ), "gu" (for IPA|/w/), "ss" (to make intervocalic S unvoiced), and of "j" to represent the semivowel IPA|/j/.
* Hyphens are not used to separate the components of a compound, except in the dictionary or for didactical purposes.
Most Tupi words are roots with one or two syllables, usually with double or triple meanings that are explored extensively for
* "a" = round / head / seed
* "kaa" = forest / bush / plant
* "oby" = green, greenish / blue, bluish
* "y" = water / liquid / spring / lake, puddle / river, brook
Interestingly, like in Proto-Sumerian, the most common words tend to be
* "a" = head / round
* "ã" = shadow / ghost
* "po" = hand
* "sy" = mother / source
* "u" = food
* "y" = water, river
Disyllabic words belong to two major groups, depending on which syllable the stress falls:
* If the stress falls on the
penult, the last syllable ends with an unstressed vowel (traditionally written with the letter "a"). Such words usually drop the last vowel (or sometimes even the entire last syllable) to form compounds, or otherwise drop the vowel and undergo a consonant mutation(nasalisation): "ñeenga" (speech) + "katú" (good) = "ñeen-ngatú" (the good language).
* If the stress falls on the last syllable, the syllable is unchanged: "itá" (rock, stone) + "úna" (black) = "itaúna".
Polysyllabic (non-compound) words, thought not as common, are frequent and follow the same scheme:
* "paranã" (the sea) + "mirĩ" (little) = "paranãmirĩ" (salty lagoon)
* "pindóba" (palm tree) + "ûasú" (big) = "pindobusú".
Nasal mutation of the initial consonant is always present, regardless of stress. Notice also that no polysyllabic word will be stressed on the first syllable.
Compound nouns are formed in three ways:
** "arasy" = "ara" + "sy" (day + mother) = mother of day: the sun
** "yîara" = "y" + "îara" (water + lord/lady) = lady of the lake (a mythological figure).
Blending with either apocopeor aphesis:
** "Pindorama" = "pindoba" + "rama" (palm tree + future aspect) = where there will be palm trees (this was the name by which some of the coast tribes called their homeland).
** "Takûarusu" = "takûara" + "ûasú" (bamboo + big) = big bamboo tree. Portuguese: Taquaruçu (a variant of
* Complex blending, with both apocope and aphesis:
** "Taubaté" = "taba" + "ybaté" (village + high) = the name of a Brazilian town,
Taubaté, which was originally the name of a village on the top of a mountain.
** "Itákûakesétyba" = "takûara + kesé + tyba" (bamboo + knife + collective mark): where knives are made out of bamboo wood (the name of a Brazilian town: Itaquaquecetuba).
Later, after the colonisation, the process was used to name things that the Indians originally did not have:
* "îande" + "Îara" (our + Lord) = a title held by
Christin Catholic worship.
* "Tupã" + "sy" (God + mother) = the mother of God (Mary).
Some writers have even extended this further, creating Tupi
neologismsfor the modern life, in the same vein as New Latin. Mário de Andrade, for instance, coined "sagüim-açu" ("saûĩ" + ["g"] "ûasú") for "elevator", from "sagüim", the name of a small tree-climbing monkey.
Unlike most European languages, Tupi was an agglutinative with moderate degree of fusional features (nasal mutation of stop consonants in compounding, the use of some prefixes and suffixes). Although agglutinative, Tupi lacked enough agglutinative power to form complex sentence-containing words (as polysynthetic languages do).
parts of speechdid not follow the same conventions of Indo-European languages in that:
* Verbs are "conjugated" for person (by means of prepositioning subject or object pronouns), but not for tense or mood (the very notion of mood is absent). In Tupi all sentences are in the present tense.
* Nouns are "declined" for tense (by means of suffixing the aspect marker), but not for gender or number.
* There is a distinction of nouns in two classes: "higher" (for things related to human beings or spirits) and "lower" (for things related to animals or inanimate beings). The usual manifestation of this distinction was the use of the prefixes "t-" for high-class nouns and "s-" for low-class ones, so that "tesá" meant "human eye", while "sesá" meant "the eye of an animal". Some authors argue that this is a type of gender inflection.
* Adjectives cannot be used in the place of nouns, neither as the subject nor as the object nucleus (in fact, they cannot be used alone).
Verbs were preceded by pronouns which could be subjective or objective.
Subjective pronouns like "a-" "I" expressed the person who "did", while objective pronouns like "xe-" "me" signified the person who received the action. The two types could be used alone or combined:
* "A-bebé" = I-fly "I can fly".
* "Xe-pysyk" = me-catch "Someone has caught me", or "I'm caught".
* "A-î-pysyk" = I-him-catch "I have caught him".
Although Tupi verbs are not inflected, a number of pronominal variations did exist and form a rather complex set of aspects regarding who did what to whom. This, together with the temporal inflection of the noun and the presence of tense markers, like "koára" "today" made up a fully functional verbal system.
Word order played a key role in the formation of meaning:
*"abá-í taba" (man + tiny + village) = kid from the village
*"abá taba-í" = man from the small village (or "the man from Smallville"...)
Tupi had no means to inflect words for gender and used adjectives to do so. Some of these were:
* "apyyaba" = man, male
* "kuñã" = woman, female
* "kurumĩ" = boy, young male
* "kuñãtãĩ" = girl, young female
* "mena" = male animal
* "kuñã" = female animal
Notice that the notion of gender was expressed, once again, together with the notion of age and that of "humanity" or "animality".
The notion of plural was also expressed by adjectives or numerals:
*"abá" = man; "abá eté" = many men
Unlike in Indo-European languages, nouns were not implicitly masculine, except for those provided with natural gender: "abá" "man" and "kuñã" ["tã"] "woman/girl"; for instance.
Without proper verbal inflection, all Tupi sentences are in the present. When needed, tense is indicated by adverbs like "ko ara" "this day".
Adjectives and nouns, however, do have temporal inflection:
*"abáûera" "he who was once a man"
*"abárama" "he who shall be a man someday"
This was often used as a semantic derivation process:
*"akangûera" "skull" (of a skeleton)
With respect to syntax, Tupi was mostly SOV, but word order tended to be free, as the presence of pronouns made it easy to tell which was the subject, and which was the object. Nevertheless, native Tupi sentences tend to be quite short, as the Indians were not used to complex
rhetorical or literaryuses.
Most of the available data about Old Tupi are based on the "tupinambá" dialect, spoken in what is now the Brazilian state of São Paulo, but there were other dialects as well.
Edward Sapir's categories, Old Tupi could be characterized as follows:
# With respect to the concepts expressed: complex, of pure relation, that is, it expresses material and relational content by means of
affixes and word order, respectively.
# With respect to the manner in which such concepts are expressed: a) fusional-agglutinative, b) symbolic or of internal inflection (using
reduplicationof syllables, functionally differentiated).
# With respect to the degree of cohesion of the semantic elements of the sentence: synthetic.
* "îub" = yellow
* "oby" = blue, green
* "pirang" = red
* "ting" = white
* "una" = black
* "ara" = fire
* "itá" = rock, stone, metal, mountain, island
* "y" = water, river
* "yby" = earth
* "abá" = man (as opposed to woman), Indian or Native-American (as opposed to European), human being (as opposed to the animal world)
* "aîuba" = Frenchman (literally "yellow heads")
* "karaĩb" = foreigner, white man (literally means "spirit of a dead person")
* "kuñã" = woman
* "kuñãtaĩ" = girl
* "morubixaba" = chief
* "peró" = Portuguese (neologism)
* "sy" = mother
* "tapyîa" = slave (also the term for non-Tupi speaking Indians)
* "ûirá" = child
* "a, akanga" = head
* "etimã" = leg
* "îyba" = arm
* "pó" = hand
* "py" = foot
* "pŷa" = heart
* "îagûar" = jaguar
* "kaapiûara" =
* "mboî" = snake, cobra
* "pirá" = fish
* "soó" = game (animal)
* "tapyr" = tapir
* "kaa, kaapi" = grass, plant, ivy
* "kuri" = pine
* "oka" = house, village
* "taba" = collective house, Indian village
* "asu, ûasu" = big
* "beraba" = brilliant, gleamy, shiny
* "katu, ngatu, gatu" = good
* "mirĩ, í" = little
* "panema" = barren, contaminated, unhealthy, unlucky
* "etá" = many, much
* "ûera" = bad, old, dead
This is the Lord's Prayer in Tupi, according to Anchieta:
Oré r-ub, ybak-y-pe t-ekó-ar, I moeté-pyr-amo nde r-era t'o-îkó. T'o-ur nde "Reino"! Tó-ñe-moñang nde r-emi-motara yby-pe. Ybak-y-pe i ñe-moñanga îabé! Oré r-emi-'u, 'ara-îabi'õ-nduara, e-î-me'eng kori orébe. Nde ñyrõ oré angaîpaba r-esé orébe, oré r-erekó-memûã-sara supé oré ñyrõ îabé. Oré mo'ar-ukar umen îepe "tentação" pupé, oré pysyrõ-te îepé mba'e-a'iba suí.
Notice that two Portuguese words, "Reino" (Kingdom) and "tentação" (temptation) have been borrowed, as such concepts would be rather difficult to express with pure Tupi words.
Presence of Tupi in Brazil
As the basis for the "língua geral", spoken throughout the country by white and Indian settlers alike until the early 18th century, and still heard in isolated pockets until the early 20th century, Tupi left a strong mark on the Portuguese language of Brazil, being by far its most distinctive source of modification.
Tupi has given
* A few thousand words (some of them hybrids or corrupted) for animals, plants, fruit and cultural entities.
* The English-like pronunciation of "r" in the southern states.
* The intensification of the difference between rounded and unrounded "e" and "o".
* The intensification of nasalisation
* The slang mechanism of producing compounds by blending (with both terms changing phonetically).
Tupi is still quite "felt" in Brazil today as about 40% of the Brazilian municipalities have Tupi names:
Iguaçu("y ûasú"): great river
Ipanema("y panema"): infertile water
* Itanhangá ("itá + añãgá"): devil's rock
Itaquaquecetuba("takûakesétyba", from "itá + takûara + kesé + tyba"): where bamboo knives are made
Itaúna("ita + una"): black stone
Jaguariúna("îagûara + í + una"): small black jaguar
Pacaembu("paka + embu"): valley of the pacas.
* Paranaíba ("paranãyba", from "paranã + íba"): dangerous sea
* Paraná-mirim ("paranã + mirĩ"): salty lagoon (literally: "small sea")
Pindorama(from "pindó", "palm tree", and "retama", country): palm country (this was the name that the "tupiniquins" gave to the place where they lived).
* Piraí ("pirá + í") : thin fish
* Umuarama ("ũbuarama", from "ũbu + arama"): where the cacti will grow
Among the many Tupi loanwords in Portuguese, the following are noteworthy for their widespread use:
* "abacaxi" (
pineapple, literally: "perfumed fruit")
* "jacaré" (caiman)
* "minhoca" (earth worm)
* "perereca" (a type of small frog, also slang for vulva), literally: "hopper"
peteca" (a type of badminton game played with bare hands) literally: "slap"
piranha" (a carnivorous fish, also slang for immoral women) literally: "devil fish"
* "pipoca" (popcorn) literally "what jumps to the hand"
* "piroca" (originally meaning "bald", now a slang term for penis)
pororoca" (a tidal phenomenon in the Amazon firth) literally: "confusion"
* "siri" (crab)
* "sucuri" (anaconda)
* "urubu" (the Brazilian vulture)
* "urutu" (a kind of poisonous snake)
It is interesting however, that two of the most distinctive Brazilian animals, the
jaguarand the tapir, are best known in Brazilian Portuguese by non-Tupi names, "onça" (on-sa) and "anta", despite being named in English with Tupi loanwoards.
A significant number of Brazilians have Tupi names as well:
* Araci (female): "ara sy", the goddess of the morning
* Bartira, Potira (female): "Ybotyra", flower
* Iara (female): "y îara", lady of the lake
* Jaci (both): "îá sy", the moon (mother of the night)
* Janaína (female): "îandá una", a type of black bird
* Ubirajara (male): "ybyrá îara", lord of the trees
* Ubiratan (male): "ybyrá atã", tough wood
Some names of distinct Indian ancestry have obscure etymology because the "tupinambá", like the Europeans, cherished traditional names which sometimes had become archaic. Some of such names are Moacir (reportedly meaning "son of pain") and Moema.
Old Tupi literature was composed mainly of religious and grammatical texts developed by Jesuit missionaries working among the colonial Brazilian people. The greatest poet to express in written Tupi language, and its first grammarian was José de Anchieta, who wrote over eighty poems and plays, compiled at his "Lírica Portuguesa e Tupi". Later Brazilian authors, writing in Portuguese, employed Tupi in the speech of some of their characters.
Tupi is also remembered as distinctive trait of nationalism in Brazil. In the 1930s,
Brazilian Integralismused it as the source of most of its catchphrases (like "Anaûé", the old Tupi salutation which was adopted as the Brazilian version of the German "Sieg Heil") and terminology.
The study of Tupi is often proposed as a remedy for the lack of love for the country, like the law passed on Rio de Janeiro state in 1995. However, it is a dead language, known today only by scholars.
José de Anchieta
List of Brazil state name etymologies
*"Nheengatu" article on Portuguese Wikipedia
* [http://www.staff.uni-mainz.de/lustig/guarani/lingua_tupi.htm ALVES Jr., Ozias. "Uma breve história da língua tupi, a língua do tempo que o brasil era canibal".]
* ANCHIETA, José de. "Arte da gramática da língua mais usada na costa do Brasil". Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1933.
* ANCHIETA, José de. "Poemas: Lírica portuguesa e tupi". Editora Martins Fontes. (ISBN 85-336-1956-1)
* [http://geocities.yahoo.com.br/lviz56/gramatica.htm COSTA, Luís R. "Nheengatu Tupi".]
* [http://www.painet.com.br/joubert/cursotupiantigo.html DI MAURO, Joubert J. "Curso de Tupi Antigo".]
* [http://www.filologia.org.br/anais/anais_iicnlf45.html GOMES, Nataniel dos Santos. "Síntese da Gramática Tupinambá".]
* [http://www.nautilus.com.br/~ensjo/tupi/tupi-profilo-pt.html Perfil da língua tupi]
* EDELWEISS, Frederico G. "Tupis e Guaranis, Estudos de Etnonímia e Lingüística". Salvador: Museu do Estado da Bahia, 1947. 220 p.
* EDELWEISS, Frederico G. "O caráter da segunda conjugação tupi". Bahia: Livraria Progresso Editora, 1958. 157 p.
* EDELWEISS, Frederico G. "Estudos tupi e tupi-guaranis: confrontos e revisões". Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Brasiliana, 1969. 304 p.
* GOMES, Nataniel dos Santos. "Observações sobre o Tupinambá". "Monografia final do Curso de Especialização em Línguas Indígenas Brasileiras". Rio de Janeiro: Museu Nacional / UFRJ, 1999.
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Pequeno Vocabulário Tupi-Português". Rio de Janeiro: Livraria São José, 1951.
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Juká, o paradigma da conjugação tupí: estudo etimológico-gramatical" in "Revista Filológica", ano II, n. 12, Rio de Janeiro, 1941.
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Nova categoria gramatical tupi: a visibilidade e a invisibilidade nos demonstrativos" in "Verbum", tomo IV, fasc. 2, Rio de Janeiro, 1947.
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Pequeno vocabulário Tupi-Português". Rio de Janeiro: Livraria São José, 1955. (3ª ed.: Livraria São José, Rio de Janeiro, 1967)
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Curso de Tupi antigo". Rio de Janeiro: Livraria São José, 1957.
* LEMOS BARBOSA, A. "Pequeno vocabulário Português-Tupi". Rio de Janeiro: Livraria São José, 1970.
* MICHAELE, Faris Antônio S. "Tupi e Grego: Comparações Morfológicas em Geral". Ponta Grossa: UEPG, 1973. 126 p.
* NAVARRO, Eduardo de Almeida. "Método Moderno de Tupi Antigo: A língua do Brasil dos primeiros séculos". Petrópolis: Editora Vozes, 1998. (ISBN 85-326-1953-3)
* RODRIGUES, Aryon Dall'Igna. "Análise morfológica de um texto tupi". Separata da Revista "Logos", ano VII, N. 5. Curitiba: Tip. João Haupi, 1953.
* RODRIGUES, Aryon Dall'Igna. "Morfologia do Verbo Tupi". Separata de "Letras". Curitiba, 1953.
* RODRIGUES, Aryon Dall'Igna. "Descripción del tupinambá en el período colonial: el arte de José de Anchieta". "Colóquio sobre a descrição das línguas ameríndias no período colonial". Ibero-amerikanisches Institut, Berlim.
* SAMPAIO, Teodoro. "O Tupi na Geografia Nacional". São Paulo: Editora Nacional, 1987. 360 p.
* SILVEIRA BUENO, Francisco da. "Vocabulário Tupi-Guarani Português". Efeta Editora, 1982. (ISBN 85-86632-03-1)
* TIBIRIÇÁ, Luiz Caldas. "Dicionário Tupi-Português". São Paulo: Editora Traço, 1984. (ISBN 85-7119-025-9)
* [http://www.nautilus.com.br/~ensjo/tupi/abanheengaoiebyr.html "Abá nhe'enga oîebyr — Tradução: a língua dos índios está de volta", by Suzel Tunes] essay in Portuguese.
* [http://www.fflch.usp.br/dlcv/tupi/index.html A Course of Old Tupi] (in Portuguese)
* [http://www.geocities.com/lincoln_tupi/index1.html Ancient Tupi Home Page]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=TPN Tubinambá at Ethnologue]
* [http://www.capixabismo.com.br/tupi.htm Tupi-Portuguese dictionary] (with non-standard Tupi spelling)
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